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Introduction to Cellular Network


Review of Technology Principles

Architecture and Air Interface Structure
Measure the Signal
Mobile and Network Interaction
Signaling Introduction
Network Planning
Network Optimization
Mobile Experience is expanding everywhere

Billions of Mobile Connections Billions of Mobile Experiences

~25 Billion
Interconnected devices
forecast in 2020

~7 Billion >100 Billion ~352 Billion

Mobile connections, almost
as many as people on Earth App downloads App downloads
completed in 2013 expected in 2021
Mobile is an amazing technical achievement

Mind-blowing Performance Reliable Connectivity

with processing power greater than overcoming signal loss resulting in
the most advanced super All in a device receiving signal 100 trillion times
computers of the early 1990s weaker than when it originated
that fits in your
Jaw-dropping Graphics pocket Broadband Speeds
with capability to process several with blazing fast data rates capable
thousand megapixels per second of 300+ Mbps

High Quality Multimedia Long Battery Life

4K UltraHD video player/recorder with ability to power all these
HD gaming console amazing experiences with less
5.1/7.1 surround sound system energy than it takes to power a
High resolution digital camera light bulb for 15 minutes
Connectivity is the foundation of a great mobile experience

Connect Reliably
Talk and browse without interruption
with more bars in more places
Connect Real-Time Connect On-the-Go
Get instant access to content with less Talk and browse with seamless mobility
delay for always-on experience anywhere you get a signal

Connect Fast Connect Longer

Stream, surf, upload, and Go longer without plugging in with
download with fast, predictable
improved battery efficiency
data rates

Delivering rich mobile broadband experiences

Powered by evolving mobile technologies

Mobile 1G Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G Mobile 5G


N/A < 0.5 Mbps 42 Mbps 300+ Mbps > 1 Gbps

Analog Voice Digital Voice + Simple Data Mobile Broadband Faster and Better Extreme Throughput
Ultra Low Latency

Richer Content
(Video) Massive IoT (Internet of Things)
Mission Critical
All About Spectrum Efficiency
Spectrum Efficiency 5G Speeds

The highest the

throughput, the highest
the site density

Spectrum efficiency

more Bandwidth

Better Modulation

More Antenna
2G to 5G Technology Improvement


More efficient

Multiple Access

More Carrier

2G to 5G Technology Improvement
more bandwidth
01 More Bandwidth

From 0.2 MHz GSM to 20 MHz


higher throughput

2G 3G 4G
Bandwidth 0.2 MHz 5 MHz 20 MHz
2G to 5G Technology Improvement
higher Modulation
02 Higher Modulation
BPSK 1 1 x bit rate
LTE now can have 256QAM QPSK 2 1/2 bit rate
(8 bits per symbol). 8PSK 3 1/3 bit rate
16QAM 4 1/4 bit rate
higher throughput
32QAM 5 1/5 bit rate
64QAM 6 1/6 bit rate
256QAM 8 1/8 bit rate

2G 3G 4G
Modulation 8PSK 64QAM 256QAM
2G to 5G Technology Improvement
more antenna
higher throughput 03 more Antenna (MIMO)

MIMO increase LTE throughput

better than 3G

2G 3G 4G
MIMO - - 8x8
2G to 5G Technology Improvement
more efficient Multiple Access
04 more efficient Multiple Access

OFDMA improve spectral efficiency

better than FDMA due to its
overlapping carrier
- Orthogonality between carrier on
OFDMA mitigates interference

2G 3G 4G
Multiple Access TDMA & FDMA CDMA OFDM
2G to 5G Technology Improvement
more Carrier
05 more Carrier Aggregation

Aggregating spectrum enabling

increased user and peak data rate

2G 3G 4G
Carrier Aggregation - 2 carrier 5 carrier
Network Architecture: Technology Comparison
Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G
Core CS Core PS Core


PS Core

Node B Node B
Radio BTS
(NB) (eNB)
Access Air Interface Air Interface Air Interface
MS Ue Ue

MGW : Media Gateway SGSN : Serving GPRS Support Node BTS : Base Transceiver Station RNC : Radio Network Controller
MSS : Mobile Switching center Server GGSN : Gateway GPRS Support Node BSC : Base Station Controller
MSC : Mobile Switching Center : control plane
GMSC : Gateway MSC : user plane MS : Mobile Station Ue : User Equipment
Network Architecture: Packet Switch
Evolved Packet Core System
2G Combi
RNC Gateway
S4 Serving Rx+
3G Iu
S12 SGi
LTE S1-U S11 Operator
S1-MME Services
S6a/Gr+ S6b
Non S10 Corporate
3GPP Services
Trusted Non-3GPP IP S2b
Access HSS
Control plane
Untrusted Non-3GPP S2a User plane
IP Access
Structure of Air Interface

Mobile 1G Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G


Flexible :
1.4, 3, 5,10,15,20 MHz
Only one user per radio channel Eight users per radio channel


More Antenna (MIMO)

Carrier aggregation Carrier aggregation

2G GSM Air Interface Structure
2G has 2 frequency bands : GSM 900 and GSM 1800

GSM has Common Channel (BCCH, CCCH) and

Dedicated channel (TCH, SDCCH)
Frequency Band
GSM is using GMSK
EGPRS use up to 8-PSK modulation

Multiple Access

Channel GSM Air Interface

Frequency Hopping
To reduce interference GSM
Modulation using Frequency Hopping


TDMA : GSM channel divided into timeslot
FDMA : Different frequency for each TRXs
GSM Frequency Allocation

Different uplink and downlink (FDD)

frequency. UL frequency is lower
than DL frequency.
GSM Band that used in Indonesia is
P-GSM-900, DCS-1800 and E-GSM-
Divided into channel number called
ARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency
Channel Number) which each of
them has 200kHz bandwidth

Refarming: redeploying spectrum

from one technology to another
Currently some operator do spectrum
refarming from GSM to LTE or UMTS
to increase spectral efficiency
GSM TDMA Structure

Physical channel 5 Traffic Channel

e.g. allocated to one 4
subscriber with FR voice 3
and no frequency hopping 2
4 TDMA frame
3 = 8 timeslots
2 ( 0.577ms * 8 = 4.615 ms)
0 One carrier is 200 kHz bandwidth
7 Each TDMA frame contains 8 time
5 slot. One TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
2 2 2
4 1 time slot Traffic Channel can be
3 TDMA frame
2 used by :
1 1 user Full Rate
2 user Half Rate
frequency 4 user VAMOS
200 kHz
GSM Logical Channel
GSM Frequency Planning

Co-channel interference and adjacent channel

interference should be avoided.
co-channel interference: frequency serving cell
is the same with neighbor
Adjacent-channel interference: frequency
serving cell only different one channel with
3G Air Interface Structure
3G in Indonesia is using band 1 (2100 MHz) and band 8 (900 MHz) FDD

3G : Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Frequency Band
3G R99 is using QPSK
3G HSDPA is using QPSK, 16QAM, 64 QAM


Multiple Access WCDMA Air Interface

Channelization Code
3G Voice is using SF128
Modulation HSDPA is using SF16

3G WCDMA has 5 MHz carrier spacing

UMTS Frequency
UMTS has two type duplex
: FDD (Frequency Division
Duplex) and TDD (Time
Division Duplex).
UMTS technology
implemented in Indonesia
is FDD only .
UMTS Band that used in
Indonesia is band 1 2100
and band 8 900GSM

One carrier in UMTS is 5

MHz. Band 1 2100 has
total 60 MHz, so there are
60/5 = 12 carrier all.
UMTS Transmission Bandwidth
WCDMA and CDMA2000 both use Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

1. WCDMA: Higher bandwidth implies

Better multipath diversity
5 MHz carrier spacing Higher processing gain
3.84 Mcps chip rate Higher bitrates
Lower power fluctuation
2. CDMA2k:

1.25 MHz carrier spacing

1.2288 Mcps

5 MHz 5 MHz

1.25 MHz

Processing Gain = 10*log(Chip rate/bitrate)

UMTS Processing Gain
Voice user (R=12,2 kbit/s)
Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=24.98 dB

Spreading sequences have a different length

Processing gain depends on the user data rate
PS 384 kbps processing gain is lower, that
Frequency (Hz) means coverage is also smaller than voice
Packet data user (R=384 kbit/s) services
PS 384 kbps
Power density (W/Hz)

Gp=W/R=10 dB

Frequency (Hz)
UMTS Channelization Code Tree
SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16 ... SF=512
] C16(1)=[.........
C4(0)=[1111] .]
C8(1)=[1111-1-1-1-1] .]
C2(0)=[11] C16(3)=[.........
C8(2)=[11-1-111-1-1] .]
C4(1)=[11-1-1] .]
C8(3)=[11-1-1-1-111] .]
C8(0)=[1-11-11-11-1] .]
C4(2)=[1-11- .]
1] C16(10)=[........]
C2(1)=[1-1] C16(11)=[........]

C8(6)=[1-1-111-1-11] .]
C4(3)=[1-1-11] .]
C8(7)=[1-1-11-111-1] .]
UMTS Chips & Bits & Symbols
Data spreaded on air
Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips) interface

Baseband Data
Chip Chip
Spreading Code
Spread Signal

Air Interface

UMTS Bit Rate
Each service has specific
spreading factor.
Spreading Channel Channel bit DPDCH Maximum user 3G voice is using SF128
factor symbol rate channel bit data rate with - HSDPA is using SF16
rate (kbps) rate range rate coding
(ksps) (kbps) (approx.)
512 7.5 15 36 13 kbps
256 15 30 1224 612 kbps Half rate speech
128 30 60 4251 2024 kbps Full rate speech
64 60 120 90 45 kbps
32 120 240 210 105 kbps
16 240 480 432 215 kbps 128 kbps
8 480 960 912 456 kbps 384 kbps
4 960 1920 1872 936 kbps
4, with 3 2880 5760 5616 2.3 Mbps 2 Mbps
Higher modulation give
more throughput
Downlink HSDPA Uplink HSUPA
Theoretical up to 21 Mbps per carrier Theoretical up to 5.76 Mbps
Initial capability 1.8 3.6 Mbps Initial capability 1.46 Mbps

Max Max
# of codes Modulation # of codes TTI
data rate data rate
2 ms
5 codes QPSK 1.8 Mbps Phase 1 2 x SF4
10 ms
1.46 Mbps Phase 1

5 codes 16-QAM 3.6 Mbps Phase 2 2 x SF2 10 ms 2.0 Mbps

10 codes 16-QAM 7.2 Mbps Phase 3 2 x SF2 2 ms 2.9 Mbps

2 x SF2 +
15 codes 16-QAM 14.0 Mbps 2 ms 5.76 Mbps
2 x SF4

15 codes 64-QAM 21.0 Mbps

4G LTE Air Interface Structure
More frequency band for LTE. Indonesia is using FDD: band 3 (1800 MHz),
Band 8 (900 MHz), Band 5 (850 MHz). And TDD : band 40 (2300 MHz)

OFDMA on downlink and SC FDMA on uplink

Frequency Band
User can served by 2 carrier or more to
increased DL throughput

Flexible Bandwidth

Multiple Access LTE Air Interface

MIMO 2x2 is commonly used for LTE
Carrier Aggregation macro site

Flexible bandwidth : 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz

LTE Frequency Allocation
LTE has two type duplex :
FDD (Frequency Division
Duplex) and TDD (Time
Division Duplex). Both
implemented in Indonesia
LTE FDD Band that used in
Indonesia is band 3 1800,
Band 8 900GSM and band
5 850.
LTE TDD implemented in
Indonesia on band 40

LTE has flexible bandwidth

allocation 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15
or 20 MHz.
LTE 1800 implemented
after GSM1800 refarming
LTE Flexible Bandwidth

Channel bandwidth: Bandwidths ranging

from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
Data subcarriers: They vary with the
72 for 1.4MHz to 1200 for 20MHz

DC subcarrier i.e. direct current


Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated radio signals

using orthogonal subcarriers spread across a wideband channel

Total transmission bandwidth

Sampling point for
15 kHz in LTE: fixed

The peak (centre

frequency) of one

intercepts the
nulls of the
LTE Resource Block

Subcarrier 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Resource Block (RB):

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 subcarriers in frequency
domain (180kHz) x 1 slot period
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 in time domain (0.5ms)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Capacity allocation is based
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 on Resource Block

180 KHz
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 TTI = 1 ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Resource Block in the
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Frequency Domain
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Subcarrier 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 slot 1 slot
1 ms subframe
OFDMA symbol on each
Resource Element
LTE Physical Signals and Channels

Downlink Physical Signals Uplink Physical Signals

Reference Signals Demodulation Signals:
Synchronisation Signals Sounding Reference Signals:
- Primary Synchronization Signals
- Secondary Synchronization Signals Uplink Physical Channels
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Downlink Physical Channels Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
LTE Mapping of DL Physical Signals & Channels

PDSCH physical channel used to transfer application data has access to whatever is left over.
LTE 2x2 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output principle

Y Y Multi-path propagation and MIMO enable:

Transmitter: 2-fold Transmit diversity
Pre-coding Receiver
2x2 Spatial Multiplexing:
Separation of transmit-receive channels,
- 2 different data streams sent in parallel on the same
Y Y physical resource.
- Duplicates data rate!
Transmitter can pre-code
for separation

Release 8 up to 4x4 MIMO

LTE 2x2 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output principle

Adaptive MIMO
DL MIMO Transmit diversity DL MIMO Spatial multiplexing switches dynamically
between Spatial
Multiplexing (SM)
Enhanced cell edge performance, Doubles the peak rate at good channel MIMO (dual stream)
capacity increase conditions (near BTS) and TxDiversity (single
stream) per UE based
2 (BTS) TX antennas 2 (BTS) TX antennas, 2 (UE) RX antennas on CQI and RI (Rank
SFBC (space frequency block codes) Spatial multiplexing with two code words Indicator) reports
received from the UE.
Single stream (code word)

2 code words (A+B) are

transmitted in parallel to
one UE which doubles A
the peak rate.

LTE Advance
up to 100 MHz
Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation Flexible component carrier aggregation
3GPP Rel.10 different frequency bands
.. asymmetric in UL/DL
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n
Component Carrier
Mobility (LTE rel. 8 Carrier)
8x MIMO 4x 20 MHz 10 MHz

Aggregated BW: 30MHz

Coordinated Multipoint 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz

CoMP Receiving
in June 2009
Aggregated BW: 5x20MHz = 100MHz
from multiple
Relaying sectors 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps
Single Relay Node
architecture based
on self-backhauling
Simple intercell interference Heterogeneous eNB
coordination in time domain networks
Enhancements for office Femto
The path to 5G includes a strong LTE foundation
Diverse Spectrum.
Low Band below 1GHz: longer range for e.g mobile broadband and massive IoT
Mid Band 1 GHz to 6 GHz: for eMBB and mission critical
High Band above 24 GHz (mmwave): extreme throughput
Frequency Band
Carrier Aggregation

Flexible Bandwidth

Multiple Access 5G Air Interface


Massive MIMO
Carrier Aggregation

Bandwidth more than 100 MHz

5G NR (New Radio)
5G NR Air Interface Structure Diverse Spectrum.
Low Band below 1GHz: longer range for e.g mobile broadband and massive IoT
Mid Band 1 GHz to 6 GHz: for eMBB and mission critical
High Band above 24 GHz (mmwave): extreme throughput

Optimized OFDMA: with scalable numerology and TTI

Frequency Band
Carrier Aggregation between below 6GHz
and above 6GHz

Flexible Bandwidth

Multiple Access 5G Air Interface


Massive MIMO
Carrier Aggregation

Bandwidth more than 100 MHz

5G NR Scalable Numerology and TTI
5G NR Scalable Numerology
5G NR Scalable TTI (Transmission Time Interval)
5G NR Self contained integrated sub-frame design
UL/DL scheduling info, data and ack in the same sub-frame

Faster, more flexible TDD switching and turn around,

plus support for new deployment scenarios and forward compatibility
Signal Measurement
GSM Measurement
Mobile 2G Measurement Report

Measurement Measurements

Standard Enhanced Idle mode Dedicated mode

Rx level Standard + following: MS listens to MS sends DL

Rx quality DL frame erasure rate BCCH measurement report
Level & BSIC of up DTX bit error probability on SACCH
to 6 neighbours Real time difference serving BTS performs UL
3G cells adjacent cell measurements
3G cells
Control over reporting
Mobile 2G Measurement Metric
Measured by BTS (UpLink)

Measured by MS (DownLink)

RxLev Coding BER(%) Coding I Interf.

(dBm) Band
-110dBm 0 < 0.2 0
-109 1 0.2-0.4 1 -110 to -105 0
-108 2 0.4-0.8 2 -104 to -100 1
. . 0.8-1.6 3 -99 to -95 2
. . 1.6-3.2 4 -94 to -90 3
- 49 61 3.2-6.4 5 -89 to -47 4
- 48 62 6.4-12.8 6
- 47dBm 63 > 12.8 7
Mobile 2G Measurement Report

MS in connected mode sent
periodic Measurement Report
every SACCH period (480 ms)

Measurement of neighbor cells

applied when MS doesnt have
UL or DL activity
WCDMA Measurement
3G Measurements: CPICH RSCP & EcNo

CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power)

Received Signal Code Power, the received power on one code measured on the Primary CPICH. The reference
point for the RSCP shall be the antenna connector of the UE. If Tx diversity is applied on the Primary CPICH
the received code power from each antenna shall be separately measured and summed together in [W] to a
total received code power on the Primary CPICH. If receiver diversity is in use by the UE, the measured CPICH
RSCP value shall not be lower than the corresponding CPICH RSCP of any of the individual receive antenna

CPICH EcNo / CPICH Quality (CPICH Chip energy over noise density)
The received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band. If receiver diversity is not in use by
the UE, the CPICH Ec/No is identical to CPICH RSCP/UTRA Carrier RSSI. Measurement shall be performed on
the Primary CPICH. The reference point for the CPICH Ec/No shall be the antenna connector of the UE.
3G Measurement Control and Measurement Report

Measurement Control [RLC-AM, DCCH]

used to setup, modify or release a measurement in the UE

(measurement either periodically or event-driven)


[RLC-AM, DCCH] Measurement Control Failure

if setup of the measurement fails

There is a
event! RNC

[RLC-UM/AM, DCCH] Measurement Report

3G Measurement Control

I am in the
RRC idle mode
System Information
SIB 3 & SIB 11 Node B
In 3G connected
mode, Ue will do I am in the UE UTRAN
measurement after CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH or System Information
get measurement URA_PCH sub-state [BCCH]
control from RAN SIB 4 & SIB 12 Node B
(SIB 3 & SIB 11)
I am in the UE UTRAN
CELL_DCH sub-state Measurement Control
Node B
SIB 3 [4]: parameters for cell selection & Reselection [in the RRC connected mode]
SIB 11 [12] : measurement control information [in the RRC connected mode]
read & valid: idle, CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, URA_PCH.
(SIB 11/12 also valid in the CELL_DCH.)
3G Measurement Control
Measurement Control ( )


Measurement Identity
Measurement IEs setup/modify/release
Measurement Command
periodical reporting/event triggered
Measurement Reporting Mode
includes non-frequency
Additional measurements list related cell info

CHOICE Measurement type Measurement Type Measurement Events

Part II Traffic Volume Measurement 4A, 4B

Part III UE Internal Measurements 6A, 6B, 6C, 6D, 6E,

6F, 6G

Part IV Quality Measurements 5A

DPCH compressed mode Part V Intra-Frequency 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E,
Measurements 1F
status info
Part VI Inter-Frequency 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E,
Measurements 2F

Part VII Inter-RAT Measurements 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D

3G Measurement Event

1. Intra-frequency measurements 2. Inter-frequency measurements

Parameter: CPICH EcNo, CPICH RSCP, pathloss Parameter: CPICH EcNo, CPICH RSCP

Event 1a: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range Event 2a: Change of best frequency
Event 1b: A Primary CPICH leaves the reporting Event 2b: The estimated quality of the currently used
range frequency is below a certain threshold and the
Event 1c: A non-active primary CPICH becomes estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a
better than an active primary CPICH certain threshold.
Event 1d: Change of best cell Event 2c: The estimated quality of a non-used
Event 1e: A Primary CPICH becomes better than an frequency is above a certain threshold
absolute threshold Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used
Event 1f: A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an frequency is below a certain threshold
absolute threshold Event 2e: The estimated quality of a non-used
frequency is below a certain threshold
Event 2f: The estimated quality of the currently used
frequency is above a certain threshold
LTE Measurement
4G Measurement: RSRP & RSRQ

RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power)

Average of power levels (in [W]) received across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered
measurement frequency bandwidth.
UE only takes measurements from the cell-specific Reference Signal elements of the serving cell
If receiver diversity is in use by the UE, the reported value shall be equivalent to the linear average of the
power values of all diversity branches
Reporting range -44-140 dBm

RSRQ ( Reference Signal Received Quality)

Defined as the ratio NRSRP/(E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI
measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be made over the
same set of resource blocks
Reporting range -3-19.5dB
4G Measurement Report

Ue will sent measurement report based on following Event

1. Event A1 (Serving becomes better than threshold)
2. Event A2 (Serving becomes worse than threshold)
3. Event A3 (Neighbor becomes offset better than serving)
4. Event A4 (Neighbor becomes better than threshold)
5. Event A5 (Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and neighbor becomes better than threshold2)
6. Event B1 (Inter RAT neighbor becomes better than threshold)
7. Event B2 (Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and inter RAT neighbor becomes better than threshold2)

Ue also can sent periodic measurement report for ANR and MDT feature
ANR : Automatic Neighbor Relation feature
MDT : Minimize Drive Test feature
4G Cell-specific Reference Signal (CRS)

Reference Signals are used as the reference

for LTE mobility Reference Received Signal Power
Tools for Network Measurement
Tools to Analyse Signal Measurement
Net Monitor on 2G
Tools to monitor Ue Measurement :
1. Android Application: GNetTrack, Net Monitor. Try this
application on your mobile phone with 2G, 3G or 4G
2. Drive Testing: Nemo, TEMS, QXDM, XCAL
3. Signaling Trace: U2000 Signaling trace on Uu interface
4. Geolocation Tool: Huawei MR, Ericssons GPEH, Arieso
5. Internal Radio System Measurement
Signal Strength

Signal Quality

GNetTrack measurement
on 3G network
Measurement by Drive Testing
L3 Signaling


Meas.Report A3
event. Serving
RSRP 42 (-98
dBm) and
neighbor 44 (-96

Parameter in
grid view
Measurement by Geolocation Tool

Geolocation tools show

RSRP plot for entire
Medan city.

Geoloc. get RSRP from

measurement report
sent by Ue

Compare to drive test

result geoloc show more
detail area not only
route. Coverage problem
can be detect easier with
geolocation tools.
Mobile Network Interaction
Mobile State after Switch On
When the UE is switched on, it attempts to establish
a contact with a public land mobile network (PLMN)
Power on
using a certain radio access technology.
In the selected PLMN a suitable cell is selected and PLMN Selection PLMN
if this new cell is not in a registered area, location and Reselection
registration is performed via BTS/NodeB/eNodeB to
the core network. PLMN PLMN
selected available E
The overall process is divided into three sub- Registration P
processes: response Cell selection S
1. PLMN selection and reselection to search for
an available mobile network.
2. Cell selection and reselection to search for a
suitable cell belonging to the selected PLMN. Registration

3. Location registration to register the UEs Location

presence in a registration area registration
Mobility State Diagram

Cell A Cell B
An advantage of cellular network than fix phone is mobility. Ue
can move from one serving cell to its neighbour cell based on Connected Connected
highest signal strength or quality or due to capacity reason.
Based on Ue state (idle or connected mode), mobility can
Redirection Call
divided into 3 category : Call
Cell Reselection : Ue idle move from serving cell to target cell also in idle Setup
Handover : Ue connected mode move from serving cell to target cell in
idle idle
connected mode
Redirection : Ue in connected mode move from serving cell to target cell in Cell Reselection
idle mode
Ue State: GSM

Idle Mode
MS switched ON
When? Call Setup
When the MS is switched ON MS in Connected
When there is no dedicated connection MS in Idle mode
Search RF channels
to find BCCH carrier
Why? Call Release
To camp on the best suitable cell

Why to camp on a specific cell? Check that the PLMN

& cell is allowed Idle mode
Dedicated mode
For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL
For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed MS listens to BCCH
MS sends DL
For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is MS monitoring downlink
measurement report on
a MT call/SMS signal strength of
MS camps on SACCH
the best neighbor cells to ensure it
suitable cell is camped on to the best
Idle Mode Tasks available cell

PLMN selection
Cell selection & re-selection
Location updates
Ue State: WCDMA

Idle Mode

When the MS is switched ON

When there is no dedicated connection

To camp on the best suitable cell

Why to camp on a specific cell?

For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL
For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed
For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is
a MT call/SMS

Idle Mode Tasks

PLMN selection
System information reception
Cell selection and reselection
Location registration
Paging procedure
Access procedure
Ue State: WCDMA
LTE: Ue State
Power On

Release due to
Registration (Attach) Inactivity
Allocate C-RNTI, GUTI Release RRC connection
Allocate IP address Release C-RNTI
Authentication Configure DRX for paging
Establish security context

EMM_Deregistered EMM_Registered EMM_Registered

ECM_Idle ECM_Connected ECM_Idle

New Traffic
Deregistration (Detach) TAU
Change PLMN
ECM (EPS Connection Establish RRC Connection
Release C-RNTI, GUTI Allocate C-RNTI
Management) states Release IP address
describe signaling
between UE and the
Timeout of Periodic TA
GUMMEI : Global Unique MME ID
Release GUTI
Release IP address
LTE: Ue State
GSM Idle Mode: Cell Selection and C1 criteria
C1 = A max(B,0)
Search all the RF channels, take samples during = RLA_C RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P , 0)
3-5 s and calculate averages. And put them in
ascending order with respect to signal level.
Then tune to the strongest RF channel.
RLA_C = avg received RxLev on BCCH
P = MS max output power

Search for the frequency correction burst in that Tune to the next highest
carrier in order to verify if it is a BCCH carrier RF channel which is not
tried before

Is it a BCCH No

Try to synchronize to the carrier and read
the BCCH data
I am

Is it a correct No


Is the cell barred?

No I am inside,
Is C1>0 but have not
enough power
Camp on the cell
GSM Idle Mode: Cell Reselection and C2 criteria


C2 = for PENALTY_TIME 640 s
< C1 if temporary offset big for PENALTY_TIME = 640 s

no TEMPORARY OFFSET Pathloss Criterion C2
C1 neighbours C2 value >
serving cell:
current cells C2 value (same LA)
neighbours C2 value >
new candidate current cells C2 value + HYS
List of 6 = former serving
(new LA)
strongest for a period of 5 s.
C2: C2
C2: C1
new candidate
= formerly non-
GSM Idle Mode: Cell Reselection and C2 criteria

cell 1 cell reselection &
cell 3
location update

reselection cell 2

In case the neighbouring

cells belong to different
Location Area, a
hysteresis is applied with
CELL_RESELECT_ C1 criteria
HYSTERESIS (HYS) minimizing ping-pong
cell reselections
(HYS)(BTS) (014 dB)
5 seconds 5 seconds time

GSM Idle Mode: C2 criterion sample
=30 Cell "A" (Serving Cell)
=25 Cell "B"
Macro 900 "C" C1 =5 Cell "C"
=50 Cell "D"

C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset -
Micro 900 "D" temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T)
Macro 1800 "B"
=30 + 0 (H(x)=0, serving cell) Cell "A"
=25 + 20 - 30*H(20 - T) Cell "B"
C2 =5 + 0 - 0*H(20 - T) Cell "C"
=50 + 0 - 30*H(40 - T) Cell "D"

Cell "A" Cell "B" Cell "C" Cell "D" Temporary offset
decrease C2 for
cellReselectOffset 0 dB 20 dB 0 dB 0 dB selected penalty time,
temporaryOffset 0 dB 30 dB 0 dB 30 dB usually used for indoor
Macro 900 "A" Parameters or micro site
penaltyTime 20 s 20 s 20 s 40 s

Time T: (0 - 19 s) Time T: (20 - 39 s) Time T: (> 40 s)

C2 =30 Cell "A" C2 =30 Cell "A" C2 =30 Cell "A"
C2 =15 Cell "B" C2 =45 Cell "B" C2 =45 Cell "B"
C2 =5 Cell "C" C2 =5 Cell "C" C2 =5 Cell "C"
C2 =20 Cell "D" C2 =20 Cell "D" C2 =50 Cell "D"
WCDMA Idle Mode: Cell Selection S Criterion
Sintrasearch Sintersearch SsearchRAT

4 3 2 1


Whilst camping in a 3G cell the UE performs intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and

measurements based on the measured CPICH EcNo.
Serving cell parameters Sintrasearch, Sintersearch and SsearchRAT are compared
with Squal (CPICH Ec/No Qqualmin) in S-criteria for cell re-selection

1 - None (Squal > Sintrasearch )

2 - WCDMA intra-frequency (Sintersearch < Squal Sintrasearch)
3 - WCDMA intra- and inter- frequency, no inter-RAT cells (SsearchRAT
< Squal Sintersearch)
4 - WCDMA intra- and inter-frequency and inter-RAT cells (Squal
SsearchRAT )
WCDMA Idle Mode: Cell Selection S Criterion
UE ranks the serving cell and the measured neighboring cells
to find out if reselection should be made
All the measured suitable cells (S-criteria) are included How long the reselection conditions must be fulfilled before reselection is triggered?
in the ranking. Treselection
Criteria for a suitable cell (S-criteria) is defined as
WCDMA intra-frequency neighbour cell: Impacts all cell reselections : Inter RAT, intra frequency and inter frequency
CPICH Ec/No > AdjsQqualmin and CPICH The UE reselects the new cell, if the cell reselection criteria (R-criteria, see next slide)
RSCP > AdjsQrexlevmin are fulfilled during a time interval
WCDMA inter-frequency cell: Treselection
CPICH Ec/No > AdjiQqualmin and CPICH As this parameter impacts on all the cell reselections too long Treselection timer might cause
RSCP > AdjiQrexlevmin problems in high mobility areas but too short timer causes too fast cell reselections and
GSM cell: eventually causes also cell reselection ping pong
Rxlev > Qrxlevmin Recommended value 1s should work in every conditions i.e. enough averaging to make sure
that correct cell is selected
Ranking is done using Criteria R, and the UE reselects to the However careful testing is needed to check the performance of different areas
cell with highest R-criteria. R-criteria is defined (Dense) Urban area, slow moving UEs with occasional need for fast and accurate (to
as: correct cell) reselections e.g. outdoor to indoor scenarios or city highways in some
For serving cell: Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts cases cell by cell parameter tuning is performed to find most optimal value between 0s
For neighboring cell Rn = Qmeas,n Qoffsetts,n and 2s but typically 1s is optimal value when workload is considered as well
Qmeas is CPICH Ec/No for WCDMA cell and RxLev Highways, fast moving UEs must reselect correct cell typically 1s works the best
for GSM cell (however occasionally also 0s might be needed in fast speed outdoor to indoor cell
reselections e.g. tunnels)
Rural areas, slow or fast moving UEs need very often reselect between different RATs
and make proper cell reselections even when the coverage is poor typically 1s works
the best
Location Area Borders, usually the coverage is fairly poor typically 1s works the best
but sometimes to reduce location area reselection ping pong 1s is used when going
from LA1 to LA2 and 2s from LA2 to LA1
WCDMA Idle Mode: Cell Selection WCDMA to LTE
When a UE in the UMTS network receives SIB19 and specific conditions are met, the UE
starts measuring the LTE signal quality. Based on the measurement results, the UE camps
on the best cell by performing reselection
Criteria for Starting Measurements
SIB19 carries the absolute priority of the serving UMTS cell, the absolute priorities of the LTE frequencies, and the cell reselection thresholds.
Different radio access technologies (RATs) must have different priorities. Upon receiving SIB19, the UE does the following:
If SrxlevServingCell <= Sprioritysearch1 or SqualServingCell <= Sprioritysearch2, the serving UMTS cell has poor signal quality. In this situation, the UE starts
measuring the signal quality of the neighboring LTE cells that work on low- and high-priority frequencies.
If SrxlevServingCell > Sprioritysearch1 and SqualServingCell > Sprioritysearch2, the serving UMTS cell has good signal quality. In this situation, the UE
measures the signal quality of the LTE frequencies that have higher absolute priorities than the serving cell at an interval of at least
According to section 4.2.2 Requirements in 3GPP TS 25.133 V11.5.0, the value of Thigher_priority_search is the number of frequencies
multiplied by 60, in the unit of second.
The Spriority specifies the absolute priority of the serving UMTS cell.
The Npriority specifies the absolute priorities of the LTE frequencies.
The ThdPrioritySearch1 and ThdPrioritySearch2 specify the values of Sprioritysearch1 and Sprioritysearch2, respectively.
Sprioritysearch1 specifies the CPICH RSCP thresholds for measuring the low- and high-priority LTE frequencies. CPICH RSCP refers to
the common pilot channel received signal code power.
Sprioritysearch2 specifies the CPICH Ec/N0 thresholds for measuring the low- and high-priority LTE frequencies. CPICH Ec/N0 refers to
the signal-to-noise ratio of the CPICH.The other variables are defined as follows:
Srxlev: cell RX level value (dB)
Squal: cell quality value (dB), which applies only to FDD cells
Qrxlevmin : required minimum RX level
Qqualmin : required minimum quality level
SrxlevServingCell: serving cell's RSCP measured by the UE minus Qrxlevmin
SqualServingCell: serving cell's Ec/N0 measured by the UE minus Qqualmin
The UE should not perform cell reselection to a cell for which cell selection criterion S is not fulfilled.
LTE Idle Mode: Cell Selection S Criterion

S Criterion :
Ue rank cells by S criterion
E-UTRAN cells: Srxlev > 0 Ue will camp to cells with highest S criterion if there
UTRAN cells: Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 are no higher priority RF carrier
In case there are higher priority layer Ue will
GSM cells: Srxlev > 0 reselect to higher priority if Snonservingcell >
Where :
Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas (Qrxlevmin Qrxlevminoffset*) - Pcompensation **
Squal = Qqualmeas Qqualmin

Srxlev Cell Selection Rx Level value (dB)

Squal Cell Selection quality value (dB)
Qrxlevmeas Measured cell Rx Level value (RSRP)
Qqualmeas Measured cell quality value (RSRQ)
Qrxlevmin Minimum required Rx Level in the cell (dBm)
Qqualmin Minimum required quality Level in the cell (dB)

* Qrxlevminoffset: only when camping in VPLMN

** Pcompensation = max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH - P_MAX, 0)
LTE Idle Mode: Absolute Priority
As many technology on air interface, 3GPP Rel8 introduces absolute
priorities for RF carriers. This absolute priority used for cell selection
LTE 1800 /reselection
Each carrier can be assigned a priority
Range from 0 (lowest prio) to 7 (highest prio)
LTE 900 Carrier priorities are broadcast from serving cell BCCH
3G F2 GERAN: SI2quater
Priorities can also be signaled directly within RRC connection
release message; RRC Timers control validity of prio information
(EUTRAN: T320; UTRAN: T322; GERAN: T3230)
3G F1
Carrier Absolute Priority
LTE1800 6
DCS 1800 LTE900 5
3G F3 4
3G F2 4
3G F1 4
GSM 900 Absolute Priority setting DCS1800 1
on Telkomsel network GSM900 1
LTE Idle Mode: Cell Ranking Criterion
Intra/Inter Frequency Cells of same Priority
1. Rank cells by criterion S
2. Ranked by Rs < Rn for TreselectionRAT
Uu 3. UE has been camped on serving cell for > 1 sec
4. Speed taken into account

Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts
Rn = Qmeas,n Qoffset
eNodeB Cell Serving
Qoffset = Qoffsets,n + Qoffsetfrequency

SIB Type 3 Delivers TreselectionEUTRA, Qhysts (Common cell reselection information)

SIB Type 4 Delivers - Qoffsets,n (intra-frequency LTE neighbour cells)
SIB Type 5 Delivers Qoffsetfrequency, TreselectionEUTRA (inter-frequency LTE neighbour cells)

LTE Idle Mode: Cell Ranking Criterion
LTE Inter-frequency and Inter-RAT Cell Reselection Criteria
Uu or other RAT Equal Priority RAT or Frequency
Uu interface Based on ranking for Intra-frequency Cell Reselection

eNodeB Cell Serving UE eNodeB or otherRAT Node

Higher Priority RAT or Frequency Lower Priority RAT or Frequency

1. SnonServingCell,x > Threshxhigh for 1. No cell of a higher priority RAT or frequency
TreselectionRAT fulfills the criteria above
2. UE has been camped on serving cell for > 1 sec 2. No cell of an equal priority fulfills the above
criteria and;
3. SServingCell < Threshservinglow and LTE SIB6
SnonServingCell,x > Threshxlow for
SIB Type 3 Delivers TreselectionEUTRA, Threshserving, low TreselectionRAT
SIB Type 5 Delivers TreselectionEUTRA, Threshx, high, Threshx, low (for Inter-Frequency Cells) 4. UE has been camped on serving cell for > 1 sec
SIB Type 7/6/8 Delivers - Same as SIB Type 5 except related to UTRAN/GERAN/CDMA2000

LTE Idle Mode: Start Measurement

Ue will start measurement when condition below :

Intra - Frequency: Srxlev <= Sintrasearch

Inter - Frequency: Srxlev <= Snonintrasearch OR

Prio (inter f) > Prio (serving)

Inter - RAT: Srxlev <= Snonintrasearch OR

Prio (inter - RAT) > Prio (serving)

For inter-frequency and inter-system measurements, depending on the UE capability, the network allocates
measurement gaps during which no data are sent for the UE, so that the UE could perform the necessary
measurements using a single receiver. During the measurement gaps, the particular UE cannot be scheduled
for data transmission, but the vacant resources could still be used for other UEs, because of the shared
channel mechanism.
LTE Idle Mode: Cell Ranking Criterion
Intra-frequency/ Equal Priority Case: Cell Ranking Criterion: R
Qmeas Rn > Rs Cell Reselection
Ranking of cells: Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts
Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffsets,n

Rs = Qmeas,s + QhystS Qmeas,s

Rn = Qmeas,n Qoffsets,n

Qmeas,n Rs
Rn > Rs =>cell reselection Qoffsets,n

s -> for serving cell Time

n -> for neighbor cell

Qmeas* RSRP measurement quantity used in cell reselections.

Qoffset For intra-frequency:

Re-selected cell: Suitable (S Criterion) Equals to Qoffsets,n, if Qoffsets,n is valid, otherwise
Best Rank(Highest R) this equals to zero.
For inter-frequency:
Equals to Qoffsets,n plus Qoffsetfrequency, if
Qoffsets,n is valid, otherwise this equals to
*3GPP TS 36.304 Qoffsetfrequency.
GSM Idle Mode: Location Update
MS location & status flag => MSC / VLR MS BSS MSC VLR HLR
Mobile Station switched ON mode

Same Location Area => No Location Update REQUEST SUBSCRIBER ID

Different Location Area => Location Update
Change of the Location Area SEND SUBSCRIBER ID


Location Area under the same MSC / VLR
Location Area under another MSC / VLR => HLR will be updated SEND SUBSCRIBER INFO

Service is rejected (MS unknown in VLR) AUTHENTICATION

Time-Periodic LU (MS -> MSC/VLR)



MO Abbreviated Range And Description Default BSC -

Class Name Step value MML
BTS allowIMSIAtt Yes/No Defines whether IMSI attach/detach is used in the cell. Yes ATT
BTS timerPeriodic 0...25.5 h, Defines the interval between periodic MS location 0.5 h PER
UpdateMs step 0.1 h updates.
The value 0 means that the periodic location update is
not used.
GSM Connected Mode: Handover

Old Channel, Old Cell


HANDO ACC New Channel, New Cell

Timer T3124
in MS (320 .

PHYS INFO maxNumberOfRepetition

(NY1) 5..35

Based on Measurement report, BSC will send HANDO COM

Handover Command to MS when one of
handover cause in 2G triggered. ACTIVE CALL
After get Handover Command, MS will reply
with Handover Accept. Source and target cells controlled by different BCF
Timing advanced information required for MS
BSC request Phys Info (Timing Advance) from Inter cell handover from one BTS to another
MS. MS send SABM to establish connection
to target cell.
Handover in GSM is hard handover.
GSM Connected Mode: MS Measurement Report


MS sent Measurement results of best

adjacent cells to BSC every SACCH
period 480 msec
Proper adjacent relation should be plan
4.615 ms to avoid radio link failure due to MS
cant do handover.


BSIC decoding for at least one adjacent cell
Pre-synchronization on SCH

Measures frequencies of adjacent cells

Measures RX level and quality for serving cell

Detects whether DTX is used
GSM Connected Mode: Handover Causes

More than one handover criterion fulfilled -> process of higher priority performed
Handover and power control criteria fulfilled -> handover performed

1) Interference (uplink or downlink)

2) Intra-segment inter-band because of downlink level (from higher to lower frequency band)
3) Uplink quality
4) Downlink quality
5) AMR unpacking (uplink level and also uplink unpacking quality triggers)
6) Uplink level
7) AMR unpacking (downlink level and also downlink unpacking quality triggers)
8) Downlink level
9) Coverage based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
10) IMSI-based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
11) IMSI-based handover
12) DTM-based handover to WCDMA RAN
13) Inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
14) MS-BS distance (maximum or minimum)
Why UL has many times higher
15) Turn-around-corner MS priority than DL?
16) Rapid field drop
17) Slow/fast-moving MS
18) Umbrella
19) Power budget
20) DTM-based handover to a GSM DTM cell
21) BSC-initiated TRHO
22) IUO
23) Intra-segment HO based on load
24) AMR packing because of good uplink and downlink quality
25) AMR unpacking because of bad uplink or downlink quality
26) PC because of lower quality thresholds (uplink and downlink)
27) PC because of lower level thresholds (uplink and downlink)
28) PC because of upper quality thresholds (uplink and downlink)
29) PC because of upper level thresholds (uplink and downlink)
WCDMA Connected Mode: Handover Types
Intra-Frequency Handovers Softer Handover
Softer Handover
Handover between cells within a BS
Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by Softer handover is handled by BS internally
BTS) Softer handover probability about 5 -15 %
No extra transmissions across Iub interface No extra transmissions across Iub
Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in both the UL Basically same RAKE MRC processing as for
and DL multipath/antenna diversity (BS / MS). More RAKE
fingers needed.
Soft Handover
Provides additional diversity gain
MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Softer handover does create additional interference
Node Bs) and needs BS PA resources
Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed
(compared to non-SHO)
Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO)
DL/UE: MRC & UL/RNC: Frame selection combining
Soft Handover
Hard Handover
Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported
Main method is soft/softer Handover
or Iur congestion)
MS connected to two or more cells
Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO and RNC Up to 3 branches can be used (MaxActiveSetSize parameter)
controlled) Seamless Handover without any disconnection of UE-RAN connection
Causes temporary disconnection of the (RT) user softer Handover probability about 5-15 %: soft Handover probability about 20-50 %
Inter-Frequency Handover Same power levels in use for all soft Handover branches
Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC Optimum power levels for link quality and cell capacity
Macro Diversity Combining (MDC) gain to reduce power levels
Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO)
Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO)
Decision algorithm located in RNC Enables different cell sizes due to Common Pilot Channel Ec/No measurement
Inter-RAT Handover Optimum fast close loop power control in use
Handovers between GSM and WCDMA (NEHO) Outer loop PC after MDC controls the BLER according to set target and thus maintains the
quality of WCDMA
WCDMA Connected Mode: Handover Types
Soft Handover
HC supports the following measurement reporting events and features:
Event 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range (Ncelladdition)
Event 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range (Ncelldeletion)
Event 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH (Ncellreplacement)
Cell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour
Mechanism for forbidding a neighbouring cell to affect the reporting range
Handover decision performed by RNC based on measurements and available resources
Admission Control can reject the branch addition in case the maximum load is achieved in DL
(threshold + offset), valid both for RT and NRT bitrates.
Hard blocking may prevent branch addition
WCDMA Connected Mode: Handover Types
WCDMA Connected Mode: Handover Types
WCDMA Connected Mode: Handover Types
WCDMA Connected Mode: IFHO/ISHO Process
WCDMA Connected Mode: IFHO/ISHO Process
WCDMA Connected Mode: IFHO/ISHO Process
Compressed Mode
The best neighboring cell must fulfil following criteria(best according to
CM was introduced to WCDMA to allow inter-frequency (system) Handovers Ec/No):
CM is used to create idle periods (gaps) in the transmission during which ncell
QualityCriterioni n case trigger was DL DPCH Power or CPICH Ec/No:
measurements on another frequency can be made
AVE_RSCP_NCELL (n) > AdjiMinRSCP(n)+ max(0, AdjiTxPwrDPCH(n) -
Signal level from new cell > required Signal level in new cell +adjustment due
to allowed power

AVE_EcNo_NCELL(n) > AVE_CPICH_EcNo+ AdjiEcNoMargin(n)

EcNoon new cell better than EcNo in old cell+ margin

ISHO DECISION Pathloss Criterion in case trigger was UE TxPower, CPICH RSCP or UL
DPCH Quality:
The best neighboring cell must fulfil following criterion (best according to Level):
AVE_EcNo_NCELL(n) > AdjiMinEcNo(n)
AVE_RXLEV_NCell(n ) > AdjgRxLevMinHO(n ) + max(0, AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n ) EcNo on new cell better than required EcNo in new cell(default14 dB)
where CPICH_POWER_NCELL (n) -AVE_RSCP_NCELL (n) +AdjiPlossMargin(n)
AVE_RXLEV _Ncell(n) is the averaged GSM carrier RSSI value of the GSM
neighborcell(n), averaging done directly from dBm values (no linear averaging); PathLoss in oldcell> PathLoss in newcell+ Margin(default2 dB)
GSMMeasAveWindow/ 6, 132 measreport.
AdjgRxLevMinHO(n) determines the minimum Required RSSI (dBm) level of the
AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n) indicated the maximum Txpower level (dBm) an UE may use in
GSM neighborcell(n).
P_MAX is the maximum UE power capability.
LTE Connected Mode: Handover Process Overview
UE continuously monitors the
serving cell. Events A2/A1* are used
Measurements activation/de-activation to activate/de-activate neighbors
measurements when radio conditions
are getting worse

The reports of neighbors are triggered

Event based neighbor reports by A3 & A5 events for intra-RAT
neighbors and B2 event for the
inter-RAT neighbors

The Measurement Report message

Measurement Reports from UE contains a prioritized list of neighbors (best
neighbor first)

eNodeB decides the urgency of HO and

identifies a prioritized list of HO target
cells. The eNodeB selects the target
HO target & mode selection in eNodeB cell for HO as well as the handover mode.
The HO/NACC mode could be:
-Intra eNB HO
-Intra LTE inter eNB via X2
-Intra LTE inter eNB via S1
-HO to WCDMA * LTE standard supports events A1-A5 & B1, B2
HO execution -NACC to GSM NACC= network assisted cell change
LTE Connected Mode: Handover Measurements
Measurement Report can be triggered by:

Reference Signal Received Power

Reference Signal Received Quality
Reporting Strongest neighbor cells for SON
UTRA FDD CPICH RSCP Reporting Cell Global Identity (CGI)
UTRA FDD carrier RSSI Event triggered (If Event triggering used)
UTRA FDD CPICH Ec/No Neighbors reported
GSM carrier RSSI
DL RS TX Power
Received Interference Power
UTRA TDD P-CCPCH RSCP Measurement Report contain
Thermal Noise Power
CDMA2000 1xRTT Pilot Strength
CDMA 2000 HRPD Pilot Strength Measurement Identity (Reason)
Serving cell measurement
Neighbor cell measurements
Measurement Control message
(measurement ID, object criteria, etc)

Measurement Report message

(measurement ID, results)
LTE Connected Mode: LTE events
A3 trigger
A1 -> Serving cell becomes better than threshold A2 trigger

A2 -> Serving cells becomes worse than threshold A3 offset

A3 -> Neighbour becomes offset better than A2 threshold
serving RSRP serving RSRP serving
A4 -> Neighbour becomes better than threshold move move
A5 -> Serving becomes worse than threshold 1 & direction direction
neighbour becomes better than threshold 2 Signal
A5 trigger B2 trigger
Event B1 -> Inter RAT neighbour becomes better A5 thold 2 B2 thold 2 Inter-RAT
Neighbor cell
than threshold signal

Event B2 -> serving becomes worse than A5 thold 1 B2 thold 1

threshold 1 and neighbour becomes better than RSRP serving RSRP serving
threshold 2
move direction move direction
LTE Connected Mode: LTE Handover

Handovers in LTE are:

Hard handovers: resources are prepared in the target cell before the UE
is commanded to move to the target cell
Lossless: Packets are forwarded from the source to the target cell.
Network controlled: The target cell is selected by the network not by the
UE. The handover control is in the e-UTRAN not in the Core Network.
UE-assisted: Measurements are made and reported by the UE to the
network although it is the network (eNodeB) which triggers those
Late path switch: Only when the inter eNodeB handover is successful,
the packet core is involved (X2 required).
LTE: Signaling Flow Handover Preparation

Handover step in LTE :

- Handover Preparation
- Handover Execution
- Handover Completion

Handover Preparation start from Handover

Request from source eNb to Target eNb, and
finish after receiving Handover Request
Acknowledge message from Target eNb
LTE: Signalling Flow Handover Execution

During Handover Execution, Ue try L2

Syncronization (PRACH procedure). If
synchronization success Ue sent RRC
Connection Reconfiguration Complete
LTE: Signalling Flow Handover Completion

Handover completion is related to path switch from

source eNb to target eNb
LTE Connected Mode: Redirection

Redirection a procedure of RRC connection release with redirecting of a UE to

other frequency/RAT layer

Redirection is a mechanism to force a UE to:

Target WCDMA layer does not
interfere with LTE serving layer switch from RRC-CONNECTED to RRC-IDLE mode and
reselect to inter-frequency/inter-RAT neighbor cell for PS session continuation and/or CS
call setup (CS Fallback*)

Redirection is triggered by the radio conditions

in case of CS Fallback*, redirection is triggered by mobile originating or terminating CS call

Target RAT/frequency layer is indicated to a UE by an eNB

within RRC:rrcConnectionRelease message
At first glance, redirection could be regarded as the last-ditch
from loosing of signaling connection between an eNB and a
UE in case of either poor coverage or extensive interference
* RRC connection release with redirection mechanism is one of the means of realization of the CS
Fallback functionality

Redirection target
Signalling Introduction: MS / Ue Protocol Stack

Mobile 2G Mobile 3G Mobile 4G

Control Plane User Plane

Layer3 Radio Bearer

Layer RLC
Layer2 2
Logical Channel

Layer1 MAC
Transport Channels
Layer3 divided into three sublayers : Layer Physical Layer
- Radio Resource Management (RR) Physical Channels
- Mobility Management (MM) Drivetest Tools like Nemo, TEMS can record Layer 3 message from air interface.
- Connection Management (CM) QXDM can record layer 1 and Layer 2 message
Signalling Introduction

Medium Access Layer (MAC) :

MAC layer is responsible for
- Mapping between logical channels and transport channels,
- Multiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or different logical channels
onto transport blocks (TB) to be delivered to the physical layer
on transport channels,
- Demultiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or different logical
channels from transport blocks (TB) delivered from the physical
layer on transport channels,
Physical Layer (Layer 1) : - Scheduling information reporting,
Physical Layer carries all information from the MAC transport - Error correction through HARQ,
channels over the air interface. - Priority handling between UEs by means of dynamic scheduling,
- Priority handling between logical channels of one UE, Logical
Responsible for : Channel prioritization.
- link adaptation (AMC),
- power control,
- cell search (for initial synchronization and handover purposes)
- and other measurements (inside the LTE system and between
systems) for the RRC layer.
Signalling Introduction
Radio Resource Control (RRC) :
The main services and functions of the RRC sublayer include
- broadcast of System Information related to the non-access stratum (NAS),
Non Access Stratum (NAS) Protocol :
- broadcast of System Information related to the access stratum (AS),
a functional layer in the UMTS and LTE wireless telecom - Paging,
protocol stacks between the core network and user - establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and E-UTRAN,
equipment - Security functions including key management, establishment, configuration, maintenance and
NAS pass transparently by Radio Network. e.g. Attach, TA release of point to point Radio Bearers.
Packet Data Convergence Control (PDCP) :
Access Stratum (AS) Protocol : PDCP Layer is responsible for
functional layer in the UMTS and LTE wireless telecom - Header compression and decompression of IP data,
protocol stacks between radio network and user - Transfer of data (user plane or control plane),
equipment - Maintenance of PDCP Sequence Numbers (SNs),
- In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers,
- Duplicate elimination of lower layer SDUs at re-establishment of lower layers for radio bearers
mapped on RLC AM,
- Ciphering and deciphering of user plane data and control plane data,
- Integrity protection and integrity verification of control plane data,
- Timer based discard, duplicate discarding,
- PDCP is used for SRBs and DRBs mapped on DCCH and DTCH type of logical channels.
Signalling Introduction

Radio Link Control (RLC)

RLC operates in 3 modes of operation: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), and
Acknowledged Mode (AM)

RLC Layer is responsible for

- transfer of upper layer PDUs,
- error correction through ARQ (Only for AM data transfer),
- Concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs (Only for UM and AM data transfer).
- RLC is also responsible for re-segmentation of RLC data PDUs (Only for AM data transfer),
- reordering of RLC data PDUs (Only for UM and AM data transfer),
- duplicate detection (Only for UM and AM data transfer),
- RLC SDU discard (Only for UM and AM data transfer),
- RLC re-establishment,
- and protocol error detection (Only for AM data transfer).
Signalling Sample: Layer 3 Signaling from Drive Test

RRC and Layer 3

Signaling on drive

Redirection Message send

to Ue (downlink)

From drive test tools we can monitor RRC and Layer 3 signaling on drive test route. This signaling messages can
tell us more detail about Ue Mobility, drop call reason or accessibility problem.
RRC and Layer 3 Signaling show control plane data only (no user plane data).
Layer 3 come from OSI layer. Following slide show protocol stack on GSM, WCDMA and LTE network.
LTE Redirection Read Measurement Report
RSRP 26 -140 + 26 = -114 dBm
Trigger meas report with measId = 3

What event is measId 3 means?

see previous measurement control
message on

MeasId 3 means :measObjectId = 1 (LTE 10MHz)

reportConfigId = 3 (A2 event with threshold 27 (-113
dBm) + hysteresis 2 (1 dB) = -114dBm
DT Layer 3 Signalling Sample: LTE Redirection
LTE serve until
this point

RSRP lower
than A2

RRC connection release with redirection info to UtranFDD 10613 sent to Ue (downlink), then Ue move to UMTS idle mode.
Before RRC Connection Release, there are Measurement Report sent by Ue (uplink), that probably cause of redirection.
Radio Planning Process
Dimensioning Scope and Purpose

To define a network
configuration that meets
the expected traffic and
service quality based
on the operators
business case

Calculate the number of

sites required to serve
certain area while
fulfilling the coverage
and capacity
Dimensioning: Link Budget Calculation

Before dimensioning the radio network, the link budget for different environments (indoor,
outdoor, in car) must be considered.
From the link budget, the maximum allowed path loss (MAPL) Lmax can be derived
Calculate the cell ranges for the different clutter types based on the maximum allowable path
loss and on the propagation environment

User data rate, system overhead, cell load,

coverage reliability, BLER, number of
retransmissions, etc.

Path Loss max _UL

Transmitter/receiver end modeling
Path Loss max _ DL
Antenna gain, feeder/cable losses, noise figures, etc.

Propagation environment
Cell Range
Clutter type, propagation model, channel model, etc.
Dimensioning: 2G - DL Link Budget

Transmitter side Receiver side

EIRP PTx _ antenna Gantenna L feeder LTMA

ins Lbody

MAPL = 56 dBm (-69 dBm) = 125 dB

Dimensioning: 2G UL Link Budget

Transmitter side Receiver side

MAPL = 30 dBm (-94 dBm) = 124 dB

Due to the low MS power often the UL is the bottleneck. Maximum Allowable Path Loss UL is lower then DL.
Dimensioning: 3G UL DL Link Budget
Okumura-Hata Model The Hata model for urban environments is the basic
formulation since it was based on Okumura's
Urban environments measurements made in the built-up areas of Tokyo
Dimensioning: 3G UL DL Link Budget
Okumura-Hata Model The Hata model for suburban environments is
The objective is to find d (CELL RADIUS or
applicable to the transmissions just out of the cities distance between base station and mobile
Sub-Urban environments and on rural areas where man-made structures are
there but not so high and dense as in the cities. To be
station) and then found needed #site.
more precise, this model is suitable where buildings After cell radius is found, then we can
exist, but the mobile station does not have a
significant variation of its height
calculate cell range using traditional
hexagonal model. (R (or d) is cell radius))

The Hata model for rural environments is

applicable to the transmissions in open areas
where no obstructions block the transmission
Rural environments
Dimensioning: LTE- DL Link Budget

63.5 dB

3 dB

43 0.5 dB 18 dBi

MAPL 160 dB
0 dB

Losses eNode B 2Tx

- 98.6 dBm
Output (Cable, Antenna MIMO
power per jumpers, Gain Gain
antenna )

2.1 dB 0 dB 0 dB

-96.5 UE
Path loss dB IM UE Receiver
EIRP ant. loss Sensitivity

EIRP PTx _ antenna Gantenna L feeder LTMA

ins Lbody GMIMO
MAPL: LTE vs Other Technologies
DL coverage (MAPL)

LTE2600 WCDMA2100 GSM1800

UL coverage (MAPL)

GSM1800 WCDMA2100 LTE2600

Dimensioning Calculation Process

User Interface

Input parameters Outputs

Operating band
Transmitter/receiver Antenna Diversity
No. of Subscribers
parameters Channel BW
Spectral Efficiency Phases
BLER Scheduler
Subscribers densities
Propagation data Cell Load (SL)
Channel model
(site count)
System Overhead Capacity Traffic
Link Budget Required SINR (LL) dimensioning dimensioning
Interference (SL)

For each application:
Maximum Path loss UL/DL sector (cell) Baseband
Call duration Inputs/Outputs
Cell ranges (outdoor and indoor) throughputs.
Data rates dimensioning
Cell area, ONLY valid for
Site-to-site distance outdoor scenarios!
Dimensioning: Sample of Coverage Calculation

Propagation Model : Cost Hatta


Result Site to site distance needed

Nominal Planning: Coverage Plan

Propagation Characteristics
Radio wave propagation described by
solution of the Maxwell equation
In real environment appear unavoidable
effects, which make usage of Maxwell
equations not practical
Dilution (free space propagation)
(Specular) Reflection
Scattering (diffuse reflection)
Coverage Planning: Propagation Model

Propagation models provide a forecast for

average signals
Predict the path loss L(d)
variations around the average
Models must give a forecast as close as possible to real scenarios, so that they can be used as
reliable tools to plan cellular networks
Propagation Model Okumura Hatta

Propagation models that usually used in GSM, WCDMA and LTE coverage planning is Okumura
Hatta. Below is the original equation :

L = A + B log10 (f) - 13,82 log10 (h BS ) - d(h MS ) [44,9 - 6,55 log10 (h BS )] log(d) + CorrectionFactor

where: 69.99 for 150 MHz f 1500 MHz L = Path loss in dB

46.30 for 1500 MHz f 2000 MHz f = frequency in MHz
d = distance in km (valid for 1 20 km)
26.16 for 150 MHz f 1500 MHz hBS = height base station in m
33.90 for 1500 MHz f < 2000 MHz hMS = height mobile station in m(valid for 1-10m)
Propagation Model Okumura Hatta

Extension to original Okumura Hatta for any operators environment and frequency:

L = k1 + k 2 log(d) k 3 log(h BS ) k 4 log(h BS ) log (d) k 5 h MS k 6 log(h MS )

k1 to k6 can be estimated by model tuning for any planning project

Planning Tools in Market

Coverage Planning Tools that

usually used by operator :
Mentum Planet
NetAct Planner
Nominal Planning Capacity Analysis

Lost call and waiting call telephone system

Even during periods of high traffic, the subscriber must have a good chance of access to
make call.
The subscriber not succeeding in making a call either be lost (pure lost-call ) or the call
will be delayed (waiting-call).
To avoid lost/delay call, capacity should be planned and monitored.
CS Traffic Characteristics
Traffic Offered
Mean number of calls attempt offered to the system.
Traffic offered estimated with Erlang B table. Usually CS Traffic dimensioned with blocking probability 2%
Based on this Erlang B table, capacity TCH and TRX calculated.

Traffic Carried
Mean number of simultaneous occupation of channel.
CS Traffic carried measured in Erlang.
( )
By definition : 1 channel occupied for a duration t of a considered period T, carries t / T erlang.
Nominal Planning: 2G Capacity Analysis

Air Interface dimensioning

- Logical and physical channels
Abis Dimensioning
PCU Dimensioning
Capacity Planning: 2G BSS Traffic Model

Below some traffic model that usually used in capacity planning.

Nominal Planning Sample of Capacity Planning

Traffic growth can be add as consideration when the traffic profile is

always increasing. Based on measurement & performance we can
predict the traffic growth
WCDMA Network Planning Principles
No frequency planning (frequency reuse 1)
Scrambling code planning
Neighbor planning
WCDMA for multiple access. FDD or TDD
WCDMA capacity depends on DL Power and UL Interference
A UE transmission power is interference for another UE.
Wideband system
LTE Network Planning Principles
No frequency planning (frequency reuse 1)
No scrambling code planning
No neighbor planning
LTE capacity depends on SINR
Low other to own cell interference can be achieved by planning clear dominance areas

MCS has an influence on the cell coverage

and capacity Improvement due to interference reduction
Detailed Planning: Parameter Planning

Below usually parameter planning list that should be prepare before site
deployment :


Frequency Planning Scrambling Code PCI Planning,
(BCCH & TCH frequency, BSIC HSN) (SC) Planning Root Sequence Index Planning
LAC Planning LAC & RAC Planning TAC Planning
Neighbor Planning Neighbor Planning ANR
Default Parameter, Layering Parameter
Detailed Planning: WCDMA PSC Planning
Downlink scrambling codes
For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143
scrambling codes can be generated.
Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used.
8192 codes are divided into 512 groups, each of which contains
16 scrambling codes.
The first scrambling code of each group is called primary
scrambling code (PSC), and the other 15 ones are secondary
scrambling codes (SSC).
The 512 PSCs are also divided into 64 groups, each of which
contains 8 PSCs.
Downlink PSC is used to distinguish the different cells.
It has to be considered carefully
Detailed Planning: WCDMA Neighbor Planning
Configure neighboring cells using the same carrier as
intra-frequency band neighbor cells.
Configure concentric cells F1 and F2 with same
frequency band as the inter-frequency blind handover
Configure the concentric F1F2 to F3 cells with
different frequency band as inter-frequency coverage
based handover and
Configure the concentric F1 and F2 cells with different
frequency band as the inter-frequency LDR based
handover cells of F3 cell.
Configure neighboring cells to enable the inter-
frequency coverage based handover from F3 to F1 or
Configure 2G inter-RAT
Intra Freq Neigh # > 15
Inter Freq Neigh # = 2
Inter RAT Neigh # > 15
Make sure collocated neigh and 1st tier neighbor are
Detailed Planning: LAC RAC Planning
Based on CS/PS Paging attempts per LAC/RAC in each RNC, LAC/RAC Split plan triggered and
executed as per below Schedule.
Completed LAC/RAC Split in all RNCs except RNCs of Plumbon as we are waiting for Rehoming of
sites between RNC_PLUMBON_01 & RNC_PLUMBON_02.
RNC RNC Name LAC RAC High PCH utilization cell number CS paging attempt% PS paging attempt% VS_PCH_Utilization_Cell_Rate(%) Comments Date of Execution
1002 RNC_BUAHBATU_01 10021 22 341 41.98% 58.02% 44.98520205 RAC Split Done Tue, May 3, 2016
1002 RNC_BUAHBATU_01 10021 23 364 37.75% 62.25% 48.48178379 RAC Split Done Tue, May 3, 2016
1004 RNC_BUAHBATU_02 10046 47 350 57.20% 42.80% 59.32375886 LAC-RAC Split Done Tue, May 3, 2016
1004 RNC_BUAHBATU_02 10046 48 435 54.96% 45.04% 61.10822368 LAC-RAC Split Done Tue, May 3, 2016
1004 RNC_BUAHBATU_02 10046 46 440 48.74% 51.26% 66.02658205 LAC-RAC Split Done Tue, May 3, 2016
Thursday, May 12,
997 RNC_BUAHBATU_03 9971 171 606 62.24% 37.76% 50.76309488 LAC-RAC Split Done 2016
Thursday, May 12,
997 RNC_BUAHBATU_03 9972 171 628 43.28% 56.72% 45.63450748 LAC-RAC Split Done 2016
RNC_SURYAKENCANA_ Thursday, April 07,
1007 01 10073 73 582 64.06% 35.94% 77.34092199 LAC Split Done 2016
RNC_SURYAKENCANA_ Thursday, April 07,
1007 01 10072 72 585 58.46% 41.54% 67.26017128 LAC Split Done 2016
RNC_SURYAKENCANA_ Thursday, April 07,
1007 01 10071 71 591 54.00% 46.00% 57.49974061 LAC Split Done 2016
RNC_SURYAKENCANA_ Thursday, April 07,
999 02 10009 31 1164 62.36% 37.64% 78.8491378 LAC Split Done 2016
Waiting for
1014 RNC_PLUMBON_01 10146 147 96 43.86% 56.14% 64.1697875 Rehoming NA
Waiting for
1014 RNC_PLUMBON_01 10146 146 450 31.48% 68.52% 93.1769 Rehoming NA
Waiting for
1019 RNC_PLUMBON_02 10197 196 615 54.27% 45.73% 41.6491748 Rehoming NA
Waiting for
1019 RNC_PLUMBON_02 10196 196 1088 48.82% 51.18% 54.12468382 Rehoming NA

Impact Analysis.
Paging Loss due to PCH Cong. reduced by 98% after LAC/RAC Split Activity in west java.
Paging congestion rate reduced by almost 96%
Other KPIs maintained.
Detailed Planning: LAC RAC Planning
Pre/Post Map View
Detailed Planning: LTE Physical Cell ID Planning

Physical Layer Cell ID (PCI)

The sequence to generate the Reference Signal depends

upon the PCI
Short repetition cycle of 1 ms
Limited to 504 values so not unique
Analogous to scrambling code planning in UMTS
Careful assignment needed because a UE shall never
receive the same value from 2 different cells
Id = 0 Id = 6
Id = 2 Id = 8

Id = 1 Id = 7
Id = 3 Id = 9
Example of Physical
Layer Cell Identity Plan Id = 5 Id = 11

Id = 4 Id = 10
Detailed Planning: Neighbour Planning

LTE mobility does not rely upon neighbour lists

UE are responsible for identifying neighbouring cells
This effectively removes the requirement for neighbour list planning

However, the UE can be provided with:

neighbour cell specific measurement offsets, e.g. to make a specific neighbour appear more attractive
RF carriers upon which to search for neighbours

Mobility information can be provided for:

E-UTRAN Intra-frequency
E-UTRAN Inter-frequency
CDMA200 inter-RAT
Detailed Planning: Automatic Neighbour Relation

Neighbour relations are important as wrong neighbour definitions cause HO failures and dropped calls
Self configuration of relations avoids manual planning & maintenance

ANR covers 4 steps:

1) Neighbour cell discovery
2) Neighbour Sites X2 transport configuration discovery (i.e. Neighbour Site IP@)
3) X2 Connection Set-up with neighbour cell configuration update
4) ANR Optimization

The scope within ANR is to establish an X2 connection between source and target nodes and for that it is
necessary that source eNB knows the target eNB IP@
How the source eNB gets the IP@ differentiates the ANR features:
Central ANR (RL10)
ANR (RL20)
ANR- Fully UE based (RL30)
Detailed Planning: LTE ANR Configuration Principle
Neighbor Site
Site MME
UE eNB - A
eNB - B

New cell

New cell
by ECGI S1 : Request X2 Transport Configuration (ECGI)
S1: Request X2 Transport Configuration

S1: Respond X2 Transport Configuration (IP@)
S1 : Respond X2 Transport Configuration (IP@)

Add Site & Cell X2 Setup : IPsec, SCTP, X2-AP [site & cell info] Add Site & Cell
parameter of Parameter of
Neighbor Cell Tables in both eNB updated
Optimization Objective

To get the most optimum relation

between Capacity, Quality and Cost
Best network quality measured as:
- perceived quality by the
- perceived quality by the operator
within the given scope
Optimization Reasons

9 Interfering competitors claiming market shares with excellent quality

Opti: Clear basis for optimization strategy

Unclear future development of end customer behavior

Network structure is still Opti: Perform the most efficient optimization tasks at the right time
growing and in flow
Opti: Keeping the network quality on a
Unclear picture about specific performance issues
defined level during the expansion
Opti: Detailed KPIs information about the network status
Fast expanding network
environment Subscriber increase due to campaign/new application
Opti: Optimized network quality & Opti: Improved subscriber satisfaction lead to decreased churn
reliability rate/increased ARPU

New challenging application Initial network phase passed and customer base in increasing
influence the existing system Opti: Getting a network structure always in-line with the respective demands
Opti: Benchmark with the market
Potential for performance improvement (Coverage capacity, QoS)
Opti: Reduced OPEX, CAPEX & increased revenue
Detect the optimization needs
Optimization Cycle
Optimization Area
Optimization Actions
Typical Organization Plan

Project Director

Strategic Project Admin

Plan & Optim Expert

Special Tool
Signaling Expert

Transport Expert CS/PS Core Expert

PM City-1 PM Other Cities

2G & 3G 2G & 3G
TL Zone 1..N Optim Engineer
TL Zone 1..N Optim Engineer

Radio Planner DT Engineer & Rigger Radio Planner DT Engineer & Rigger