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# The Conic Sections:

The Ellipse
FOR TODAY:
recall the important concepts learned about the
parabola such as its parts and characteristics
and writing the equation in the standard form
given some information;
define an ellipse;
write the equation of an ellipse in the standard
form;
graph an ellipse in a rectangular coordinate
system;
recognize the equation and important
characteristics of the different types of conic
sections specifically an ellipse.
Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion says
that the orbit of a planet around the sun is an
ellipse, with the sun at one focus

Definition:
An ellipse is a set of all points P in a plane such
that the sum of the distance from P to a fixed
point is a constant. The fixed points are called
foci (plural of focus). The standard form of an
ellipse that lies in the x-direction with center
(h,k) is

x h 2

y k
2
1
2 2
a b
Definition
The a 2 and b 2positions are interchanged when the
ellipse is stretched in the y-direction. The distance
from the center to each vertex is a units and the
distance from the center to the endpoints of the
minor axis is b units. An ellipses two foci are
located from the center on the major axis and are
found by applying the relationship . The
ellipses width is found by locating the latus rectum,
2
b c
2
above
2
and below each focus
determined by the value

2b 2
a
Ellipse Conic Sections
Ellipse a set of points in a plane whose sum of the distances from two
fixed points is a constant.

1 , + 2 , =

1 , + 2 , = = 1 , + 2 ,
Ellipse Conic Sections
Foci the two fixed points, 1 2 , whose distances from a single
point on the ellipse is a constant.
Major axis the line that contains the foci and goes through the center
of the ellipse.
Vertices the two points of
intersection of the ellipse and the Foci
major axis, 1 2 .
Minor axis the line that
is perpendicular to the
major axis and goes
through the center of
the ellipse.
Major axis
Minor axis

Vertices
Ellipse Conic Sections
Equation of an Ellipse Centered at the Origin
2 2 2 2
2
+ 2 = 1 > 2
+ 2 = 1 >

Exercise:

2 2 2 2
x y x y
1 1
12 16 9 25

x 4 y 12
2 2
3x 2 y 6
2 2
CONCEPT CHECK: The Ellipse with
vertex at the origin
This quick quiz aims to assess the students
ability to:
define an ellipse;
identify the important properties and
characteristics of an ellipse;
write the equation of an ellipse in the
standard form;
DIRECTION
For each of the following equations,
identify the following values:
a. Vertices
b. Co-vertices
c. Foci
d. Length of the major axis
e. Length of the minor axis
f. Latus rectum
Vertices Co-vertices Foci Length of the major axis
Length of the minor axis Latus rectum

2 2
x y
1. 1 3. x 9 y 36
2 2
25 49
2 2
x y
2. 1 4. 15 x 5 y 45
2 2

121 64
FOR TODAY:
recall the important concepts learned
about the ellipse with the center at the
origin;
write the equation of an ellipse in the
standard form;
graph an ellipse in a rectangular
coordinate system;
recognize the equation and important
characteristics of the different types of
conic sections specifically an ellipse.
Ellipse Conic Sections
Find the vertices for the major and minor axes, and the foci using the
following equation of an ellipse.
2 2
+ =1
25 9
Major axis is along the x-axis
Vertices of major axis:
2 = 25 = 5 5,0 (5,0)
Vertices of the minor axis

2 = 9 = 3 0,3 (0, 3)
Foci
2 = 2 2 2 = 25 9
2 = 16 = 4
4,0 (4,0)
Ellipse Conic Sections
Find the vertices for the major and minor axes, and the foci using the
following equation of an ellipse.
4 2 + 9 2 = 36
4 2 9 2 2 2
+ =1 + =1
36 36 9 4
Major axis is along the x-axis
Vertices of major axis:
2 = 9 = 3 3,0 (3,0)

Vertices of the minor axis
2 = 4 = 2 0,2 (0, 2)

Foci
2 = 2 2 2 = 9 4
2 = 5 = 5
5, 0 ( 5, 0)
Ellipse Conic Sections
Find the center, the vertices of the major and minor axes, and the foci
using the following equation of an ellipse.
16 2 + 4 2 + 96 8 + 84 = 0
16 2 + 96 + 4 2 8 = 84
16( 2 + 6) + 4( 2 2) = 84
6 2 2
=3 3 =9 = 1 (1)2 = 1
2 2
16( 2 + 6 + 9) + 4 2 2 + 1 = 84 + 144 + 4
16( + 3)2 +4( 1)2 = 64
16( + 3)2 4( 1)2
+ =1
64 64
( + 3)2 ( 1)2
+ =1
4 16
Ellipse Conic Sections
( + 3)2 ( 1)2
+ =1
4 16
Center:
(3,1)
Major axis: = 3 () Foci
Vertices: 2 = 16 = 4 2 = 2 2
3,1 4 (3,1 + 4) 2 = 16 4
3, 3 (3,5) 2 = 12
Minor axis: = 1 () = 2 3
Vertices of the minor axis
3,1 2 3 (3,1 + 2 3)
2 = 4 = 2
3, 2.464 (3, 4.464)
3 2,1 (3 + 2,1)
5,1 (1,1)
Ellipse Conic Sections
( + 3)2 ( 1)2
+ =1
4 16
Center:
(3,1)
Major axis vertices:
3, 3 (3,5)

Minor axis vertices:
5,1 (1,1)

Foci

3, 2.464 (3,4.464)
Think-Pair-Share
Sketch the graph

x 1 2

y 2
1
of the given
ellipses and,
identify the
25 9 center, the

x 1 y 3
2 2
1
vertex, the minor
axis, the major
axis, the foci and
9 25 the latus rectum.
Ellipse Conic Sections
Equation of an Ellipse Centered at a Point
Ellipse Conic Sections
Equation of an Ellipse Centered at a Point
Ellipse Conic Sections
Equation of an Ellipse Centered at a Point
Checking for understanding
Crystal Clear Muddiest point
(the points that the (the points that the
students clearly students do not
understood) understand well and are
still unclear for them)
WRITING THE EQUATION OF THE
ELLIPSE
1. h, k 3,2 ,
a 5, b 2
and major axis horizontal
2. h, k 3,2,
a 5, b 2 and
major axis vertical
WRITING THE EQUATION OF THE
ELLIPSE
3. h, k 1,3,
a 5, c 4 and
major axis horizontal
4. h, k 1,3,
b 3, c 4 and
major axis vertical
Write the following in the standard form.

1. 25 x 9 y 225
2 2

2. 16 x 25 y 400
2 2

3. 2 x y 12
2 2

4. 4 x 3 y 24
2 2
Write the following in the standard form
and identify the important parts or
properties.

1. y 14 y 4 x 45 0
2

2. x 20 y 10
2

3. 4 x 9 y 32 x 36 y 64 0
2 2

4. 4 x 25 y 24 x 100 y 36
2 2
EXERCISES
1. Find the minor axis, center, foci and
vertices of the ellipse 16x 2 + 25y 2 = 400

## 2. Find the minor axis, center, foci and

(x2)2 (y+1)2
vertices of the ellipse + =1
25 9

## 3. Find the minor axis, center, foci and vertices

of the ellipse
9(x 3)2 + 25(y + 1)2 = 225
Examples
1. Find the length of the semi-axis, foci,
vertices and sketch the graph of the ellipse
16x 2 + 25 y 2 = 400

## 2. Find the coordinates of the foci, vertices

(x2)2 (y+1)2
and sketch the graph of + =1
25 9
1. Find the minor axis, center, foci and vertices of the
ellipse 2x 2 + y 2 = 8
2. Find the minor axis, center, foci and vertices of
(x4)2 (y3)2
the ellipse + =1
25 4
3. Find the standard equation of the ellipse
with C 1, 2 , V 1,0 and b = 1.

## 4. Find the standard equation of the ellipse with

V (2,6) and (2-4), and b = 4.
1. Find the minor axis, center, foci and vertices of the
ellipse 36x 2 + 27y 2 = 972

(x+1)2 (y3)2
the ellipse + =1
12 13

## 3. Find the minor axis, center, foci and vertices of the

ellipse 6x 2 + 12y 2 - 12y - 9 = 0