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Stakeholder theory

Stakeholder management and

strategic planning
Two broad stakeholder theories


Theory one
Milton Friedman focus on the
shareholders as they only stakeholders
who matter. The business of business is
making a profit and building shareholder
value the prime purpose.
Theory two

* The quickest way to destroy shareholder

value is to ignore stakeholders
Where did it start?
R. Edward Freeman (1984)

Stakeholder theory is about identifying the

groups who are stakeholders in a
corporation and need to be managed
Why are stakeholders important?
Corporations and organisations operate
with the consent of the community.
Communities comprise groups of
Winning the consent of these stakeholders
provides a licence to operate
Who are stakeholders?
The directly involved:
- investors
- employees
- suppliers
- customers
Other stakeholders
Political parties
Trade unions
Community groups
Plant neighbours
A key question for you

Is the media a stakeholder?

Why pay attention to stakeholders?
Moral or philosophical reasons corporate
social responsibility

Practical reasons licence to operate

Strategic planning reasons identifying

opportunities and threats
Some key management questions
Why should specific companies pay
attention to stakeholders?
Who are the organisations stakeholders?
How do we identify them?
What is the basis for their
What do they want?
Some key management questions
Which stakeholders are most important?
How do we set priorities?
Do we need separate strategies for
different stakeholder groups?
Can we reach all stakeholder groups?
How do we balance stakeholder interests?
Managing stakeholders a
strategic context
The quality of relationships with
stakeholders are the key determinant of
corporate reputation
Stakeholder management is the core of
public affairs management
Symmetric and asymmetric
communication theory is relevant to
stakeholder management
Managing stakeholders an
communications approach
Identify the stakeholders
Identify the relationship you want with
Identify the urgency/timing need for
communicating with them
Identify their information needs
Identify the best communication channel
Some practical examples
Employees face to face as frequently as
Investors as laid down by ASX/ASIC
Governments building up goodwill for the
The media when and where appropriate
Managing stakeholders a PA and
issues management approach
Craig Fleishers emerging PA model:
Managing PA and issues management on
a year round process
Cultivating and maintaining enduring
stakeholder relationships
Influencing stakeholders using refined
Managing the grassroots
Fleisher model
Communicating in an integrated manner
Continually aligning values and strategies
with the publics interests
Improving external relationships using
contemporary management practices
Using PA planning techniques
Identify stakeholder management needs as
an integral part of:
Issues monitoring and environmental
Analysing threats and being sceptical
Using standard analytical tools: SWOT,
PEST, Porter model
Planning techniques
Undertaking scenario planning: What ifs?
Constantly testing internal perception
against external realities
Creating risk, opportunity and issues
Producing issues maps and stakeholder
Setting priorities
Categorise stakeholders by:
Stakeholders directly interested in your
Allies and potential allies
Entrenched opponents
Independent monitors and opinion formers
Management strategies
Directly interested recruit as advocates
Allies encourage
Opponents neutralise
Independents maintain dialogue
Uninvolved monitor and anticipate
Some conclusions
Two theories empirically one wrong and
one right
Focus on identifying stakeholders and why
they are important
Integrate stakeholder management into
strategic planning
Set stakeholder priorities