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Warm Up

Take out the DACA article.

Discuss the article in your group.
What is DACA?
What are some words that showcase the authors
What are some arguments for ending DACA?
Warm Up
Grab the Library of Congress article from the
table below the calendar.
Unit 1.2
Founding Concepts
American Revolution
The American Revolutionary War
(17751783), in the United States, was the armed
conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its
former North American colonies, which has
declared themselves the independent United
American Revolution
Early fighting took place primarily on the North
American continent.
In 1778, France, eager for revenge after its
defeat in the Seven Years War, signed an alliance
with the new nation.
The Conflict then escalated into a world war.
With Britain combating France, Spain, and the
Netherlands. Fighting also broke out in India
between the British East India Company and the
French allied Kigndom of Mysore.
13 Colonies
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Inspired by John Locke
D of I opens with Jefferson invoking Locke
philosophy Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
Jefferson continues by listing grievances against
George III for violating inalienable rights
Declares US independence
British Colonial Rule
Unitary System all power flows from one central government

Powerful British

Political Political Political

Subunits Subunits Subunits
(Colonies (Colonies) (Colonies)
Confederate System
Articles of Confederation
1781 1789 RIP

Confederate System power concentrated in political subunits (states)

with a weak central government (typically unite for a common goal)

State State State HEFTY


Central Wimpy,
Government Wimpy.
Federal System powers are divided
and/or shared between state and central
governments (Current government
designed by framers)

Central US government

State governments
Articles of Confederation
Original American government
Weak central government
Individual and State liberties
not threatened
No executive (they hated
Confederacies are usually
A of C Weaknesses
Article II Each state retains
its sovereignty, freedom, and
government had no
Unicameral Congress (one
house) with one vote per
Supermajority (9 of 13) to pass
a law
Supermajority (13 of 13) to
A of C Weaknesses cont.
No Executive (No
President), no central
No Federal Judiciary (No
Supreme Court), no
central law.
No control of taxation,
commerce between
states or with foreign
nations, money system.
Basically it asked for
Shayss Rebellion
Colonies were in debt after the war, central
government tried to raise taxes
Farmers in western Massachusetts rebelled against
taxes they could not afford. (Daniel Shay)
Rebelled against foreclosures, forced judges out of
court, freed debtors from jail
Showed that national government was weak,
needed to seek a stronger national government.
Step 1: Write your name.
Step 2: Re-write the amendment in your own
Step 3 Chose between option A or B
A- Draw a picture in the back that represents each
B- Describe a scenario were you would have to
exercise the right specified in each amendment.
At least 3 sentences.
The Constitutional Convention
Revising the A of C
Demographics of Delegates
-55 delegates (none from RI)
-33 Lawyers
-half were college graduates
-7 former governors
-7 plantation owners
-8 business leaders
-age 26-81 (avg. age 42)
-all male, all white
Virginia Plan
Favored large states
Strong Central Government
Bicameral (two house) legislature larger house elected
by the people (House of Representatives, and a smaller
house that was selected by larger house (Senate)
(This would change in the 17th Amendment)
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey Plan
Agreed with strong central governmentBUT
Congress would be unicameral (one house)
with states having equal votes
Did not want large population states to
dominate the legislature
Great Compromise
A bicameral legislature in which the House of
Representatives membership apportioned according
to the state populations, plus 3/5 the slave population
An upper house, the Senate, which would have two
members from each state, elected by the state
legislature (popularly elected today)
Three-fifths Compromise
Agree to allow the South to count 3/5
the population in each state to balance
the power of North and South
Madisonian Principles of
Government in the Constitution
Popular Sovereignty power to govern belongs
to the people. A government based on the consent
of governed.
Separation of Powers division of government
divided by branches: executive, legislative and
Checks and Balances a system where
branches have some authority over others.
Limited Government government is not all-
powerful, and it does only what citizens allow.
Federalism division of power between central
government and individual states.
Separation of Powers
Prevents an all-powerful ruling body
1. Legislature passes law (Congress)
2. Executive enforces law (President)
3. Judiciary interprets law (Supreme Court)
Amending the Constitution
Meant to be difficult
Require action from national and state gov
Amendment proposed by 2/3 vote in each
house of Congress and ratified (accepted) in
at least of state legislatures
Fed vs. Anti-Fed
Ratification formal
Federalist in favor of
adoption of US
Constitution creating a
federal union and
strong central
opposed to ratification
in 1787, opposed to
strong central
Federalist Papers
Annoyingly hard to read
Best political theory ever
written in United States.
Written by Alexander
Hamilton, James Madison,
and John Jay
Convince public for
Federalist #10
Madison addresses biggest fear of government.
Faction a group in a legislature or political party
acting together in pursuit of some special interest
(think fraction , 1/3, etc)
Founding fathers were concerned that our
government would be ripped apart
Madison defends our national Constitution
Federalist #10
Separation of Powers check the growth of tyranny
Each branch of government keeps the other two
from gaining too much power
A republic guards against irresponsible direct
democracy or common passions
Factions will always exist, but must be managed to
not severe from the system.
Anti-Fed Response
Central government would threaten liberty
Aristocratic tyranny could happen
Demanded a guarantee of individual rights
and liberty
States power was too limited
Bill of Rights
10 amendments to the Constitution
guaranteed individual freedoms and rights
limited power of national government,
guaranteed rights to states
Ratified in 1789, Bill of Rights added 1791