Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Outline:

Background of Emotional Disorder


Definition of Emotional Disorder
General Characteristics of Emotional Disorder
Various Labels used for children with Emotional Disorders
Causes of Emotional Disorder
Effects of Emotional Disorders
General Types of Assessment for Emotional Disorder
Models of Intervention
Biophysical
Psychodynamic
Behavioural
Ecological
Social Learning Theory
Emotional Problems
Emotional Intelligence
Causes and Effects of Emotional Problems
Low Self-concept
Quality of Resiliency
Strengthening Self-esteem
Definition of Emotional Disorder
IDEAs Definition:
The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the
following characteristics over a long period of time and to a
marked degree that adversely affects educational
performance:
An inability to learn which cannot be explained by
intellectual, sensory, and health factors;
An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal
relationships with peers and teachers;
Inappropriate types of behaviour and feelings under normal
circumstances;
A general, pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
associated with personal or school problems.
Note:

Social maladjustment refers to an individuals persistent


refusal or inability to follow expectations, rules, and laws of
society. Individuals with social maladjustment may
demonstrate any of the following types of behaviour:
Destroys or vandalizes the property of others;
Bullies, intimidates, or takes things from others by force;
Blames others and refuses to take responsibility for actions;
Shows aggression and inappropriate social interaction skills
with peers and adults
2. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not
apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless
it is determined that they have an emotional
disturbance.

General Characteristics of Emotional Disorder


Individuals with Emotional Disorders usually
show a wide range of problem behaviours. These
behaviours can be generally classified as externalizing
and internalizing behaviours (Kerr & Nelson, 2002;
Rhode et al., 1992; Vaughn et al., 2003).
The Federal Definition
At present time, the federal definition in IDEA uses the term
emotional disturbance and includes five major criteria used for
identification:

i. The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following


characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which
adversely affects educational performance.
An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory,
and health factors;
An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships
with peers and teachers;
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression or
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal
or school problems

ii. The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not
include children who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined that
they are emotionally disturbed.
General Characteristics of
Emotional Disorder
Individuals with Emotional Disorder usually show a
wide range of problem behaviours. These behaviours can
be generally classified as EXTERNALIZING and
INTERNALIZING behaviours.

Externalizing Behavior
Individuals are loud, disruptive and often annoying.
They are more overt; on the outside of the person.
They are often reactive or impulsive.
Individuals who show these behaviours seem to lack self-
control.
Ex: Inappropriate acting-out behaviours like
noncompliance, aggression, hostility, bully behaviour and
defiance.
Internalizing Behavior
Individuals are more on the inside of the person.
They are covert or undercover.
Individuals who have internalizing behavioural
patterns are typically more shy, quiet, dependent,
helpless, anxious, depressed, possibly suicidal and
frequently victimized.
They might be overlooked in the screening and
evaluation process because they are so quiet and do
not usually cause overt behaviour problems.
Symptoms of Emotional disorders
The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for
Emotional disorders includes the 12 symptoms listed below:

Depression
Anxiety
Fatigue
Anhedonia
Poor appetite
Weight loss
Sleep disorder
Poor self image
Suicidal ideation
Nervousness
Instability
Paresthesias
Various Labels used for children
with Emotional Disorders
The actual labels used to designate ED often vary.
No consistent label is used. The variety of labels
include:
Emotional disturbance
Behavioural disorders
Serious emotional disturbance
Social and emotional disorders
Behavioural handicap and
Emotional and behavioural disorders
BENEFITS OF LABELS
A label or diagnosis is usually necessary to qualify for special
services at school and various institutions.
Labels group or categorize individuals with disability or
handicap, which in turns helps researchers and other
professionals to understand their learning and behavioural
needs.
A label or diagnosis also assists researchers who study certain
groups of individuals to classify, categorize, or label similar
groups of characteristics for investigation purposes,

DISADVANTAGES OF LABELS
The main disadvantage of a label is that it usually is negative.
Some people may look at the child with a label of ED and see the
problem rather than the child.
Remember: The correct and sensitive label can help reduce the
negativity.
Causes of Emotional Disorder
The causes of most emotional disorders are difficult to
pinpoint. We often see children with very similar behavior
pattern yet very different learning and family histories.
Sometimes it is easy to pinpoint factors or situations that
possibly contribute to emotional disorders; sometimes there are
no readily identifiable causal factors

Environmental Factors
Includes family factors, cultural factors and school factors.
Family factors often revolve around the level and consistency of
discipline; the history of violence and arrests in the family; and
the way parents and siblings deal with feelings and each other.
Physiological Factors
It includes organic factors, such as dysfunctions of the
central nervous system; genetic factors such as family history, or
specific syndromes.
Biological Factors: There is growing evidence that
behavior and emotional health appears to be influenced by
genetic, neurological, or biochemical factors, singly or in
combination.

Traumatic Brain Injury: Injury to the brain can cause


behavior problems in children. Typical problem behaviors
associated with traumatic brain injury reflect those
individuals with ED which shows:
Inappropriate behaviors
Failure to understand the dynamics of social situations
Tendency to become easily angry, frustrated or irritable
Lack of energy
Unreasonable fears or anxiety
Depression and exaggerated mood swings.
Environmental Factors: Environmental factors are
considered important in the development of emotional and
behavioral disorders in all conceptual models.

Family - The relationship children have with their


parents, particularly during the early years, is critical to the
way they learn to act. Interactions between parents and
their child influences the child's opinions, behaviors, and
emotions.

-Caution: the relationship between parent and child is


dynamic and reciprocal; in other words, the behavior of the
child affects the behavior of the parents just as much as the
parents actions affect the childs actions.
School - School is where children spend the largest
portion of their time outside the home.

Society - Societal problems can impact on a students


emotional and behavioral status.

Child Abuse: Children who are emotionally, sexulally


or physically abused or neglected suffer increase
feelings of stress.
Summary of causes of ED
Environmental Causes Organic Causes
Stress Physiological, neurological,
biochemical imbalances present at
Significant loss such as death or
birth
divorce
Allergies or sensitivities to
Single-parent family
environmental toxins
Inefficient parenting
Illness, accident, or injury to the CNS
Drug-and/or alcohol-addicted parents
Traumatic brain injury
Many children closely spaced in age
Mood disorders/depression
Socioeconomic status
ADD/ADHD
Poverty and hunger
Learning disabilities
Child abuse, neglect, violence
Exposure to media violence
Effects of Emotional Disorders
EFFECTS ON THE CHILD
School Achievement. Most children with emotional
disorders are in average range of intellectual functioning,
yet do not do well in school. Although the extent to which
behavior affects academic performance varies according to
the individual child, poor school work and
underachievement in class are often cited as characteristics
of children with behavioral disorders

Social Adjustment. Children with emotional disorders by


definition exhibit behaviors that affect their social and
emotional developments. Externalizing behaviors such as
violence and aggression may be directed toward
classmates, and many children with externalizing behavior
disorders do not have skills for reflecting on and restricting
their behavior.
Language and Communication. As we look at the
effects of emotional disorders on communication, we
must consider that in many ways behavior is
communication.
EFFECTS ON THE FAMILY

Family Interaction. Some parents struggle with the


feeling that they contributed to the problem; other
fond dealing with the childs behavior emotionally,
physically exhausting.

Parents and the Schools. The family of the child


with emotional disorders play a critical role in the
development and implementation of effective
educational programs.
General Types of Assessment for Emotional
Disorder
The battery of assessments may include any of
the following:
Standardized IQ tests
Achievement tests
Behavior rating scales or checklists
Example:
Bahavior Rating Profile
Behavior Assessment System for Children
Child Behavior Checklist
Social skills/peer relations assessments
Direct interviews
Students self-reports
Direct observations of the students behaviour
in various environments.
Models
Biophysical
of Intervention
The biophysical or medical model is based on the premise that
there is something physically wrong with the individual. The
assumption is that since there is some type of physiological or
biological abnormality, medicine can be prescribed to cure the
condition.
Medication is not a cure for behaviour Problems

Psychodynamic
The psychodynamic model is mental health system-oriented.
Intervention is focused primarily on talk therapy to gain insight
to the cause of a problem. The fundamental assumption is that
the individual is experiencing INTERPSYCHIC CONFLICT,
which is described as the good conscience and the bad
conscience waging an ongoing disputes.
Behavioural
The behavioural model theory is based on the major
assumptions. First, all behaviour is learned. Second, all
behaviour is functional. Thitd, consequences from the
environment shape and maintain behaviour.
Consequences shape behaviour
Process of behaviour change
Redirection strategy
Ecological
The ecological model is based on an interesting hypothesis.
The main assumption of themodel is that the individuals
problem behaviour results from a mismatch between his or
her abilities and the performance demands from the
environment .
Social Learning Theory
Emotional Problems
Emotional Intelligence
Causes and Effects of Emotional Problems
Low Self-concept
Quality of Resiliency
Strengthening Self-esteem
Children with Emotional Disorder