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„ What is PLC?
„ Historical background & Origin
„ Why PLC?
„ Block Diagram
„ Components & Systems
„ Principle of operation
„ Types of PLC¶s
„ Different Manufactures of PLC¶s
„ Characteristics
„ Advantages & Disadvantages
„ Programming
„ Applications
PLC = Programmable Logic Controller
Def:-
M NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association):
A digitally operating electronic apparatus which
uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of
instructions for implementing specific functions, such as
logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic, to
control through digital or analog input/output, various
types of machines or process.
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M The first programmable controller in 1968 developed by
General Motors Corporation.
M The first PLCs offered relay functionality, thus replacing
the original hardwired r 
M PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most
common choice for manufacturing controls.
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Why & Where PLC is used?
Block Diagram of a PLC
ënput wiring and Devices
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Output wiring & Devices
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Central Processing Unit:
ët is the unit containing Microprocessor for
logical operations
Power Supply Unit:
ët is needed to convert mains High A.C voltage to
Low D.C voltage
ënput & Outputs:
Operation Cycle of the PLC
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Modular PLC
‡ tailored to the needs of an application ! "
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‡ housed in a 19" (42 cm) rack

(height 6U ( = 233 mm) or 3U (=100mm)
‡ high processing power (several CPU) 

‡ large choice of ë/O boards


¬
‡ concentration of a large number of ë/O 
¬ 

‡ interface boards to field busses 

‡ requires marshalling of signals   

‡ primitive or no HMë
    
‡ cost effective if the rack can be filled 

‡ supply 115-230V~ , 24V= or 48V= (redundant)


‡ cost ~ ¼10¶000 for a filled crate
Small modular PLC

¬ 
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Supply 24 V
Cheaper (¼5000)
Not water-proof,
No ventilator
extensible by a parallel bus (flat cable or rail)
ëndustrial PLC¶s
Soft-PLC (PC as PLC)
‡ PC as engineering workstation
‡ PC as human interface (Visual Basic, ëntellution, Wonderware)
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‡ PC as real-time processor (Soft-PLC)
$ ‡ PC assisted by a Co-Processor (ëSA- or PC104 board)

‡ PC as field bus gateway to a distributed ë/O system

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Compact PLC

¬  ¬  ¬ 

Monolithic (one-piece) construction


Fixed casing
Fixed number of ë/O (most of them binary)
No process computer capabilities (no MMC)
Can be extended and networked by an extension (field) bus
Sometimes LAN connection (Ethernet, Arcnet)
Monoprocessor
Typical product: Mitsubishi MELSEC F, ABB AC31, SëMATëC S7
costs: ¼ 2000
Market share
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Different Manufactures of PLC¶s
M Siemens----------------------------------X29.6%
M Ñockwell Automation------------------X20.8%
M Mitsubishi--------------------------------X15.1%
M Schneider Electric----------------------X8.3%
M Omron------------------------------------X7.4%
M GE Fanuc---------------------------------X3.7%
M B&Ñ ëndustrial--------------------------X2.1%
M ABB JAsea Brown Boveri) -----------X1.7%
M Moller-------------------------------------X1.4%
M Hitachi ------------------------------------X1.3%
PLC: Characteristics
‡ large number of peripherals: 20..100 ë/O per CPU, high density of wiring, easy assembly.
‡ binary and analog ënput/Output with standard levels
‡ located near the plant (field level), require robust construction, protection against dirt,
water and mechanical threats, electro-magnetic noise, vibration, extreme temperature
range (-30C..85C)
‡ programming: either very primitive with hand-help terminals on the target machine itself, or
with a lap-top able to down-load programs.
‡ network connection is becoming common, allowing programming on workstations.
‡ field bus connection for remote ë/Os
‡ primitive Man-Machine interface, either through LCD-display or connection of a laptop
over serial lines (ÑS232).
‡ economical - ¼1000.- .. ¼15'000.- for a full crate.
Advantages:
†Cost Effective for controlling complex systems.
†Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems
quickly and easily.
†Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
†Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and
reduce downtime.
†Ñeliable components make these likely to operate for
years before failure.
Ñelay Logic Vs Ladder Logic
Disadvantages
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Programming a PLC
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Ladder Diagram Programming
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Basic of Ladder Diagram
Simple ³OÑ gate
Applications
Level Controlling in a Tank
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Program
The Ladder Diagram
Tank Level control using a PLC
Typical PLC Application (CSTÑ)
Operation of Mixer
(Sequence of Control)
Application of PLC¶s in Ñobotics
Automatic water
sprinkler system of a garden
Thank You