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Piping System Basics

Frank Drzal, P.E.


Common piping materials used in power plant applications
Applicable Codes and Standards
Industry standards for dimensions
Designing for Flow, Pressure and Temperature
WorleyParsons Technical Specifications and Line Specifications
Welding Basics
Joining Methods
Valve Types and Applications
Piping Specialties
Good Design Practices
Control Valve Sizing
Common Piping Problems

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First Law of Piping Design

The OD must always exceed the ID. Otherwise the hole

is on the outside.

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Common Piping Materials

Common Name Applications Piping Materials Fitting Material Forged Valves Cast Valves

Carbon Steels Water, Oil, Gas, Air, ASTM A53 Gr B, ASTM A105ASTM ASTM A105 ASTM A216 WPB
Steam(<800F) ASTM A106 Gr B & C A234 Gr WPB & WPC

Stainless Steels Demineralized Water, ASTM A312 TP304 ASTM A182 Gr F304 ASTM A 182 Gr 316L ASTM A 351 Gr
Chemical Feeds ASTM A312 TP316 ASTM A182 Gr F316 CF3M & CF8M (304)
ASTM A312 TP 304L ASTM A 403 WP304 ASTM A351 Gr CF3
ASTM A312 TP316L ASTM A 403 WP316 and CF8 (316)

Chrome-Moly Steels High Temperature ASTM A335 Gr P11 ASTM A182 Gr F11 ASTM A182 Gr F11 ASTM A217 WC6
Steam (>800F)and ASTM A 335 Gr P22 ASTM A 234 Gr F11 ASTM A182 Gr F22 ASTM A217 WC9
Erosive Services ASTM A 335 Gr P91 ASTM A182 Gr F22 ASTM A182 Gr F91 ASTM A217 C12A
ASTM A 234 Gr F22
ASTM A182 Gr F91
ASTM A 234 Gr F91

Cast Iron Underground Drains, ASTM A74 ASTM A74

Sanitary Sewer

Ductile Iron (Cement Potable Water, ANSI/AWWA ANSI/AWWA ASTM A 105 ASTM A126
Lined) Equipment Drains, C151/A21.51 and C153/A21.53 (Bell &
Service Water, fire NSF 61 Spigot or Mech Jt.)
protection ASTM A536

High Density Underground Services ASTM D3350 ASTM D3350ASTM Varies with Varies with
Polyethylene (HDPE) - Water, Chemicals, ASTM D3035 D3261 Application Application
Fire Protection, Slurry

Chlorinate Poly Vinyl Underground water ASTM D1784 ASTM D1784 ASTM D1784 ASTM D1784
Chloride and chemical services

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Codes and Standards

Code Power Plant Application

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Boiler Internal Piping, Boiler External
Code, Section 1, Power Boilers Piping (Administrative Only)
ASME B31.1, Power Piping Boiler External (Total Technical
Jurisdiction) Non-Boiler External,
Balance of Plant (BOP) process
American Water Works Association Circulating Water Piping
(AWWA) Potable Water (also National Sanitary
Foundation, NSF)
Sanitary Sewer
Plant Drains
National Fire Protection Association Fire Protection
ASME B31.3, Process Piping Interface with Process Equipment
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and Chemical Piping
Boiler Internal, Boiler External, Non-Boiler

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Piping Component Codes

Component Code

Valves ASME B16.34, Valves - Flanged,

Threaded, and Welding End
ASME B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-
End Dimensions of Valves
Flanges and Flanged Fittings ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings NPS 1/2 Through NPS 24
Buttweld Fittings (Elbows, Tees, ASME B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought
Reducers, etc) Buttwelding Fittings
Branch Connections (Weldolets, MSS SP-97, Integrally Reinforced
Sweepolets, Sockolets, etc) Forged Branch Outlet Fittings - Socket
Welding, Threaded and Buttwelding
Forged Fittings ASME B16.11, Forged Fittings, Socket-
Welding and Threaded
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Schedule Pipe

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Non-Standard Pipe Sizes

The following line sizes

are generally regarded
as non-standard as they
are not regularly stocked
and certain valves and/or
specialties are not readily
1-1/4, 3-1/2, 4-1/2, 5
7, 9, 11

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Large Bore vs. Small Bore

Small Bore
2 inch and smaller
Field Fabricated
Piping isometrics and orthographics not normally provided by
Socket weld or threaded fittings

Large Bore
2-1/2 inches and larger
Shop fabricated to the greatest extent possible. Fabricator will provide
spool drawings
Detailed piping isometric drawings normally provided by WorleyParsons
Butt Welded or Flanged

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Socket Weld Fittings

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Butt Weld Fittings

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ASME Pressure Classes

ASME Pressure Classes are dictated by Pressure and

Temperature limits on valves and flanges
Standard Pressure Classes for steel valves and flanges
include Class 150, Class 300, Class 600, Class 900,
Class 1500, Class 2500 and Class 4500
Valves are also available in Special Class and
Interpolated Class, which allow higher ratings based on
additional analysis or ratings by the valve manufacturers

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Piping Line Specification Development

The engineer must evaluate all piping system

components to be used to determine that all are
sufficient for the rated system design pressure and
temperature for all piping sizes required. This is
normally referred to as weak link analysis.
Straight Pipe
Pipe Bends
Flanges including bolts and nuts

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Design Pressure and Temperature

The ASME Code states that the under normal operating

conditions, the maximum sustained operating pressure
and temperature cannot exceed the maximum allowable
pressure and temperature for any particular part or
The ASME Code includes a safety factor of 3.5
Code allows for variance from normal operation as
The calculated stress from such a variation in in pressure and/or
temperature may exceed the maximum allowable stress from
Appendix A by
15% if the event duration occurs less than 10% of any 24 hr
operating period or
20% if the event duration occurs less than 1% of any 24 hr period

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Minimum Wall Thickness Calculations

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Y Factors

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ASME B31.1 Stress Values

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Piping Fabrication Tolerances

When using standard schedule piping, the user must include a

12.5% tolerance to the calculated minimum wall thickness for
straight piping.
If pipe bending is permitted, the user must include an additional
tolerance to account for wall thinning when the pipe is bent. Normal
industry practice is to bend to no less than 5 pipe diameters. ASME
B31.1 Code requires an additional 8% wall thickness for schedule
40 and greater wall pipe for 5D bends. Refer to Table for
other bending tolerances. Since virtually all bending today is being
done using the Induction bending method and the amount of
additional wall thickness added for bend thinning varies for each
fabricator it is recommended that no bend thinning be added by
WorleyParsons but include a Note in the piping specification and in
the Piping Line Specification that the fabricator is responsible for the
addition of wall thickness to account for its predicted bend thinning.

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Valve and Flange Ratings

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Threaded & Socket Weld Fitting Ratings

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Designing for Flow

Piping is typically sized on a velocity criteria. Refer to

design guide PPSD-A-DG-581-0009

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Designing for Flow


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Designing for Flow

Miscellaneous Fluids

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WorleyParsons Piping Design Documents

Design Guides
available thru
ESTD area

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WorleyParsons Piping Design Documents

Design Criteria Document

Design Criteria Document.DOC
Piping Line Specifications
Piping Tech Spec
Piping Orthographic Drawings (304 Series)
Piping Orthographic.pdf
Piping Isometric Drawings (315 Series)
Piping Isometric.pdf

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Pipe Welding Techniques

Typical Welding Processes used for Piping

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) TIG Welding - Used for
root pass on piping welds. Uses a non-consumable tungsten
electrode to create arc between torch and work and an inert gas
for shielding.

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Pipe Welding Techniques

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Stick Welding Manual

process used for subsequent weld passes in the field. Use a
consumable welding rod coated with coating.

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Pipe Welding Techniques

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Semi-automatic or automatic

process used in the shop. Flux is contained within the wire.

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Pipe Welding Techniques

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Semi-automatic welding

process using a bare electrode or electrodes and a granular flux
to shield the process.

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ASME B16.25 Butt Welding Dimensions

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Heavy Wall Weld Ends

Special weld ends for high energy piping

C Bore must be Exact on both pipe

or component ends

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Dissimilar Welds

Welding Dissimilar Materials

Avoid dissimilar welds in the field, if possible
If dissimilar welds are necessary, require pipe fabricator or
equipment supplier to provide a transition piece
Transition pieces may require special design if heavy wall
Typical locations for dissimilar welds
Main Steam, Hot Reheat and Cold Reheat connections to the
Steam drains to the drain tanks or condenser
Heater drain lines
Stainless steel components to carbon steel components or piping
Some materials require an intermediate transition material
uncommon to either base material

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Dissimilar Welds

Welding of any two materials with different ASME P

Numbers is considered a Dissimilar Weld (See
Mandatory Appendix A of B31.1

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Dissimilar Welds

Welding of ASTM Materials to foreign made materials

(i.e. non-ASTM materials)
Material supplier to provide full chemical analysis of material
Material coupons to be provided to the erector for development of
the welding procedures.

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ASME B16.5 (1/2 inch through 24 inches)

ASME B16.47 (26 inches through 60 inches)
AWWA C207 (4 inches through 144 inches)
Rated by ASME Class (125, 150, 250, 300, 600, 900, 1500, 2500,
Common Terms
Raised Face vs. Flat Face
Weld Neck
Lap Joint
Ring Joint
Slip On
Socket Weld

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Other Common Joint Types

Push On Joints Victaulic Roll or Groove Joints

Mechanical Joints
Pressfit Piping System

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Common Piping Problems

Flow assisted corrosion
Flashing Flows
Galvanic Corrosion
Chemical Attack
Improper Welding
Creep Failure
Water/Steam Hammer
Thermal Expansion
Improper Joint Application

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Piping Stress Analysis

Pipe Stress Analysis

WorleyParsons Piping Engineering Group normally performs a
stress analysis of all large bore piping above 250-300F.
Piping may be analyzed for deadweight, thermal stress, seismic,
wind loads, snow loads and thermal growth. Sloped piping will
be reviewed to assure that a positive slope is maintained from
the cold to the hot position.
Most equipment has specific force and moment load allowables
on equipment connections for both hot and cold conditions.
The Piping Engineering Group will spot hangers in the PDS
model and these will be shown on the piping isometric drawings.
Large bore cold piping (<250F) and hot small bore are normally
hung by the installing contractor using a series of pipe support
criteria drawings (Series 321 drawings)

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Considerations for Piping Layout

Straight Runs
Flow Elements (Typical is 10 diameters upstream and 5
Control Valves (Consult Control Valve Manufacturer)
Pump Suction Lines
Check Valves
Flashing Applications
Desuperheaters (Consult Manufacturer)

Sloped Piping
Normal slope is 1/8 inch per foot of pipe run
Steam pipe must be verified to maintain slope in both hot and
cold conditions.

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Considerations for Piping Layout

Vents and Drains

Vents at all system high points
Drains at all low points and where required for equipment
Vents and Drains are normally to 1 depending on system
Vents are normally supplied with globe valves to allow throttling
Drains are normally supplied with gate or ball valves to minimize
plugging problems or allow rodding of the piping
Do NOT place pipe caps on vents and drains on steam lines

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Basic Valve Types

Refer to Design Guide PPSD-A-582-DG-0003, VALVE

TYPES, SELECTION & SIZING for a detailed
discussion on Valve Types.

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Gate Valves

Good for open/close

isolation service Rising stem
Low pressure drop Yoke
Low cost
Good for high pressure Packing Gland
and temperature Bolted Bonnet
Not suitable for throttling Backseat
applications Valve Seats
Can experience bonnet
over pressurization Solid Wedge Disk
Flanged Ends

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Globe Valves

Good for open/close

isolation service and
limited throttling
Higher pressure drop
compared to a gate valve
Pressure Seal
Higher cost than a gate
Good for high pressure
and temperature Buttweld Ends
Flow Direction

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Y Globe and Angle Valves

Y Globe Valve

Angle Valve

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Check Valves

Swing Check Piston Check Ball Check

Tilting Disk Check

Dual Plate Wafer Check

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Ball Valves

Low Pressure
High Cost
Tight shutoff
Can be throttled

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Butterfly Valves

High Performance Offset Disk

General Service Soft
Lugged Body Design
Seat Wafer Check
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Valve Actuators


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Safety and Relief Valves

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Rules for Safety Valves

Operating pressure for ASME Section VIII should be no greater than

85% of safety valve set pressure. ASME Section I valves may
operate at 93% of set pressure.
Safety valves are not designed for regular use. Lifting will cause the
valve to leak.
Always consult manufacturer for proper sizing and selection of
safety or relief valves and the proper features.
Design stacks per ASME B31.1 Non-Mandatory Appendix II.
Superflow (available on mechcba) can be used for stack sizing.
Design to maximum backpressure allowed by manufacturer.
Stacks must be discharged to a safe location.
Always be aware of safety valve locations near you in the plant.
Discharge will result in high noise and possible backflow.

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Safety Valve Vent Stacks

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