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Controller Area Network (CAN bus)

A vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to
communicate with each other
Designed originally for multiplex electrical wiring within automobiles

CANBUS Market Distribution

Automotive Medical / Industrial


Development of the CAN bus started in 1983 at Bosch

The protocol was officially released in 1986 at the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) conference in Michigan
The first CAN controller chips, produced by Intel and Philips, came on the
market in 1987
The 1988 BMW 8 Series was the first production vehicle with CAN
Versions of CAN

CAN 2.0 published in 1991, and it has two parts, Part A & Part B.
part A is for the standard format with an 11-bit identifier, and part B is for the
extended format with a 29-bit identifier.
Bosch in 2012 released CAN FD 1.0.
Before CAN
With CAN

Multi-master serial bus standard for connecting Electronic Control Units

[ECUs] also known as nodes.
Two or more nodes are required on the CAN network to communicate.
All nodes are connected to each other through a two wire bus.
The wires are 120 nominal twisted pair.
The devices that are connected by a CAN network are
typically sensors, actuators, and other control devices.
High speed CAN (ISO 11898-2)
Uses a linear bus
Terminated at each end with 120 resistors
Used in automotive and industrial applications
Low speed CAN (ISO 11898-3)

Also called fault tolerant CAN

Uses a linear bus, star bus or multiple star buses connected by a linear bus
Terminated at each node by a fraction of the overall termination resistance
Overall termination resistance should be about 100 , but not less than 100
Used where groups of nodes need to be connected together
CAN bus Node

Central processing unit,

microprocessor, or host processor
CAN controller; often an integral part
of the microcontroller
Transceiver Defined by ISO 11898-2/3
Medium Access Unit [MAU] standards
Message or Frame
Able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously
Consists primarily of the ID (identifier), which represents the priority of the
Up to eight data bytes
A CRC, acknowledge slot [ACK] and other overhead are also part of the
CAN FD extends the length of the data section to up to 64 bytes per frame
Message is transmitted serially onto the bus using a non-return-to-zero (NRZ)
format and may be received by all nodes
Vehicle bus system applications can be separated in three different categories
according to their real-time capabilities.

Class A for a low speed bus with bit rates up to 10 kbps, e.g for body control
Class B for a low speed bus with bit rates from 10 kbps to 125 kbps, e.g for
dashboard and diagnostics.
Class C for a high speed bus with bit rates from 125 kbps to 1 Mbps for real
time applications like engine management, Gearbox, ABS etc.
ISO and SAE have issued CAN standards for data
exchange in automotive applications:

For low-speed applications up to125

kBit/s: ISO 11519-2 and 11898-3
For high-speed applications faster
than 125 kBit/s: ISO 11 898-2 and SAEJ
22584(passenger cars) or SAEJ 1939
(commercial vehicles)
An ISO Standard for diagnosis via
CAN has also been published as ISO
15 765
Standardization makes it possible for components of different manufacturers to function
Higher Layer Protocols
The CAN standard defines the hardware (the physical layer there are
several) and the communication on a basic level (the data link layer).
The CAN protocol itself just specifies how to transport small packets of data
from point A to point B using a shared communications medium.

The HLP typically specifies things like:

Start-up behaviour
How to distribute message identifiers among the different nodes in a system
How to translate the contents of the data frames
Status reporting within the system
Different Higher Layer Protocols

NMEA 2000- This higher layer protocol is used primarily on boats and ships
to connect equipment such as GPS, auto pilots, depth sounders, navigation
instruments, engines, etc.
Developed by Honeywell.
The Smart Distributed System is a bus system for intelligent sensors and
actuators .
It streamlines the system installation process and empowers your inputs and
outputs to operate.
Over a single 4-wire cable, Smart Distributed System can interface up to 126
individually addressable devices.

CANopen is essentially a subset of CAL.

CAL stands for CAN Application Layer and was originally developed by CAN in

CAL is divided into several parts, for example-

CMS (CAN-based Message Specification) which defines protocols for transferring data
between CAN modules
NMT (Network Management Service) which defines the protocols for system startup
and shutdown, error logging etc.
DBT (Distributor Service) which defines a protocol for distributing identifiers to the
different modules in a system

*Identifiers are the names of variables, methods, classes, packages and interfaces.
What is Signal Multiplexing??

A method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are
combined into one signal over a shared medium.
How it happens?

The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, such as a

The multiplexing divides the capacity of the communication channel into
several logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream to be
A reverse process, known as de-multiplexing, extracts the original channels on
the receiver end.
Types of Multiplexing

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

Time-division Multiplexing (TDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

FDM divides the spectrum or carrier bandwidth in logical channels and allocates
one user to each channel.
Each user can use the channel frequency independently and has exclusive access
of it.
All channels are divided in such a way that they do not overlap with each other.
Channels are separated by guard bands.
Guard band is a frequency which is not used by either channel.
Time Division Multiplexing

In TDM the shared channel is divided among its user by means of time slot.
Each user can transmit data within the provided time slot only. Digital signals are
divided in frames, equivalent to time slot i.e. frame of an optimal size which can be
transmitted in given time slot.
When channel A transmits its frame at one end,the De-multiplexer provides media to
channel A on the other end.
As soon as the channel As time slot expires, this side switches to channel B.
On the other end, the De-multiplexer works in a synchronized manner and provides
media to channel B. Signals from different channels travel the path in interleaved
Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Light has different wavelength (colors).

In fiber optic mode, multiple optical carrier signals are multiplexed into an
optical fiber by using different wavelengths. T
This is an analog multiplexing technique and is done conceptually in the same
manner as FDM but uses light as signals.
Applications of CAN
Machine Control
Industrial / Factory Automation
Medical Equipment and Devices
CAN in Automobiles

Antilock braking/ABS
Cruise control
Electric power steering
Audio systems
Power windows
Mirror adjustment
Battery and recharging systems
for hybrid/electric cars, etc.
Use of the CAN network in vehicles
Networking controllers for engine timing, transmission, chassis
and brakes
Networking components of chassis electronics and electronics
which make the vehicle more comfortable. Examples of such
multiplex applications are lighting control, air-conditioning, and
central locking and seat and mirror adjustment.
In the near future, serial communication will also be used in the
field of mobile communication in order to link components such
as car radios, car telephones, navigation aids etc. to a central,
ergonomically designed control panel.
At present, CAN is used for the first three applications, but for
diagnosis the preferred solution is an interface according to ISO
Advantages of CAN
1. Low cost network infrastructure which is often built into
2. Large market segment with broad availability of hardware,
software and systems engineering tools.
3. Light weight, low latency, highly deterministic design
specifically for real-time embedded applications.
4. Reliable with strong error detection, fault tolerant versions
5. Flexible and highly configurable with various higher level
application protocols.
6. Foundation for next generation technology controller area

Unfair access node with a high priority can hog the network.
Poor Latency for low priority nodes
CAN is ideally suited in applications requiring a large number of
short messages with high reliability in rugged operating
CAN is message based and not address based, it is especially well
suited when data is needed by more than one location and
system-wide data consistency is mandatory.
Thank You.