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BOD- Shigella dysenteriae

Shigellosis
Enteric Gram rod
Gut & Central Nervous
system
103 cells needed (low)
Plasmid coded Exotoxin,
lethal neurotoxin
Bloody/Pus diarrhea
Until 1970s primarily in
Asia (Japan).
Similar to E.coli O157:H7
Food and Water Borne Diseases
Waterborne Diseases
Many cross with food
borne diseases
Look for fecal
contamination
Viral, Bacterial and
parasite diseases
E.coli indicator
organism
1coliform/100ml
defines portable water
Several notable diseases Polio, Shigellosis,
Typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi ),
Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium), Giardiasis
(Giardia), Cholera (Vibrio cholerae), Norwalk-like
virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Meningoencephalitis (ameba Naegleria)
Stomach major barrier to overcome
In developed nations generally result of a
breakdown of public water systems. Relatively
uncommon
Water Treatment
Removing organic and inorganic nutrients
Also specific methods designed to kill
microbes
Filtration, Coagulation, Chlorination even
predation used in water treatment
Result is Drinkable water

Shigella, Legionella-See BOD


Cholera
Point source,
Contaminated water or
Shellfish
Gulf Coast US
Large inoculums 108 cells
Rice-water stool
Exotoxin leads to
dehydration (20 l/day)&
death
Diagnosed via Gram stain
of stool
Curable with electrolytes
Video
Giardiasis
Upwards of 95% open
water in the US
Flagellated Protozoa
Cyst
Watery Diarrhea, foul
Blood/mucus free
Resistant to chlorine
Easily filterable
Elisa test
Crytosporidium
Protozoa
Round Cysts resistant to
chlorine
Easily filterable
Generally mild diarrhea,
except compromised
immune systems
Outbreaks, Milwaukee
(city wide), Minneapolis
(zoo)
Other Waterborne Diseases
Typhoid Fever
Salmonella typhi
Endotoxin
Rotavirus
Most common infect young
child diarrhea
Norwalk-like virus
Older children adults
Hepatitis A
Polio (Poliomyelitis)
Abortive Polio, Paralytic
Polio, Progressive
Postpoliomyetis Muscle
Atrophy
Salk vs Sabin vaccine
Immunoassay
Food borne Infections
Food poisoning/Food -organisms do not
grow in human
Food Infection- organisms do grow in
humans
Food testing- detection via selective &
differential media, PCR
Return of the Staph
Common food poisoning
Egg, meat, poultry
Typically 3-6 hrs post
eating
Enterotoxins-exotoxins
that act on small
intestine-lead to secretion
of fluid diarrhea and
vomiting-48 hrs
Toxins relatively heat
stable-super antigens
Elisa for Enterotoxins,
Mannitol Salt plates
Clostridial Food Poisoning
Clostridium perfringes
Most common food poisoning in US
108 cell needed
Meat, poultry, fish
Grows in food, sporulates in gut releasing
enterotoxin, changes intestine permeability
Diarrhea, cramps, typically no vomiting or
fever
Clostridium botulinum

See BOD
Uncooked meats (Like Vienna sausage)
Causes autonomic paralysis, respiration
and heart
Rare, but 25% fatal (untreated)
Id through finding the toxin in the serum
(ELISA) or the cells in the suspected food
Salmonella
Actually NOT food poisoning, actually an
infection
BOD
8-48 hours post meal
Rarely treated
E.coli O157:H7
Enterohemorrhagic- verotoxin bloody diarrhea-
lead to kidney failure
Ground meat most common source
Mostly children severely affected
Culture of organism serological detection of O
and H antigens

Other E.coli infections-travelers diarrhea-fresh


veggies primary source
Local populations resistant
Campylobacter
Gram- curved motile
rod, reduced oxygen
Source poultry, pork,
raw seafood
High fever, terrible
headache, nausea,
abdominal cramps,
water often bloody
diarrhea
Id from stool, PCR
Others
Listeria- psychrotolerant organism, grows
in the frig. Grows in Monocytes
Unpasterized diary products
Id through culture or PCR
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
(BSE)
Prion disease-infectious protein