Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

ENGLISH FOR

SPECIFIC PURPOSES
ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all
decisions as to content and method are based on the
learner's reason for learning. T. Hutchinson and
Waters, A., (1987:19) "
There are three reasons common to the emergence of ESP:

The demands of a A revolution in linguistics


Focus on the learner
Brave New World
ABSOLUTE CHARACTERISTICS

ESP is defined to meet specific needs of learners.

ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of


the discipline it serves.

ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, and register),


skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.
VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS

ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines.

ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology


from that of general English.

ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary


level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however,
be for learners at secondary school level.
VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS

ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students.

Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language


system, but it can be used with beginners.
David Carver (1983) identifies three types of ESP:

ENGLISH AS A RESTRICTED LANGUAGE

It would not allow its speaker to communicate effectively in a novel


situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment.

It is extremely limited which allows the learners learn English language for
very restricted purposes and it trains the learners to handle specific
situations in extremely limited linguistic settings.

This kind of ESP teaching restricts itself to "limited number of phrases and
expressions.
David Carver (1983) identifies three types of ESP:

ENGLISH AS A RESTRICTED LANGUAGE


David Carver (1983) identifies three types of ESP:

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL PURPOSES

ESP is broken down into three branches:

a) English for Science and Technology (EST).


b) English for Business and Economics (EBE).
c) English for Social Studies (ESS).

Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches:


English for Academic Purposes (EAP).
English for Occupational Purposes (EOP).
Hutchinson and Waters (1987) have argued that people can work and
study simultaneously; it is also likely that in many cases the language
learnt for immediate use in a study environment will be used later when
the student takes up, or returns to, a job.
Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, p. 5) have also included only EAP
and EOP in their division of ESP. Their suggested classification is as
under:
David Carver (1983) identifies three types of ESP:

ENGLISH WITH SPECIFIC TOPICS

It emphasizing the shift from purpose to topic for the first time.

This type of ESP requires that the linguistic needs of the learners should
be properly determined before any ESP material is designed.

It is uniquely concerned with professionals requiring English for


postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in
foreign institutions.
DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) ALSO
KNOWN AS GENERAL ENGLISH

The most important difference lies in the learners and their purposes
for learning English.

ESP students are usually adults who already have some acquaintance
with English and are learning the language in order to communicate a
set of professional skills and to perform particular job-related
functions.

An ESP program is therefore built on an assessment of purposes and


needs and the functions for which English is required.
DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) ALSO
KNOWN AS GENERAL ENGLISH

ESP concentrates more on language in context than on teaching


grammar and language structures.

The ESP focal point is that English is not taught as a subject


separated from the students' real world (or wishes); instead, it is
integrated into a subject matter area important to the learners.

While in ESL all four language skills; listening, reading, speaking, and
writing, are stressed equally, in ESP it is a needs analysis that
determines which language skills are most needed by the students,
and the syllabus is designed accordingly.
DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) ALSO
KNOWN AS GENERAL ENGLISH

As a matter of fact, ESP combines subject matter and English


language teaching.

Such a combination is highly motivating because students are able to


apply what they learn in their English classes to their main field of
study, whether it be accounting, business management, economics,
computer science or tourism.

Being able to use the vocabulary and structures that they learn in a
meaningful context reinforces what is taught and increases their
motivation.
DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) ALSO
KNOWN AS GENERAL ENGLISH

The term "specific" in ESP refers to the specific purpose for learning
English.

Students approach the study of English through a field that is already


known and relevant to them. This means that they are able to use
what they learn in the ESP classroom right away in their work and
studies.