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COMPOSITE POWDER

METALLURGY PROCESSES &


EVALUATION USING Cu-W

Submitted by
Mariyappan.M
Abstract

In this paper we have considered the copper powder as the matrix


material and tungsten as a reinforcement material.
Graphite is the solid lubricant which used in our composites.
The various proportions of Cu and tungsten powders are mixed with
respect to its volume fraction and compressed with respect to the
aspect ratio to compact the composites.
Introduction

Composite materials are made from two or many different kind of


materials.
The first modern composite was fiber glass and it was developed in the late
1940's.
Fiber glass is the most common material and makes up to 65% of all the
composite products existing today.
Some of the products are car bodies, construction panels, surfer boards,
sports products, swimming pool linings, watercraft hulls, etc.,.
Constituent materials

Composite materials are normally made up of different materials known as


constituent materials.
They are categorized into two parts,
1. Matrix
2. Reinforcement.
At least one of the products is required for all materials that are used.
Metal Matrix Composite

Metal matrix composite is a matter having minimum two different


materials.
metal is the first material and the next part can be any organic compounds
Some of the applications are aircraft materials, new technological sports
equipments and space systems.
Advantages of MMC

1. fire resistant
2. can be operated in higher temperatures
3. water resistant
4. good in thermal and electrical conductivity
5. resistant to radiation and will not display out gassing
Objectives

Copper-tungsten alloy or brass is well known about corrosion resistance.


Brasses are high in wear resistance and have low friction coefficient against
steel.
Tungsten brasses are used to build the parts like piston rings, fittings,
valves, gears, bearings.
To improve the machinability and pressure tightness, lead is added.
Copper

Copper (Cu) is a chemical element and has atomic value 29. It has very high
thermal and electrical conductivity.
They are used as thermal conductor, building material, electric conductor,
and a combination of various metal alloys.
Pure copper is soft and malleable.
Advantages of Cu

Copper is malleable like gold and silver.


It has the tendency to bent and shape without cracking whether it is hot or
cold.
Copper can be drawn out in to thin wire because it is ductile.
Being both ductile and malleable, copper is easily worked.
Tungsten (Stannum)

Tungsten is a chemical component with a representation Sn (Latin:


Stannum) and its atomic number is 50.
This silvery, malleable poor metal is difficult to oxidize in air.
it is also used to coat other metals to avoid corrosion.
85% up to 99% tungsten are used in pewter alloys.
Advantages of tungsten

Tungsten is a flexible, pliant, silvery-white product.


Tungsten resist oxidization from soft tap water
Tungsten has almost the pastiness of silver. It is very soft and flexible, but
not elastic.
Processing methods
Solid state methods
Blending of powder with metal powder and mixing takes place with irregular
reinforcement.
It also consider Foil diffusion bonding.
Liquid state methods
The following properties are considered before starting the method,
1. Electroforming / Electroplating
2. Stir casting
3. Squeeze casting
4. Spray deposition
5. Reactive processing
Vapor Deposition methods:
Physical vapor deposition: A wide range of vaporized metals can be
satisfied by fiber.
Powder metallurgy:
Powder metallurgy is a manufacturing procedure consisting of three
important processing levels.
10-50 tons of pressure for per square inch is normally used,
At last, the final part was created by high temperature, long setting times,
pressure and many combinations thereof.
Benefits

gives small ravage.


Complex and simple structures can be generated and at a huge
manufacturing rate.
This method is distinguished to produce direct undercuts, cross holes and
threads.
Perform preparation

Blending and mixing of powders:


Before the powders are pressed into shape, they are usually blended for the
following reasons:
1. To add lubricants (to powder) to reduce friction during the pressing operations.
Powder particles get coated with lubricants (GRAPHITE). This reduces die wear and
lowers the pressure required for pressing.
2. To mix powders of different materials, in order to obtain properties of heat resistance
friction, heavy weight and hardness.
3. To obtain uniform distribution of particle sizes.
Formula
Formula
Volume of composites, Vc = Vm + Vr
Where,
Vm = volume of matrix in cc.
Vr = volume of reinforcement in cc.
Mm= Mass of matrix in gm.
Mr = Mass of reinforcement in gm.
m = Density of matrix in gm by cc (for Cu, 8.95gm/cc).
r = Density of reinforcement in gm by cc ( for W, 19.25 gm/cc).
Mixing Calculation
For 70% Cu & 30% W
Vm =38/8.96 =4.24 Vr = 11.5/6.45 = 1.78 Vc = 4.24+1.78 =6.03 cc
Vc = (4.24/6.03)*100 = 70 %
Vc= (1.78/6.03)*100 = 30 %
For 65% Cu & 35% W
Vm =35/8.96 =3.91 Vr = 13.5/6.45 = 2.09 Vc = 3.91+2.09 =6 cc
Vc = (3.91/6)*100 = 65 %
Vc= (2.09/6)*100 = 35 %
Brinell hardness test

Brinell hardness number:

Where,
BHN = Brinell hardness number.
F = load used in kg.
D = Diameter of the spherical indenter.
Di = Diameter of the resulting indenter
impression in mm.
Calculations
Calculations
Brinell hardness values:
Hardness result
Conclusion

The day-to-day usage of the composite material increased because of their


light weight-high strength properties.
Presently lot of research is continuing on Copper-Tungsten (Cu-W)
composites.
Compression strength are analyzed and improved while comparing with its
alloy.
THANK YOU