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Republic

of
Singapore
Learning Objectives
To enrich our knowledge about Singapore its geography,
history, government, economy, and people.

To identify, classify, and analyse Singapores foreign policy

To determine Singapores national interest


Geography
Land area : 714 sq. km.

Composed of a main island and 63 surrounding islets

Lies 137 kilometres north of the equator, separated from


Malaysia by the Strait of Johor and from Indonesia by the
Strait of Singapore
History
Known as Temasek (Sea Town) when the first settlements were
established from AD 1298-1299

Renamed Singapura or The Lion City in 14th century

Modern Singapore was founded by British traders in the 19th century


History
Invaded by Japanese on Feb. 15, 1942 and was occupied for 3 and a
half years

In 1959, the country held its first general election

Merged with Federation of Malaya, Sarawak, and North Borneo to


form Federation of Malaysia but left the federation less than 2 years
later
Government
Republic with a parliamentary system of government

Dominating political party: Peoples Action Party

National legislature: Comprises the President and a unicameral


Parliament
Economy
Singapore is a country with little natural resources.

Singapore is the worlds most trade dependent nation

Third richest country according to GDP per capita (IMF, 2013)

Main export: Computer equipment, machinery, rubber products,


petroleum products
People
Population: 5.31 million (June 2012)

74.2% of residents are Chinese, 13.3% are Malays, 9.2% are Indians.
Caucasians, Eurasians, and Asians of different origins form the
remaining percentage.
Singapores Foreign Policy
TOULMIN MODEL OF
ARGUMENTATION
CLAIM
The national interest of Singapore is enhancing and
maintaining Singapores survival in the international system by
eliminating economic and security vulnerabilities
TOULMIN MODEL OF ARGUMENTATION

CLAIM

National Interest
Enhancing and maintaining
GROUNDS/DATA WARRANT Singapores survival in the
international system by
eliminating economic and
security vulnerabilities

BACKING
WARRANT
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SINGAPORES FOREIGN POLICY

As a small state, Singapore has no illusions about the state of our region or the
world.

We need to maintain a credible and deterrent military defence to underpin our


foreign policy.

We must promote and work for good relations with our neighbors in all spheres.

We are friends with all those who wish to be friends with us.

We stand by our friends who have stood by us in times of need


FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SINGAPORES FOREIGN POLICY

We fully support and are committed to ASEAN

We work to maintain a secure and peaceful environment in and around Southeast Asia and in the

Asia Pacific region

We must work to maintain a free and open multilateral trading system

We are ready to trade with any state for mutual benefit and will maintain an open market

economy

We will support and be active in international organizations such as the UN.


A Hierarchy of Foreign Policy Objectives (Based on Holsti)
LONG-RANGE GOALS
Harmonious trade relationship with Work to maintain a secure and
ASEAN member countries and other peaceful environment in and around
countries in Asia Pacific region SEA and the Asia Pacific region
Distant-lower

MIDDLE-RANGE GOALS
TIME and PRIORITIES

Fully support and is committed to ASEAN Promote and work for good
Support and be active in international relations with neighbors in all
organizations such as the UN spheres
Stand by friends who have also stood by
Singapore in times of need
Immediate-high

CORE OBJECTIVES
Maintain a credible and deterrent military
defence Self-sufficiency
Trade with any state for mutual benefit and
maintain an open market economy
Maintain free and open multilateral trading
system

Concrete Abstract
VALUES
TOULMIN MODEL OF ARGUMENTATION
COREWARRANT
OBJECTIVES
Military strength
CLAIM
Open market economy
Multilateral trading system
National Interest
Enhancing and maintaining
GROUNDS/DATA Singapores survival in the
international system by
eliminating economic and
MIDDLE-RANGE GOALS security vulnerabilities
Commitment to ASEAN
Membership in IOs
Faithful ally

BACKING
GROUNDS/DATA
Singapore imports resources from multiple countries.

Singapore finds other means of obtaining resources apart from trade.

Singapore tries to maintain the multipolarity of the region by


befriending (and at the same time limiting the friendship with) other
countries
TOULMIN MODEL OF ARGUMENTATION
CORE WARRANT
OBJECTIVES
GROUNDS/DATA
Military strength
Foreign Policy Actions CLAIM
Open market economy
Importing resources from Multilateral trading system
multiple countries National Interest
Innovating methods of Enhancing and maintaining
obtaining resources Singapores survival in the
Improving/limiting international system by
relations with rising eliminating economic and
powers MIDDLE-RANGE GOALS security vulnerabilities
Commitment to ASEAN
Membership in IOs
Faithful ally

BACKING
BACKING
Singapore-Malaysia Water Supply
Issue
Two signed contracts in 1961 and 1962 arrangement between
Singapore and Malaysia for future water supply

Original arrangement (1961 and 1962) Singapore would pay 3


Malaysian cents/thousand gallons of raw water

Malaysia could review and increase price of water in 25 years (1986


and 1987)
Singapore-Malaysia Water Supply
Issue
2001 and 2002 Prime Minister Mahathir wanted to increase the
price of water to 45 Malaysian cents and 60 Malaysian cents
respectively

Malaysia also introduced a new formulation to calculate the price of


raw water it sells to Singapore in the future

Issue is not yet resolved


Singapores Remedy to Water
Supply Problem
Singapore tried to procure water from Indonesia

Invested in water recycling and desalination

Building of new reservoirs

As of 2011, use of recycled water has met 30% of Singapores daily


water needs
SINGAPORE-CHINA-INDIA Foreign
Relations
Singapore is active in engaging with China bilaterally as well as
multilaterally including China in ASEAN-centric institutions

Given ethnic tensions in the region, Singapore cannot fully conduct


relations in a bilateral basis

Singapore also tries to improve its relationship with India


TOULMIN MODEL OF ARGUMENTATION
CORE WARRANT
OBJECTIVES
GROUNDS/DATA
Military strength
Foreign Policy Actions CLAIM
Open market economy
Importing resources from Multilateral trading system
multiple countries National Interest
Innovating methods of Enhancing and maintaining
obtaining resources Singapores survival in the
Improving/limiting international system by
relations with rising eliminating economic and
powers MIDDLE-RANGE GOALS security vulnerabilities
Commitment to ASEAN
Membership in IOs
Faithful ally

Singapore-Malaysia Water Supply Issue


Singapore-China-India Foreign Relations

BACKING
References:
A Brief History of Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2014, from YourSingapore:
http://www.yoursingapore.com/content/traveller/en/browse/aboutsingapore/a-brief-history.html
Acharya, A. (2007). The Evolution of Singapore's Foreign Policy: Challenges of Change. World Scientific Publishing Co. Ptc. Ltd.
Retrieved March 5, 2014, from http://www.asianscientist.com/books/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/6533_chap01.pdf
Ethnic Composition. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2014, from Singapore.sg: http://app.singapore.sg/society/our-people/ethnic-
composition
Regional Maps of Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2014, from http://math.nie.edu.sg/atcm/images/map02b.gif
Richest Countries in the World. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2014, from Global Finance:
http://www.gfmag.com/component/content/article/119-economic-data/12538-the-richest-countries-in-the-
world.html#axzz2v95fCf4k
Singapore Foreign Policy. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2014, from Embassy of the Republic of Singapore - Manila:
http://www.mfa.gov.sg/content/mfa/overseasmission/manila/about_singapore/foreign_policy.html
Singapore Key Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2014, from http://www.asean.fta.govt.nz/singapore-key-facts/
Ting, M. H. (2010, March). Singapore's Foreign Policy: Beyond Realism.

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