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Protection Application Control System

Handbook Structure
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Control System Structure
Equipment included in control
Auxiliary supplies
Protection system
Metering equipment
Control and regulation
Signaling and event recording
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Control System Structure
CT location

Should be as close to CB as possible

For GIS the location should cover all equipment in
GIS for a bus fault
For lower voltages where BB protection is not
used CT can be between CB and BB
For transfer buses CT location preferably should
be outside C disconnector
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Control System Structure
Location of CT in AC- busbar arrangement
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Control System Structure
CT earthing

All CTs should be earthed

When several CTs are connected in summation or
differential mode earth only one point
Connect neutral and earth towards protected
Connect neutral and earth towards metering
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Control System Structure
CT terminal arrangement
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Control System Structure
PT location

For distribution level bus PT and PT on secondary

side of transformer is OK
On transmission level normally PT is required at
all objects and single phase PT on bus bar for
Syn check etc. This avoids complex PT
changeover schemes
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Control System Structure
PT earthing and fusing

Secondary circuits earthing and fusing in

marshalling box
Interconnection of different PT circuits should be
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Control System Structure
PT fuse supervision
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Control System Structure
PT circuit cabling

Secondary cable must be dimensioned to

Ensure that fuse / MCB will operate in a reasonable time
for a fault at the far end of the cables
Keep voltage drop due to the burden one level lower
than inaccuracies in the PT
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Control System Structure
Back feed of voltage to faulty
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Control System Structure
Supervision of DC supply
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Control System Structure
DC supply distribution

Where two battery system is not used protective

relays that provide backup to each other should
be supplied from different main fuses in the
battery distribution
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Control System Structure
DC Supply to different equipment

The trip coil in a system without redundant

protection system be supplied from the same
supply as the protection relays . Feed
disconnector, earth switch enabling circuits from
different source
Structured terminal system to simpilfy fault finding
should be followed
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Control System Structure
Terminal arrangement for DC distribution
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Control System Structure
Terminal numbering system Main1
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Control System Structure
Terminal numbering system Main2
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Control System Structure
Trip coil supervision
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Control System Structure
Effect of capacitive discharge on trip relays
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Control System Structure

Fault signalling
Annunciator system
Event recorder
Disturbance recorder
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Control System Structure

Prevents human mistakes

Independence of requirement between operation
of circuits and interlocking should be kept in mind
to achieve highest possible reliability
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Control System Structure

Electrical design documents
Operation and maintenance manuals
Erection manuals
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CBIP manual on Protection
of Generators, generator Location of CTs and
transformers and 220kV VTs in Substations
and 400 kV networks
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Control System Structure

Instrument transformers (CTs and VTs) are used to obtain measured

quantities of current and voltage in appropriate form for use in control,
protection and measuring equipment such as Energy meters,
indicating instruments, protective relays, fault locators, fault recorders,

These are installed in different bays such as line, transformer, bus

coupler bays and also at the bus bar
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Control System Structure
2.0 Location of CTs and VTs in different Sub- station arrangements


Given below are some examples of different bus configurations showing

suitable location of CTs VTs
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Control System Structure
2.2 Current Transformers

2.2.1 Double Bus Arrangement

The CTs shall be placed near the circuit breakers (CBs) and on the line

The detection zones of line relays and busbar relays start at the CTs. It
is advantageous if these two points are close to each other.

In the improbable case of a fault between the CT and CB the busbar

protection will detect and clear the fault
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Control System Structure
2.2.2 Double Main and Transfer Bus Arrangement

It is advantageous to locate the CTs on the line side of the disconnectors

for line and transformer bays. In this way the protective relay connected
to the CT will remain connected to the line or Transformer when it is
switched over to the transfer busbar

A separate CT is required to be provided in the Transfer bus coupler bay

to obtain selective bus tripping for faults on Transfer bus
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Control System Structure
2.2.3 Bus Coupler and Bus Sectionalizer Bays

A set of CT is necessary to enable different bus bar protection zones

to be formed

the protection can be arranged to give complete fault clearing with a

short time-delay (L.B.B. time) for faults between CB and CT.

Only one set of CTs is recommended

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Control System Structure
2.2.4 Double Breaker Station

It is usual to locate the CTs on the line side after the CBs

The two CTs shall be identical

To get the line current the secondary current of the two CTs are summated
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Control System Structure
2.2.5 One and a Half Breaker Station

The CTs are located close to the CBs

At the central CB ( Tie CB) two CT sets are shown

This arrangement utilizes 4 CTs however it is also possible to use a

single of CT with the tie CB thus reducing number of CTs to 3 per
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Control System Structure
Fig.5 shows alternative way of locating the CTs. This arrangement
requires 5 CTs. The advantages with this arrangement are:

- Paralleling of two CTs to the main line protection is not required. This
gives better transient response

- Separate stub protection can be connected

- It is recommended that 4 CT arrangement is continued to be adopted

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Control System Structure
2.3 Voltage Transformers

2.3.1 Line CVTs

CVTs are used for metering, protection and synchronization

Located at the line entry they also enable indication of voltage on a

line energized from the opposite end

CVTs can also be used as coupling capacitors for power line carrier

They are then to be located at the line side of the line traps and line
earthing switches(as shown in Fig.5)

For 400kV level it is recommended that each line bay is provided with
CVTs all the three phases
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Control System Structure
Even for 220kV substations it is preferable to provide three phase
CVTs in each phase for each line bay

However, depending on utility practice CVTs in one phase may also

be provided in which case protections will have to be connected to
bus VTs
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Control System Structure
2.3.2 Bus CVTs

Three phase VTs / CVTs on the busbars provide input for directional
relays and reference voltage for synchronization

These VTs will have to be selected by using voltage selection scheme

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Control System Structure
2.4 CT / VT Earthing

CT / VT secondary neutrals should be earthed at one point only

Vt secondary neutral earthing is done at equipment itself

It is preferable to earth the CT secondary neutral in the control /

protection cubicle in order to provide maximim security to the
operating personnel
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Control System Structure
2.5 CT Polarity

As a practice the P1 terminal of the CT shall be towards the bus

and P2 away from the bus
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Control System Structure
3.0 Examples of CT, VT Location

Examples of a double main and Transfer bus configuration showing

line, Transformer, Main Bus coupler and Transfer bus coupler bays
and another of one and half bus configuration for a Line with reactor
and Transformer diameter are shown in figs. 6 & 7 toto illustrate
location of CTs and CVTs and utilisation of various cores based on
the above recommendations
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Control System Structure