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Materials of Construction
Types of Cement
BS Description ASTM Description
Ordinary Portland cement Type I
Rapid Hardening Portland cement Type III
Low-heat Portland cement Type IV
Modified cement Type II
Sulphate-resisting Portland cement Type V
Portland blastfurnace (slag cement) Type IS
High slag blastfurnace cement
White Portland cement
Portland-pozzolan Type IP, P, I(PM)
See Table 2.8 for compound composition of cement types
Ordinary Portland Cement
(Type I)
Most common in general concrete
constructions where is no exposure to
sulphate in the soil or in ground water and
where the special properties of other types are
not required.
Modern cement has higher C3S content and
greater fineness which leads to higher 28-days
strength with smaller later gain of strength.
Excellent general cement and most widely
used in concrete including Pavement, bridges,
reinforced concrete buildings, tanks, pipe,
masonry, and precast concrete products.
Modified Portland Cement
(Type II)
Known as Moderate Sulphate resistance cement.
Recommended where moderate sulphate attack may
occur such as structures or elements exposed to soils
or ground waters (Slabs on ground, pipes, concrete
Developed to overcome the problem of having, in
some applications, a very low early strength.
Has higher rate of heat development than Type IV.
Has similar rate of gain of strength to that of Type I.
Recommended for structures where a moderately low
heat generation is desirable.
Concrete exposed to sea water is often made with
type II.
Some times used in all aspects.
Rapid Hardening Portland
Cement (Type III)
Similar to (Type I) & covered with same standards. Has
same setting time.
Cost is marginally greater than Type I
Has higher C3S, and higher fineness.
Strength develops rapidly
Used when:
Formwork is to be removed early for re-use.
Sufficient strength for further construction is required quickly.
Can be used satisfactorily for constructions at low temperature
and reduces curing period.
Should not be used in mass concrete construction or
large structural sections because of high rate of heat
Low-heat Portland Cement
(Type IV)
Has lower content of C3S & C3A
Slower development of strength, but the
ultimate strength is not affected.
Used where the rate and amount of heat
generated from hydration must be minimized.
Used for massive concrete structures such as
large gravity dams because its low heat of
Type IV is rarely available.
Sulphate Resisting Cement
(Type V)
Has low C3A content to avoid sulphate attack from outside
the concrete (i.e. soils or ground waters).
Sulphate + Ca(OH)2 + Hydrated C3A = Calcium
Sulphoaluminate (ettringite) + Calcium Sulphate
Gypsum causes disruption of concrete due to increase in
Salts active (Mg & Na sulphates)
Mg sulphates has more damaging effects than other
sulphates. The hydrated Mg silicate when formed has no
binding properties
Sulphate attacks accelerate by alternate wetting & drying.
Used only when necessary (marine structure for
Compound Composition of Cement
Cement C3S C2S C3A C4AF

Type I 59 15 12 8

Type II 46 29 6 12
(Max 8)
Type III 60 12 12 8
(Max 15)
Type IV 30 46 5 13
(Max 35) (Min 40) (Max 7)
Type V 43 36 4 12
(Max 5)
Portland Blastfurnace Cement
(Type IS)
Also known as (Slag cement)
Made by blending Portland cement clinker with granulated blast
furnace slag (25-70% of the mass of the mixture).
Blast furnace slag: Waste product in the manufacture of iron.
Slag contains lime, silica, & alumina but with different proportions
than cement.
Similar to (Type I) in: fineness, setting times, & soundness.
Has lower early strength than (Type I) but later strengths are
Used in :
mass concrete because of lower heat of hydration.
Sea water construction because of better sulphate resistance (lower
Slag with low alkai content can be used with aggregate suspected of
alkali reactivity.
Common in countries where slag is widely available.
Super-sulphated Slag Cement

Not a Portland cement.

Made by intergrinding a mixture of (80
85%) of granulated slag with (10 15%)
of calcium sulphate and (5%) of Portland
cement clinker.
Has low heat of hydration.
High resistance to sea water & sulphate
attack, peaty acids & soils.
White & Colored Portland Cement

Is a true Portland cement that differs mainly in

Use for architectural purposes (walls, precast,
cement paint, tile grout, and decorative
Also used because of its low content of soluble
alakis staining is avoided.
Made of selected materials of which china clay
which contains little iron and magnesium
oxides (give the cement the gray dark color) .
Cost is high
Portland-pozzolan Cement
(Type IP, P, & I (PM))
Made by blending pozzolans (15- 40% of total mass)
with Portland cement.
Pozzolan: A siliceous or siliceous and aluminous
material which in it self possesses little or no
cementitious value but will chemically react with lime(
liberated by hydration of Portland cement) in the
presence of moisture at ordinary temperatures to form
compounds possessing cementitious properties.
This cement gains strength slowly therefore require
longer curing periods, but the long-term strength is
Has slow hydration & low rate of heat development.
Portland-pozzolan Cement
(Type IP, P, & I (PM)) Cont.
Type IP: used for general construction
Type P: used when high strength at early ages are not
Type I (PM) (Pozzolan-Modified Portland cement):
used in general construction
Portland fly ash cement (PFA) used in:
Rolled concrete,
Concrete with low heat characteristics,
Concrete requiring good chemical resistance
Pozzolan is cheaper than Portland cement.
Pozzolan S.G (1.9 2.4) while S.G for Portland
cement is (3.15) so replacement by mass should be
carefully conducted.
Other Portland Cements

Developed for special uses

Masonry cement
Hydrophobic cement

Anti-bacterial cement
Expansive Cements
A cement that expands slightly during early hardening
after setting.
Developed to overcome the problem of drying
shrinkage (avoid cracking).
Magnitude of expansion can be adjusted so that
expansion and shrinkage are equal & opposite.
Type M (high-energy expanding cement): quick
setting, rapid hardening, and high resistance to
sulphate attack.
Type K: magnitude of expansion is more reliable than
Type M.
Type S: has high C3A
Expansive Cements Cont.
Types of concrete: Expansive Cement Concrete &
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete.
In these concretes slump loss occurs faster, and
resistance to sulphate attack may weaken.
Concretes can be used to:
Compensate for volume decrease due to drying shrinkage.
Induce tensile stresses in reinforcement (post tensioning).
Stabilize long term dimensions of post tensioned concrete.
Expansive cements may be used in special
applications such as prevention of water leakage.
Pozzolan: A siliceous or siliceous and aluminous
material which in it self possesses little or no
cementitious value but will chemically react with lime(
liberated by hydration of Portland cement) in the
presence of moisture at ordinary temperatures to form
compounds possessing cementitious properties.
Typical materials of this type:
Volcanic ash (original pozzolan)
Fly ash (PFA)
Opaline and shales and cherts.
Burnt clay
High-alumina Cement (HAC)

Developed to resist sulphate attack and became

used as a very rapid-hardening cement.
HAC has higher cost because of high cost
material (bauxite), high firing temperature, and
high hardness clinker.
HAC produce higher rate of heat development
than Type III
HAC is slow setting but the final set follows the
initial set more rapidly than in Portland cement.
Through the hydration of HAC a crystal
change occurs which is encouraged by higher
temperature and higher lime and alkalinity.
This crystal change is known as conversion.
Conversion of HAC leads to loss of strength
due to reduce in density (increase porosity).
Refractory HAC concrete has good chemical
resistance and resist thermal movements and
shocks .
Can withstand temperatures as high as 1600
1800 oC when using special aggregates