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3GPP(LTE)course

Presented By:
Eng.karim Banawan.
Eng.Yasser Youssry.
Mobile Communication
part (4) : 4G mobiles

Eng. Karim Banawan


Faculty of Engineering
Electronics and communication
department
OFDM AND OFDMA
TECHNOLOGIES
OUTLINE
NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER
OFDM ENTERS INTO THE PICTURE
FFT / IFFT
GUARD TIME INSERTION
OFDM DRAWBACKS
CHANNEL ESTIMATION
OFDM BLOCK DIAGRAM
SIMULATION RESULTS
NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER
Time Domain Analysis
NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER cont.

Pulse completely Pulse extended but the extension


distorted. ISI is are much smaller than T the
significant in this case. output behaves like the
transmitted rectangular pulse.
NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER cont.
Frequency Domain Analysis
NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER cont.
Conclusion
Wide pulses is needed for simple
equalization,
But

Narrow pulses is needed for high data

rate

Solution
 Multiplexing

NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER cont.
NEED FOR MULTI-
CARRIER cont.
Problem

Solution
 Orthogonality
NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER
cont.
NEED FOR MULTI-CARRIER
cont.
OFDM ENTERS INTO THE
PICTURE
Interference  Orthogonality
B.W efficiency  Min Separation
OFDM ENTERS INTO THE
PICTURE cont.
Min Separation 
Problem
◦ Difficult Implementation with
traditional oscillators
Solution
◦ DFT
 But
◦ DFT needs high processing
 Solution
◦ Easy implementation using FFT/IFFT

FFT / IFFT
FFT/IFFT
GUARD TIME
INSERTION
Channel
Filtering
GUARD TIME INSERTION
cont.
Problem

….

ISI occurs
GUARD TIME INSERTION
cont.
Solution  Cyclic
Prefix

….

 No ISI
àCircular Convolution achieved .
Cyclic prefix
 The CP allows the receiver to absorb much
more efficiently the delay spread due to the
multipath and to maintain frequency
Orthogonality.

 The CP that occupies a duration called the
Guard Time (GT), often denoted TG, is a
temporal redundancy that must be taken
into account in data rate computations.

OFDM DRAWBACKS
cont.
 Peak to Average Power Ratio
(PAPR)

OFDM DRAWBACKS
cont.
Sensitivity to frequency offset

CHANNEL ESTIMATION
Pilot Based Channel Estimation

E stim a te d
R e ce ive d C hannel
S ig n a l a fte r R e sp o n se
FFT

K n o w n Pilo ts
CHANNEL ESTIMATION
cont.
Pilot Arrangement Types
Block Pilot Patterns Comb Pilot Patterns

Frequency( sub
carriers)

carriers)
Frequency( sub
 Pilot
symbols
 Data symbols



Time (OFDM Symbols) Time (OFDM Symbols)


High channel frequency rapid changing channels
selectivity
OFDMA
OFDMA is a multiple access method based on
OFDM
 signaling that allows simultaneous
transmissions to and from several users along
with the other advantages of OFDM.

OFDM versus OFDMA

IEEE802.16d IEEE802.16e
Fixed WiMAX,256-OFDM Mobile WiMAX
DIVERSITY AND MIMO
PRINCIPLES
What is diversity?
 Is a technique that combats the
fading by ensuring that there
will be many copies of the
transmitted signal effected with
different fading over time,
frequency or space.


1- Time diversity:

We averaging the fading of the


channel over time by using :
1-The channel coding and

interleaving.
2-Or sending the data at

different times.
to explain this we will see an

example:

1-time diversity:

|H ( t ) |


t


No interleaving x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 h1
h2 h3 h4
interleaving x1 y1 z1 h1 x2 y2 z2h2 x3 y3 z3h3 x4 y4
z4 h4


So we can see that only the 3rd symbol from each codeword lost
and we can recover them from the rest symbols in each
2- frequency diversity:
This type of diversity used for the
frequency selective channels as
we will averaging the fading over
the frequency by using:
1-Multi-carrier technique like OFDM.

2-FHSS (frequency hope spread

spectrum).
3-DSSS (direct sequence spread

spectrum).

2- frequency diversity:

We can see that each sub-band will


effecting with different fading over
the frequency.
3-spatial diversity:
we will have many copies of the transmitted signal
effects with different fading over the space .
we use multi-antenna systems at the transmitter

or the receiver or at both of them.



Receive diversity:

1-The receiver will has many antennas .


2-Each one has signal effecting with

different fading.
3-number of different paths =Mr.

Diversity order=Mr
MIMO:

In this type we use multi antennas at


both the transmitter and receiver as


shown.
Diversity order=Mt x Mr
Notes:
The higher diversity order we have

the better we combat the fading


Notes:
1-The diversity
reduces the
BER of the
communication
system.
2-Diversity order

 BER .
Notes:

The distance between the


antennas must be larger than


the coherent distance to ensure
that data streams are not
correlated .
Question?
 How the receiver get the signal
from the many copies
Answer
reached ?
Diversity combining
technique
1-Combines the independent fading
paths signals to obtain a signal that
passed through a standard
demodulator.
2-The techniques can be applied to

any type of diversity.


3-combining techniques are linear as

the output of is a weighted sum of


the different fading signals of
branches.
4-It needs co-phasing.
Diversity combining
technique Fa d in g o f th e
The signal output
 p a th
from the combiner
is the transmitted
signal s(t)
multiplied by a Type of technique
random complex
amplitude term

Diversity order

R a n d o m S N R fro m th e
co m b in e r
Diversity combining
technique
selection combining
technique
1-the combiner
outputs the
signal on the
branch with the
highest SNR
.
2-no need here 0 0 1 0
for the co-
phasing.
Threshold combining
technique
As in SC since only one branch output is
used at a time and outputting the first
signal with SNR above a given threshold
so that co-phasing is not required.
NR so that its performance less than the SC technique .

Special case at diversity order = 2 ( SSC )


Maximal ratio combining
In maximal ratio

combining
(MRC) the
output is a h1* h2* h3* h i*
weighted sum
of all branches
due to its SNR
Equal gain combining
technique
A simpler technique is equal-gain
combining, which co-phases the
signals on each branch and then
combines them with equal weighting
MIMO
 Traditional diversity is based on multiple
receiver antennas
 Multiple-In Multiple-Out (MIMO) is based on
both transmit and receive diversity
 Also known as Space Time Coding (STC)
 With Mt transmission antennas and Mr
receiver antennas we have Mt Mr branches
 Txand Rx processing is performed over
space (antennas) and time (successive
symbols)

47
MIMO or STC
 In Mobile communication systems it may be
difficult to put many antennas in the mobile
unit
 Diversity in the downlink (from base station
to mobile station) can be achieved by
Multiple-In Single-Out (MISO) (i.e., Mr=1)
 In the uplink (from mobile station to base
station) diversity is achieved my
conventional diversity (SIMO)
 Hence, all diversity cost is moved to the base
station
 All 3G and 4G mobile communication system
employ MIMO in their standard
48
Type of MIMO
Two major types of space time
coding
◦ Space time block coding (STBC)
◦ Space time trellis coding (STTC)
STBC is simpler by STTC can
provide better performance
STBC is used in mobile
communications. STTC is not
used in any systems yet
We will talk only about STBC
 49
Space Time Block Codes
There are few major types
◦ Transmit diversity: main goal is
diversity gain
◦ Spatial multiplexing: main goal is
increase data rate
◦ Eigen steering: main goal is both.
Requires knowledge of the channel at
the transmitter side
◦ Mix of the above: Lots of research
Transmit diversity, spatial
multiplexing and simplified version
of Eigen steering are used in 3G
50
Transmit Diversity
Take Mt=2 and Mr=1
Two symbols so and s1 are transmitted
over two transmission periods
No change in data rate (denoted as
rate 1 STBC)
Channel is known at receiver only

51
Transmit Diversity
A nt Ant
 Transmission matrix:6 4 o7 481
  s o s1  ← Timeo
S = * *
 −
 1s s o  ← Time1

 Transmission matrix columns are orthogonal


to guarantee simple linear processing at
the receiver
 Other transmission matrices are defined in
literature  ro   s o s1   g o  n o 
R = =  *
 Received signal *   + 
 r1is:
  −s 1 s o   g 1   n 1 


 Performance is same as MRC with M=2
 However, if Tx Power is the same, then 52
Transmit Diversity
 Take Mt=2 and Mr=2
 Performance is the same as MRC with M=4
 However, if Tx Power is the same, then
transmit diversity (2x2) is 3 dB worse than
(1x4)

53
Performance
 MRRC=Maximal Ratio Receiver Combining
 Note 3 dB difference in favor of Rx MRC
diversity
Reference: S. Alamouti, a simple transmit

diversity technique for wireless


communications,
IEEE JSAC, October 98

No
diversity

Order
2
Orde
r 4

54
Spatial Multiplexing
ro = s o g o + s1 g 1
r1 = s o g 2 + s1 g 3

 Purpose is to increase data rate (2x2 gives


twice data rate)
 The 4 gains must be known at receiver
 Simplest way zero forcing algorithm:

 ro   g o g 1  so  sˆo  −1 H  o
r
 = g g  s   sˆ  = G G  G  r 
H
r
 1  142 2 433   1   1  1
G
55
Spatial Multiplexing
ro = s o g o + s1 g 1
r1 = s o g 2 + s1 g 3

 Optimum method: Maximum Likelihood


◦ Try all combinations of s1 and s2
◦ Find the combination that minimizes the squared
error: 2 2
eo2 + e◦ 1 = ro − sˆo g o − sˆ1 g 1 + r1 − sˆo g 2 − sˆ1 g 3
2


◦ Complexity increases with high order modulation
56
Performance
 Equal rate
comparison
 Reference: David
Gesbert,
Mansoor Shafi, Z e ro
Da-shan Shiu, fo rcin g
Peter J. Smith,
and Ayman ML
Naguib, From
theory to
practice: an A la m o u t
overview of i
MIMO space–
time coded
wireless
systems, IEEE
JSAC, April
2003

57

Eigenvalue Steering
Assume a MIMO system

58
Eigenvalue Steering
 Example with Mt = 2 and Mr=4
  y 1   h11 h12   n1  [ y ] = H [ x ] +[ n]
  y  h h 22   
 2  =  21  x 1  n 2 

 y 3   h31 h32  x  +  n 
 2 3
      

 y 4  1h441 2 h 42 
43 n 4 
H
 Any matrix H can be represented
using Singular Value
H =U Σ V H
Decomposition as

U is Mr by Mr and V is Mt by Mt
unitary matrices
  is Mr by Mt diagonal matrix, 59
Eigenvalue Steering
 Using transmit pre-coding and receiver
shaping

y%= U H ( H x + n )
= U H ( U ΣV H
x +n)
= U H ( U ΣV H V x%+ n )
= U H U ΣV H V x%+U H n
= Σ x%+ n%

60
Eigenvalue Steering
 This way we created r paths between the Tx
and specific Rx without any cross
interference
 The channel (i.e., Channel State Information)
must be known to both transmitter and
receiver
 The value of r= rank of matrix H, r min(Mt,
M r)
 Not all r paths have good SNR
 Data rate can increase by factor r
 See Appendix C for Singular Value
Decomposition
 See Matlab function [U,S,V] = svd(X)
61
Example
 Reference: Sanjiv Nanda, Rod Walton, John Ketchum, Mark
Wallace, and Steven Howard, A high-performance MIMO OFDM
wireless LAN, IEEE Communication Magazine, February 2005

62
INTRODUCTION TO LTE AND ITS
UNIQUE TECHNOLOGIES.
What is LTE??
The 3GPP LTE is acronym for
“long term evolution of UMTS “.
In order to ensure the
competitiveness of UMTS for the
next 10 years and beyond,
concepts for UMTS Long Term
Evolution ( LTE ) have been
introduced in 3GPP release 8. 8
LTE is also referred to as EUTRA
(Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access) or E - UTRAN (Evolved UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
What is LTE(cont.)?
The architecture that will
result from this work is called
EPS (Evolved Packet System) and
comprehends E - UTRAN (Evolved
UTRAN) on the access side and EPC
(Evolved Packet Core) on the core
side.
Can be considered the real 3 . 9G
& invited to join the 4G family.
Also considered a competitive
system to mobile WiMAX as we
will show
What is LTE (cont.)?
LTE DESIGN TARGETS
( a ) capabilities: -
Scalable BW: 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 MHz.
Peak data rate:
Downlink (2 Ch MIMO) peak rate of 100 Mbps in
20 MHz channel
Uplink (single Ch Tx) peak rate of 50 Mbps in
20 MHz channel
Supported antenna configurations:
Downlink: 4x4,4x2, 2x2, 1x2, 1x1
Uplink: 1x2, 1x1
Duplexing modes: FDD and TDD
Number of active mobile terminals:
 LTE should support at least 200 mobile terminals
in the active state when operating in 5 MHz.
 In wider allocations than 5 MHz, at least 400
terminals should be supported
Spectrum efficiency
D o w n lin k : 3 to 4 x H S D PA R e l. 6  5 b its/ s/ H z
U p lin k : 2 to 3 x H S U PA R e l. 6  2 . 5 b its/ s/ h z
Latency
C - p la n e : < 5 0 – 1 0 0 m se c to e sta b lish U -
p la n e
U -p la n e : < 1 0 m se c fro m U E to se rve r
Mobility
O p tim ize d fo r lo w sp e e d s (< 1 5 km / h r)
H ig h p e rfo rm a n ce a t sp e e d s u p to 1 2 0
km / h r
M a in ta in lin k a t sp e e d s u p to 3 5 0 km / h r
Coverage
Fu ll p e rfo rm a n ce u p to 5 km
INTRODUCTION TO
LTE KEY
TECHNOLOGIES
(1)OFDM and OFDMA:-
One of the key technologies used in LTE and
WiMAX systems.
The problem ???
Due to the multipath the signal is received from many
paths with different phases that will result in
DELAY SPREAD :symbol
: received along a delayed
path to “bleed” into a subsequent symbol (ISI)

FREQUENCY SELECTIVE FADING: : some


frequencies within the signal passband undergo
constructive interference while others encounter
destructive interference.The composite received
signal is distorted


Old solutions of multipath fading include direct
channel equalization or spread spectrum
techniques(complex receiver is needed).
OFDM:
OFDM systems break the available bandwidth
into many narrower sub-carriers and
transmit the data in parallel streams
each OFDM symbol is preceded by a cyclic
prefix (CP),
(CP which is used to effectively
eliminate ISI.

 In practice, the OFDM signal can be generated using IFFT
 with a CP of sufficient duration,
duration preceding symbols do
not spill over into the FFT period and also this satisfy that
the output convolution with channel is complex gain
multiplication.
multiplication
 Also, Once the channel impulse response is determined (by
periodic transmission of known reference signals),
distortion can be corrected by applying an amplitude
and phase shift on a subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis.
 Problems of OFDM are: susceptibility to carrier frequency
errors (due either to local oscillator offset or Doppler shifts)
and a large signal peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR).

OFDMA
 OFDMA is a multiple access method based on OFDM
 signaling that allows simultaneous transmissions to
and from several users along with the other advantages
of OFDM.

OFDM versus OFDMA

IEEE802.16d IEEE802.16e
Fixed WiMAX,256-OFDM Mobile WiMAX
( 2 ) Multi antenna
transmission
 LTEand WiMAX targets extreme
performance in terms of
◦ Capacity
◦ Coverage
◦ Peak data rates
 Advanced multi-antenna
solutions is the key tool to achieve
this
 Multi antenna systems are integral
part of those systems
 Different antenna solutions needed
for different scenarios/targets
◦ High peak data rates  spatial
multiplexing
◦ Good coverage Beam-forming
(3 ) Hybrid ARQ with soft
combining

 used
in LTE and WiMAX to allow the terminal to rapidly
request retransmissions of erroneously received
transport blocks.
 The underlying protocol multiple parallel stop-and-wait
hybrid ARQ processes
 Incremental redundancy is used as the soft combining
strategy and the receiver buffers the soft bits to be
able to do soft combining between transmission
attempts.
 


( 1 ) Spectrum flexibility
:

A high degree of spectrum


flexibility is one of the main
characteristics of the LTE radio
access.
The aim of this spectrum
flexibility is to allow for the
deployment of the LTE radio
access in diverse spectrum.
The flexibility includes:
◦ Different duplex arrangements.
◦ Different frequency-bands-of-
(a) 3G LTE – Duplex arrangement

(b) 3G LTE – Bandwidth flexibility

LTE physical layer supports any bandwidth from


1.25 MHz to well beyond 20 MHz in steps of 200
kHz (one ”Resource Block”)
(2) Channel-dependent scheduling and rate
adaptation
LTE use of shared-channel
transmission, in which the time-
frequency resource is dynamically
shared between users.

(3)Interference coordination(soft
reuse)
Adaptive reuse
◦ Cell-center users: Reuse = 1
◦ Cell-edge users: Reuse > 1
Relieson access to frequency
domain
◦ Applicable for both downlink OFDM and
uplink SC-FDMA
( 4 ) SC - FDMA :-
LTE uplink requirements differ from downlink
requirements.
power consumption is a key consideration for UE
terminals.
The high PAPR and related loss of efficiency
associated with OFDM signaling are major
concerns.
As a result, an alternative to OFDM was sought
for use in the LTE uplink.
Single Carrier – Frequency Domain Multiple
Access (SC-FDMA) is well suited to the LTE uplink
requirements.
The basic transmitter and receiver architecture is
very similar (nearly identical) to OFDMA,
and it offers the same degree of multipath
protection.
because the underlying waveform is essentially
single-carrier, the PAPR is lower.
Basic block diagram:





transmitter :a QAM modulator coupled with
the addition of the cyclic prefix.  This will
eliminate ISI as OFDMA
Reciever: by using FFT & CP simple equalizer
are used (as OFDM).
Multipath distortion is handled in the same
manner as in OFDM(removal of CP, conversion
to the frequency domain, then apply the
channel correction on a subcarrier-by subcarrier
LTE practical SC - FDMA :-









 The practical transmitter is likely to take advantage of
FFT/IFFT blocks as well to place the transmission in the
correct position of the transmit spectrum in case of
variable transmission bandwidth.
SC-FDMA receiver

Frequency domain equalization (FDE) using


DFT/IDFT is more practical for such channels.
The fact of transmitting only a single symbol at a
time ensures a low transmitter waveform, compared
with the OFDMA case.
The resulting PAR/CM impact on the amplifier is thus
directly dependent on the modulation, whereas with
the OFDMA case it is the amount of subcarriers.
SC-FDMA subcarriers can be mapped in one of two
ways: localized or distributed
However, the current working assumption is that LTE
will use localized subcarrier mapping.
mapping
This decision was motivated by the fact that with
localized mapping, it is possible to exploit
frequency selective gain via channel dependent
scheduling (assigning uplink frequencies to UE based
on favorable propagation conditions).

(5) LTE Multicast/Broadcast
 MBMS – Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast
Service
 OFDM allows for high-efficient MBSFN
operation
◦ Multicast/Broadcast Single-Frequency Networking
◦ Identical transmissions from set of tightly
synchronized cells
◦ Increased received power and reduced
interference
Substantial boost of MBMS system throughput

 LTE allows for multicast/broadcast and unicast


on the same carrier as well as dedicated
multicast/broadcast carrier
LTE RADIO INTERFACE
ARCHITECTURE
Introduction
Similar to WCDMA/HSPA, as well as to
most other modern communication
systems, the processing specified
for LTE is structured into different
protocol layers.
layers
note that the LTE radio-access
architecture consists of a single
node –the eNodeB . The eNodeB
communicates with one or several
mobile terminals, also known as UEs
Packet Data Convergence
Protocol (PDCP)
performs IP header compression
to reduce the number of bits to
transmit over the radio interface.
The header compression mechanism is
based on Robust Header Compression
(ROHC)
ROHC a standardized header-
compression algorithm also used in
WCDMA
PDCP is also responsible for ciphering
and integrity protection of the
transmitted data. At the receiver
side, the PDCP protocol performs the
corresponding deciphering and
decompression operations.
Radio Link Control (RLC)
 is responsible for
segmentation/
segmentation concatenation,
concatenation
retransmission handling, and in -
sequence delivery to higher layers.
 Unlike WCDMA, the RLC protocol is
located in the eNodeB since there is
only a single type of node in the LTE
radio-access-network architecture.
 The RLC offers services to the PDCP in
the form of radio bearers .
 There is one RLC entity per radio bearer
configured for a terminal.
Medium Access Control
(MAC)
handles hybrid - ARQ
retransmissions and uplink and
downlink scheduling.
scheduling
The scheduling functionality is
located in the eNodeB, which has
one MAC entity per cell, for both
uplink and downlink.
The hybrid - ARQ protocol part is
present in both the transmitting
and receiving end of the MAC
protocol.
The MAC offers services to the
MAC scheduling

The basic operation of the scheduler is so-called


dynamic scheduling , where the eNodeB in each 1 ms
TTI makes a scheduling decision and sends
scheduling information to the selected set of
Downlink

 UL scheduling
scheduling
 dynamically  dynamically control
controlling the which mobile
terminal(s) to terminals are to
transmit to transmit on their UL-
 the set of resource SCH
blocks upon which
the terminal’s DL-  and on which uplink
SCH should be time/frequency
transmitted. resources
 Transport-format  uplink scheduling
selection(selection of decision is taken per
transport-block size, mobile terminal and
modulation scheme, not per radio bearer.
and antenna
mapping)
 And logical-channel
Physical Layer (PHY)
handles coding/decoding,
modulation/demodulation, multi-
antenna mapping, and other
typical physical layer functions.
The physical layer offers services
to the MAC layer in the form of
transport channels
DOWNLINK PHY
LAYER OF (LTE)
LTE Generic Frame Structure
The generic frame structure is used with
FDD.(TDD is also supported but not the
trend).
LTE frames are 10 msec in duration.
They are divided into 10 subframes,
subframes
each subframe being 1.0 msec long.
Each subframe is further divided into
two slots,
slots each of 0.5 msec duration.
Slots consist of either 6 or 7 ODFM
symbols, depending on whether the normal
or extended cyclic prefix is employed.
Different time intervals within
the LTE radio-access
specification are defined as
multiples of a basic time unit
Ts = 1/30
720 000.
The time intervals can thus also
be expressed as Tframe= 307 200
Ts and Tsubframe= 30 720 Ts
OFDMA For LTE Downlink :-
OFDMA is an excellent choice of
multiplexing scheme for the 3GPP LTE
downlink
allows the access of multiple users
on the available bandwidth.
Each user is assigned a specific time -
frequency resource.
resource
Allocation of PRBs is handled by a
scheduling function at the 3GPP base
station (eNodeB).
The total number of available subcarriers
depends on the overall transmission
bandwidth of the system. The LTE
specifications define parameters for
system bandwidths from 1.25 MHz to 20
MHz as shown in Table.
A PRB is defined
as consisting of
12 consecutive
subcarriers for
one slot (0.5
msec) in duration.
A PRB is the
smallest
element of
resource
allocation
assigned by the
base station
scheduler.
LTE does not employ
a PHY preamble to
facilitate carrier
offset estimate,
channel estimation,
Downlink resource block
 the OFDM subcarrier spacing has been
chosen to Δf = 15 kHz.
 Sampling rate fs =15 000NFFT , where
NFFT is the FFT size
 the sampling rate Δf NFFT will be a
multiple or submultiple of the
WCDMA/HSPA chip rate (3.84 Mcps)
 in the frequency domain the downlink
subcarriers are grouped into resource
blocks
 where each resource block consists of 12
consecutive subcarriers.
subcarriers In
addition, there is an unused DC -
subcarrier in the center of the
downlink band. it may be subject to un-
Downlink reference signal
To carry out coherent demodulation
of different downlink physical
channels,
a mobile terminal needs estimates
of the downlink channel
◦ Cell-specific downlink reference
signals.
◦ UE-specific reference signal.
◦ MBSFN reference signals

Cell-specific downlink
reference signals
 consists of known reference symbols
inserted within the first and third
last OFDM symbol of each slot and with
a frequency-domain spacing of six
subcarriers
 the mobile terminal should carry out
interpolation/
interpolation averaging over multiple
reference symbols
 There are 504 different reference -
signal sequences defined for LTE,
where eachsequence corresponds to one
out of 504 different physical-layer
cell identities
In case of downlink multi - antenna
transmission the mobile terminal
should be able to estimate the
downlink channel corresponding to
each transmit antenna
reference-signal structure for each
antenna port in case of multiple
antenna ports within a cell:
◦ In case of two antenna the
reference symbols of the second
antenna port are frequency
multiplexed with the reference
symbols of the first antenna port,
with a frequency-domain offset of
three subcarriers.
◦ In case of four antenna ports ,the
reference symbols for the third and
UE-specific reference
signals
LTE also allows for more general
beam-forming. In order to allow
for channel estimation also for
such transmissions, additional
reference signals are needed.
As such a reference signal can
only be used by the specific
terminal to which the beam-formed
transmission is intended, it is
referred to as a UE-specific
reference signal .
LTE block diagram (DL
transport channel processing)
(1)CRC insertion:

In the first step of the


transport-channel processing, a
24 - bit CRC is calculated for
and appended to each transport
block.
The CRC allows for receiver side
detection of errors in the
decoded transport block.
The corresponding error indication
is then, for example, used by the
downlink hybrid-ARQ protocol as a
trigger for requesting
retransmissions .
(2)Code-block segmentation
and per-code-block CRC
insertion:
The LTE Turbo-
Turbo coder internal
interleaver is only defined for a
limited number of code-block sizes
with a maximum block size of 6144
bits.
bits
In case the transport block, including
the transport-block CRC, exceeds
this maximum code-block size, code-
block segmentation is applied before
Turbo coding.
Code - block segmentation implies
that the transport block is
segmented into smaller code blocks
 In order to ensure
that the size of
each code block is
matched to the set
of available code-
block sizes,
filler bits may
have to be inserted
at the head of the
first code
 An additional (24
bits) CRC is
calculated for and
appended to each
code block.
 Having a CRC per code
block allows for
early detection of
(3) FEC(forward error
correction):-
 TheUL-SCH uses the same rate 1 / 3 turbo
encoding scheme (two 8-state constituent
encoders and one internal interleaver) as
the DL-SCH.

The older interleaver used in HSPA been


replaced by QPP based interleaving .
the QPP interleaver provides a mapping
from the input (non-interleaved) bits to
the output (interleaved) bits according to
the function:
(4) Rate-matching and physical-
layer hybrid-ARQ functionality
 The task of the rate-matching and physical-
layer hybrid-ARQ functionality is to
extract , from the blocks of code bits
delivered by the channel encoder, the exact
set of bits to be transmitted within a
given TTI.
 The outputs of the Turbo encoder (systematic
bits, first parity bits, and second parity
bits) are first separately interleaved.
interleaved
 The interleaved bits are then inserted into
what can be described as a circular buffer
with the systematic bits inserted first,
followed by alternating insertion of the
first and second parity bits.
 The bit selection then extracts consecutive
bits from the circular buffer
(5) Bit-level scrambling
LTE downlink scrambling implies that
the block of code bits delivered by
the hybrid-ARQ functionality is
multiplied (exclusive - or
operation) by a bit-level scrambling
sequence (usually a gold code).
In general, scrambling of the coded
data helps to ensure that the
receiver-side decoding can fully
utilize the processing gain
provided by the channel code
(6) Modulation
The set of modulation schemes supported for
the LTE downlink includes QPSK, 16QAM, and
64QAM.
All these modulation schemes are applicable to
the DL-SCH, PCH, and MCH transport channels.
only QPSK modulation can be applied to the
BCH transport channel.

(7) Multi antenna
transmission
LTE supports the following multi-
antenna transmission schemes or
transmission modes , in addition
to single-antenna transmission:
◦ Transmit diversity
◦ Closed-loop spatial multiplexing
including codebook-based beam-
forming
◦ Open-loop spatial multiplexing

Transmit diversity
LTE transmit diversity is based on
Space Frequency Block Coding
(SFBC)
SFBC implies that consecutive
modulation symbols Si and Si+1 are
mapped directly on adjacent
subcarriers on the first antenna
port.
On the second antenna port, the
swapped and transformed symbols
- S*i+1 and Si*are transmitted on
the corresponding subcarriers
SFBC/FSTD(combined SFBC
and (Frequency Shift Transmit
Diversity
Closed loop Spatial
multiplexing
spatial multiplexing implies that
multiple streams or ‘ layers ’ are
transmitted in parallel, thereby
allowing for higher data rates
The LTE spatial multiplexing may
operate in two different modes:
closed-loop spatial multiplexing and
open-loop spatial multiplexing
where closed-loop spatial multiplexing
relies on more extensive feedback
from the mobile terminal.

General beam-forming
closed-loop spatial multiplexing
includes beam-forming as a special
case when the number of layers
equals one.
This kind of beamforming can be
referred to as codebook-based beam-
forming , indicating that
◦ the network selects one pre-coding
vector (the beam-forming vector) from
a set of pre-defined pre-coding
vectors (the ‘ codebook ’ ) with the
selection, for example, based on the
terminal reporting a recommended pre-
coding vector.
UPLINK PHY LAYER OF
(LTE)
Uplink transmission
scheme
LTE uplink transmission is based
on so-called DFTS - OFDM
transmission
Which is a‘ single-carrier ’
transmission scheme that allows
for
◦ flexible bandwidth assignment
◦ orthogonal multiple access not only
in the time domain but also in the
frequency domain.
◦ the use of a cyclic prefix allows
low-complexity frequency-domain
equalization at the receiver side.
Transmission method

“M” determines the BW

Mapping is
applied to
consecutive
carriers
 localized
DFT implementation
 The DFT size should preferably be
constrained to a power of two.
 However, such a constraint is in direct
conflict with a desire to have a high
degree of flexibility of the
bandwidth that can be dynamically
assigned to a mobile terminal for
uplink transmission all possible DFT
sizes should rather be allowed.
 For LTE,
LTE a middle way has been adopted
where the DFT size is limited to
products of the integers two ,
three , and five .
 For example, DFT sizes of 60, 72, and 96
are allowed but a DFT size of 84 is not
allowed.
Uplink physical resource
parameters
Chosen to be aligned,
aligned as much as
possible, with the corresponding
parameters of the OFDM-based
LTE downlink
◦ spacing equals 15 kHz
◦ resource blocks, consisting of 12
subcarriers
◦ Any number of uplink resource blocks
ranging from a minimum of 6-110
resource blocks.
◦ time-domain structure, the LTE uplink
is very similar to the downlink
However,in contrast to the
downlink, no unused DC -
Uplink reference signals
Demodulation reference signals
( DRS )
◦ reference signals for channel
estimation are also needed for the
LTE uplink to enable coherent
demodulation of different uplink
physical channels
Sounding reference signals ( SRS )
◦ are transmitted on the uplink to
allow for the network to estimate
the uplink channel quality at
different frequencies .
Basic principles of uplink DRS
transmission
Due to the importance of low
power variations for uplink
transmissions
The principles for uplink
reference - signal transmission
are different from those of the
downlink
certain DFTS-OFDM symbols are
exclusively used for reference-
signal transmission,
a reference signal is transmitted
within the fourth symbol of
Uplink sequences
Limited power variations in the
frequency domain to allow for
similar channel-estimation
quality for all frequencies.
Limited power variations in the
time domain to allow for high
power - amplifier efficiency.
Furthermore, sufficiently many
reference - signal sequences of
the same length, should be
available to easily assigning
reference-signal sequences to
cells
Zadoff–Chu sequences
have the property of constant
power in both the frequency and
the time domain.

Zadoff–Chu sequences are not


suitable for direct usage as
uplink:
◦ to maximize the number of Zadoff–Chu
sequences and to maximize the number
of available uplink reference
signals, prime - length Zadoff–
Zadoff Chu
sequences would be preferred. At the
same time, the length of the uplink
reference-signal sequences should be
Phase-rotated reference-
signal sequences
by cyclically extending different
prime-length Zadoff – Chu sequences .
Additional reference-signal sequences
can be derived by applying different
linear phase rotations to the same
basic reference-signal sequences
sounding reference signals
(SRS)
estimate the uplink channel quality
at different frequencies
A terminal can be configured to transmit
SRS at regular intervals ranging
from as often as once in every 2 ms
(every second subframe) to as
infrequently as once in every 160 ms
(every 16th frame
the frequency-domain scheduling:
◦ entire frequency band of interest with a
single SRS OR
◦ narrowband SRS that is hopping in the
frequency domain in such a way that a
sequence of SRS transmissions jointly
covers the frequency band of interest.
Uplink transport-channel
processing
uplink transport-
channel processing
are similar to the
corresponding steps
of the downlink
transport-channel
processing
no spatial
multiplexing or
transmit
diversity
currently defined
for the LTE uplink
As a consequence,
LTE ACCESS
PROCEDURE
LTE cell search
Aim
◦ Acquire frequency and symbol
synchronization to a cell.
◦ Acquire frame timing of the cell,
that is, determine the start of the
downlink frame.
◦ Determine the physical-layer cell
identity of the cell.
two special signals are
transmitted on the LTE downlink,
◦ the Primary Synchronization Signal
(PSS)
◦ Secondary Synchronization Signal
(SSS)

System information
In LTE, system information is
delivered by two different
mechanisms relying on two
different transport channels
◦ A limited amount of system
information, corresponding to the
so-called Master Information Block
(MIB), is transmitted using the BCH.
◦ The main part of the system
information, corresponding to
different so-called System
Information Blocks (SIBs), is
transmitted using the downlink
shared channel (DL-SCH).
Random access
A fundamental requirement for any
cellular system is the possibility
for the terminal to request a
connection setup, commonly referred
to as random access .
In LTE, random access is used for
several purposes,
purposes including:
◦ for initial access when establishing a
radio link (moving from RRC_IDLE to
RRC_CONNECTED;
◦ to re-establish a radio link after
radio link failure;
◦ for handover when uplink
synchronization needs to be
established to the new cell;
paging
Paging is used for network-
initiated connection setup.
An efficient paging procedure
should allow the terminal to
sleep with no receiver
processing most of the time and
to briefly wake up at
predefined time intervals to
monitor paging information from
the network.
In LTE, no separate paging-
indicator channel is used
LTE ARCHITECTURE
AND SAE
LTE System Architecture
LTE System Architecture cont.
 Evolved Radio Access Network (RAN)
UE: User Equipment
eNB: enhanced Node B

-Contains PHY, MAC, RLC (Radio Link Control)


, PDCP (Packet Data Control Protocol).
 eNBs are connected together through the SGW.






LTE System Architecture cont.
 Functions of eNodeB:
Radio Resources management.
Admission control.
Enforcement of negotiated UL
QoS.
Cell information broadcast.
Ciphering/deciphering of user and
control plane data
Compression/decompression of
DL/UL user plane packet
LTE System Architecture cont.
Serving Gateway (SGW)
-Routes and forwards user Data Packets.
-Mobility anchor for eNB handovers and LTE to
other 3GPP systems.
 (relaying the traffic between 2G/3G systems and
PDN GW).

Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN


GW)
-Connects UE to external packet data networks
(serve IP functions)
-Anchor for mobility between 3GPP and non-
3GPP technologies such as WiMAX and 3GPP2
(CDMA 1X and
 EvDO).

LTE System Architecture
cont.
Mobility Management Entity
(MME)
 -Manage the UE’s mobility.
 -Idle-mode UE tracking and reachability .
 -Paging procedure.
 -Authentication and authorization.
 - choosing the SGW for a UE at
 the initial attach
 -Security negotiations.


OVERVIEW OF LTE
ADVANCED
Fundamental requirements
for LTE-Advanced
complete fulfillment of all the
requirements for IMT - Advanced
defined by ITU
LTE-Advanced has to fulfill a set
of basic backward
compatibility requirements
◦ Spectrum coexistence, implying
that it should be possible to
deploy LTE-Advanced in spectrum
already occupied by LTE with no
impact on existing LTE terminals
◦ infrastructure , in practice
implying that it should be
Extended requirements
beyond ITU requirements
Support for peak - data up to 1 Gbps
in the downlink and 500 Mbps in the
uplink.
Substantial improvements in system
performance such as cell and user
throughput with target values
significantly exceeding those of
IMT-Advanced.
Possibility for low - cost
infrastructure deployment and
terminals.
High power efficiency,
efficiency that is, low
power consumption for both
Technical components of
LTE-Advanced
Wider bandwidth and carrier
aggregation
Extended multi-antenna solutions
Advanced repeaters and relaying
functionality
Coordinated multi-point
transmission
Wider bandwidth and
carrier aggregation
 LTE-Advanced will be an increase of the
maximum transmission bandwidth beyond 20
MHz, perhaps up to as high as 100 MHz or
even beyond
 In case of carrier aggregation,
aggregation the
extension to wider bandwidth is accomplished
by the aggregation of basic component
carriers of a more narrow bandwidth
Extended multi-antenna
solutions
support for spatial
multiplexing on the uplink is
anticipated to be part of LTE-
Advanced
extension of downlink spatial
multiplexing to more four
layers
benefits of eight-layer spatial
multiplexing are only present in
special scenarios where high
SINR can be achieved
Coordinated multi-point
transmission
 Coordinating the transmission from the multiple
antennas can be used to increase the signal -
to - noise ratio for users far from the antenna
 for example by transmitting the same signal from
multiple sites.
sites
 Such strategies can also improve the power -
amplifier utilization in the network,
especially in a lightly loaded network where
otherwise some power amplifiers would be idle
Advanced repeaters and
relaying functionality
 Repeaters simply amplify and forward the
received analog signals and are used already
today for handling coverage holes.
 “ L1 relays ” schemes where the network can control
the transmission power of the repeater and, for
example, activate the repeater only when users
are present in the area handled by the repeater
 intermediate node may also decode and re-encode
any received data prior to forwarding it to the
served users. This is often referred to as
decode - and - forward relaying
The proposals could roughly be
categorized into :
 Various concepts for Relay Nodes
 UE Dual TX antenna solutions for SU-MIMO and
diversity MIMO
 Scalable system bandwidth exceeding 20 MHz,
Potentially up to 100MHz
 Local area optimization of air interface
 Nomadic / Local Area network and mobility solutions
 Flexible Spectrum Usage
 Cognitive Radio
 Automatic and autonomous network configuration and
operation
 Enhanced precoding and forward error correction
 Interference management and suppression
 Asymmetric bandwidth assignment for FDD
 Hybrid OFDMA and SC-FDMA in uplink
 UL/DL inter eNodeB coordinated MIMO

Timeframe
Standardization is expected to be
included in 3GPP Release 10
timeframe.
The importance and timeframe of
LTE Advanced will of course
largely depend on the success
of LTE itself .
If possible LTE-Advanced will be a
software upgrade for LTE
networks.
Technology
Demonstrations
In February 2007 NTT DoCoMo
announced the completion of a 4G
trial
where they achieved a maximum
packet transmission rate of
approximately 5 Gbit / s in the
downlink using 100MHz frequency
bandwidth to a mobile station
moving at 10 km / h