Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Virtue Ethics

Virtue Ethics
A moral philosophy that concentrates on the notion of
virtue.

Promotes a moral life - a life about determining the ideals


for human life, trying to embody such ideals, about
developing good character.

Helps us determine how we ought to be.

Concerned with traits of character that make a good person.

Personal asks what kind of a person one wants to be.

Concerned with everyday life and how one lives it that


matters.
Virtues
Referred to as good traits
Ex. loyalty, honesty, etc.

Ways to embody ones ideals.

A virtuous person is a morally good


person.
Virtue
comes from the Latin word vir
which means strength or manliness.

For Aristotle, virtue


is arete (Greek word)
which means excellences of various types.

Aristotle
was one of the earliest writers
to ground morality in human nature.
Vice
opposite of virtue, e.g., disloyal,
dishonest, etc.
Two types of excellence or virtues by
Aristotle

1. Intellectual virtue or excellence of the mind


Traits learned from teachers
Ex. ability to understand, reason, judge

2. Moral virtue
Learned not by being taught but by repetition
Ex. practicing to be honest
According to Aristotle, virtue is a mean
between extremes, namely, deficiency and
excess.
Deficit Virtue Excess
(Too Little) (The Mean) (Too Much)

Fear Cowardice Courage Foolhardiness

Giving Illiberality Liberty Prodigality

Self-regard Humility Pride Vanity

Pleasures No name given Temperance Profligacy


Neonaturalistic Virtue Ethics
Developed by comtemporary moral
philosophers like Philippa Foot

Suggests that virtues are in some way beneficial


to human beings; but not all beneficial traits
have moral virtues.

Asks the question whether virtue is in the


intention or in the action.

Virtues have corrective function as they help


people to do things that are difficult to do.
Masculine and Feminine Virtues
Female Moral Perspective

Relatedness as the context for moral decision how


their actions will affect particular people and their
relations with them.

Womens morality is highly personal - partial to their


loved ones, think of them as their responsibility.

Primary moral responsibility is to prevent harm, help


people, not to turn them away.

Caring and compassion are key virtues.


Masculine and Feminine Virtues
Male Moral Perspective

Moral realm is similar to the public domain of law


and contract impartial, universal, equal worth of
all as persons before the law.

Impartiality and respectfulness are key virtues.

Morality is a matter of doing ones duty, of keeping


ones agreements, and respecting another persons
rights.

Impartiality and respectfulness are key virtues.


Masculine and Feminine Virtues
Female Ethical Male Ethical
Perspective Perspective
Personal Impersonal
Partial Impartial
Private Public
Natural Contractual
Feeling Reason
Compassionate Fair
Concrete Universal
Responsibility Rights
Relationship Individual
Solidarity Autonomy
Evaluating Virtue Ethics
How to determine which traits are
virtues. Are there any universally valuable
traits?

Alexander MacIntyre believes that


virtues depend at least partly on the
practices that constitute a culture and
society.
Evaluating Virtue Ethics
Is virtue ethics really a distinct type of
ethics?

Ifthe development of certain habits of


action or tendencies to act in a certain
way will enable us to do good more
easily, then they would surely be
recognized by philosopers as good.

Оценить