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Electromagnetic and

Transmission Line
UNIT V
Transmission Line
By Sachin Ruikar

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College of Engg, Sangli 1


Syllabus
Line parameters, skin effect,general solution, physical
significance of the equations,wavelength,velocityof
propagation, the distortion less line, Reflection on a
line not terminated in Z0, reflection coefficient, open
and short circuited lines, reflection factor and
reflection loss, Standing Waves, Standing wave
ratio,Input impedance of dissipation line,Input
impedance of open and short circuit lines,power and
impedance measurement on lines,reflection losses on
the unmatched load,
Various Types Of
Transmission Line

As the name suggests, the transmision line is a structure which can


transport electrical energy from one point to another.

At low frequencies, a transmission line consists of two linear conductors


separated by a distance. When an electrical source is applied between
the two conductors, the line gets energized and the electrical energy
flows along the length of the conductors.
A two-conductor transmission
09/21/17 line may
Ruikar Sachin, appear
Walchand Collegein any of the forms 3
shown in the figure of Engg, Sangli
Various Types Of
Transmission Line
Co-axial cable
Consists of a solid conducting rod surrounded by the two conductors. This line has
good isolation of the electrical energy and therfore has low Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).

Parallel wire transmission line


Consists of two parallel conducting rods. In this case the electrical energy is
distributed between and around the rods. Theoretically the electric and magnetic
fields extend over infinite distance though their strength reduces as the distance from
the line. Obviously this line has higher EMI.

Microstrip line
Consists of a dielectric substrate having ground plane on one side and a thin metallic
strip on the other side. The majority of the fields are confined in the dielectric
substrate between the strip and the ground plane. Some fringing field exist above the
substrate which decay rapidly as a function of height. This line is usually found in
printed circuit boards at high frequencies.

Balanced and Un-balanced line


If the two conductors are symmetric around the ground, then the line is called the
balanced line, otherwise the line is an un-balanced line. Transmission lines (a), (c)
and (d) are un-balanced line, whereas the line (b) is a balanced line.
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 4
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Coaxial Cable Applications
In practice, it is usually unnecessary to
find the impedance of coaxial cable since
the impedance is part of the cable
specification
As indicated in the table, there are
standard impedances for coaxial cable
Impedance Application Typicaltypenumbers
(ohms)

50 RadioTransmitters RG8/U
CommunicationsReceivers RG58/U

75 CableTelevision RG59/U
TVAntennafeedlines
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 5
93 Computernetworks
of Engg, Sangli RG62/U
Transit Time Effect
,

It is important to note that No Signal can travel with infinite velocity. That is to say that if a
voltage or current changes at some location, its effect cannot be felt instantaneously at
some other location. There is a finite delay between the 'cause' and the effect. This is
called the ' Transit Time' effect.
Consider the two-conductor line which is connected to a sinusoidal signal generator of
frequency at one end and a load impedance at the other end. Due to the transit time effect
the voltage applied at AA' will not appear instantaneously at BB'.
Let the signal travel with velocity along the line. Then the Transit time

, l= length of the line.

At some instant let the voltage at AA' beVp . Then Vp will appear at BB' only after tr .
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin,
However, during this time the voltage at AA'Walchand
changes College
to (say )VQ . 6
of Engg, Sangli
Transit Time Effect
Ideally the transit time effect should be included in analysis of all electrical
circuits. However if the time period of the signal is much larger than
the transit time, we may ignore the effect of transmit time. That is, the transit
time effect can be neglected if

Transit time effect becomes important when the length of the line becomes
comparable to the wavelength. As the frequency increases, the wavelength
reduces, and the transit time effect becomes more and more important.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 7


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Transmission Line Parameters
Types of Circuit
Lumped
Distributed

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Lumped Circuit Model

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Distributed Circuit Elements

The distributed parameters can be defined per unit length of the line.
R = Resistance of both conductors together for unit length of the line (ohms/m)
L = Inductance (self and mutual) for both conductors together for unit length of the line (Henery/m)
C = Capacitance between two conductors for unit length of the line (Farad/m)
G = Leakage conductance between
09/21/17 Ruikartwo conductors
Sachin, for unit
Walchand length of the line (Mho/m).
College 10
of Engg, Sangli
Transmission Line parameter
Primary line constant
Secondary line constant

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 11


of Engg, Sangli
Primary line constant
Resistance( R):
Transmission lines are made up of the conducting wires. These are not
pure conductors and have some resistance per unit length (km or mile) depending
on type of conductor used. Hence, resistance does exist throughout the wire.
Inductance (L):
A wire carrying current gives rise to inductance. Since current is present in
the line, the conductor is surrounded and linked by magnetic flux and this
phenomenon demonstrates its effect in the distributed inductance all along the
lines.
Capacitance (C):
Capacitance is formed when two conducting wires are separated by a
dielectric material in between them. Transmission lines also have two current
carrying conductors and dielectric between them. The dielectric may be air (e.g.
open wire) or core material or dielectric substrate; thus, the distributed capacitance
exists throughout the wire.
Conductance (G):
The dielectric or insulator of the transmission line may not be perfect.
Because of leaky capacitance, a leakage current flows and leakage conductance
(G) exists between the conductor throughout its length.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 12


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Common Transmission Line

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Distributed parameters of a two
conductor Transmission line
RL

CG

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Secondary Line Constant
The characteristic impedance (Z0),
propagation constant ( ), attenuation
constant ( ) and phase constant () are
called as Secondary line constants.
These are again expressed per unit length
of the fine. These constants vary with
frequency and also depend on primary
line constants. But primary line constants
are independent of frequency.
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 15
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Relation between Primary &
Secondary Line constant
As in Fig. consider a short length line of l
kilometer long. The short line has a resistance R
l, inductance L l, capacitance C l.

Total Series impedance = Z 1 ( R JL)l ohms


1
Total shunt impedance = Z 2 ohms
09/21/17
JC )l
Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
(GSangli
of Engg,
16
Determination of Zo in terms of
primary constant
For a T section, the characteristics imp(Zo)
Z12
Zo Z1 Z 2
4
1
Putting Z 1 ( R JL)l and Z2 =
in above equation gives, (G JL)l

( R JL) 2 l 2 ( R JL)
Z0
4 (G JC )
As l 0 , the line impedance will be equal to characteristics
impedance
( R JL) Z
Zo
(G JC ) Y
Where, Z = (R + JL) Ruikar
09/21/17
= Total series impedance per unit length
Sachin, Walchand College 17
Y = (G+jC) = Total shunt admittance
of Engg, Sangli per unit length
Determination of Zo in terms
of primary constant
Charecteristics impedance in terms of
magnitude & phase
1
1 L 2

R 2 2 L2 tan
Zo R Zo Zo

G 2
C tan 1 C
2 2

G
i.e.

R 2
L 2
1 2
L C
Zo 4 2 . .(tan 1
) (tan 1
)
G C 2
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2 2
R G
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Determination of Zo in terms
of primary constant
when is small (low frequency)
R
Zo
G

When is large (high frequency)


L
Zo
C

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 19


of Engg, Sangli
Determination of propagation
constant ( )in terms of primary
For T network
l Z1 Zo
e 1
2Z 2 Z2
By putting values of Z1 & Z2 , we get

( R JL)(G JC )l
2
l
e 1 Zo(G JC )l
2
Then

l ( R JL)(G JC ) 2
e 1 ( ( R JL)(G JC .).l .l ...............(d )
2
The exponential term e l can be expressed as

l
e 1 l l .........................................(e)
09/21/17 2Ruikar
2 Sachin, Walchand College
of Engg, Sangli
20
Determination of propagation
constant ( )in terms of primary
By comparing equation (d) & (e) , we get

( R JL)(G JC ) ZY
But can be written in terms of magnitude & phase form

J P P cos JP sin
Propagation constant can be written as in terms attenuation constant per unit
length & Phase constant per unit length.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 21


of Engg, Sangli
Determination of & in terms
of primary constant
Propagation constant can be written in terms of magnitude & Phase form

1 L C
( R L )(G C ) . . tan
4 2 2 2 2
tan 2 2

2 R G
Thus
4 ( R 2 2 L2 )(G 2 2 C 2 ) J .

OR 2 2

( R L )(G C )
2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

( 2 2 ) ( R 2 2 L2 )(G 2 2 C 2 ) ...................(a)
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 22
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Determination of & in terms
of primary constant
J ( R JL)(G JC )
( J ) ( R JL)(G JC )
2

2 2 2 J ( RG JLC JCR 2 LC )........


Comparing real part of the equations, we get,
2 2 ( RG 2 LC )..........................(b)
Adding equation (a) and (b) , we get,


1
2
(R L )(G C ) (RG LC )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2


09/21/17 2 (R L )(G C ) (RG LC )
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
of Engg, Sangli
2
23
Practical values of Zo, & for
underground cable
R L,.and .G C
Characteristics Impedance can be found as
( R JL ) R R
Zo 45
(G JC ) JC C
And propagation constant

( R JL)(G JC ) JCR CR45

RC cos(45 0 ) J RC sin 45 0
RC RC
J ( J )
2 2

RC RC
Nepers /km radians / km
09/21/17 2 2
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DISTORTIONS IN A
TRANSMISSION LINE
Types of Line Distortions
Frequency distortion
Phase (delay) distortion
Impedance distortion

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 25


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DISTORTIONS IN A
TRANSMISSION LINE
Distortions due to Zo varying with time
reduced
L C
for distortion less line constant
R G
(R JL)
Z0
(G JC)
L
R (1 J )
Zo R
C
G (1 J )
G
R
Zo 0
G
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 26
of Engg, Sangli
DISTORTIONS IN A
TRANSMISSION LINE
Distortion due to varying with time
( R JL)(G JC )
2 RG JRC JGL 2 LC
If RG LC RGLC
then RG LC 2 RGLC
2 RG J 2 RGLC 2 LC
2 ( RG J LC ) 2
( RG J LC ) J
RG
09/21/17 LC Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 27
of Engg, Sangli
DISTORTIONS IN A
TRANSMISSION LINE
Distortions due to varying with frequency is reduced
from equations
2 ( RG J LC ) 2
( RG J LC ) J
RG
LC



put the value of
1

LC LC
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 28
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Loading of Transmission Line
There are two types of loading
Continuous loading
In this, a tape of iron or some magnetic materials such as mu metal (u-metal)
is wound around the conductor to be loaded, thus increasing the permeability
of surrounding medium and hence, increasing the conductance
Example: submarine cable
Lumped loading
Here, loading coils are introduced at uniform space (interval) on the
transmission line. The loaded line behaves as if inductance is uniformly
increased at all frequencies upto cut-off frequency. Beyond cut-off frequency,
the attenuation increases very sharply and the line behaves like a low-pass
filter.
Example: telephone cable

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 29


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Effects of loading:
Effect of proper loading (continuous or lumped loading), on the
secondary constants of the line may be summed up as below.

(1) Characteristic impedance (Z0) is increased and becomes


practically a pure resistance.

(2) The attenuation constant () is reduced and becomes practically


constant over the working frequency range.

(3) The phase constant () is increased and the velocity of


propagation is reduced to a value which is practically constant over
the working frequency range.

Thus, loading is very useful in telephone lines and is very extensively


used.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 30


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TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS
Voltage and current on a transmission line is a function of both time and
position. I1 I2

V f z, t V1 V2

I f z, t
dz
H
I I + DI I I + DI
+ + + +

E
V V + DV V V + DV
H
I I + DI I I + DI
- - - -

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TRANSMISSION LINE
EQUATIONS
Both Electric and Magnetic fields are present in the
transmission lines
These fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave
propagation for TEM mode waves, which is the simplest mode, and assumed for
most simulators(except for microstrip lines which assume quasi-TEM, which is
an approximated equivalent for transient response calculations).
Electric field is established by a potential difference between
two conductors.
Implies equivalent circuit model must contain capacitor.
Magnetic field induced by current flowing on the line
Implies equivalent circuit model must contain inductor.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 32


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TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS
Voltage & current equations for small
section of a line

DV ( RDx JLDx ) I
DI (GDx JCDx )V
DV
( R JL ) I
Dx
DI
(G JC )V
09/21/17 Dx Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
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33
TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS
Now if the lumped circuit model should be valid for
arbitrarily high frequency (i.e. arbitrarily small ), the
analysis has to be carried out in the limit X 0
DV dV
lim ( R JL ) I
Dx o Dx dx
DI dI
lim (G JC )V
Dx o Dx dx
d 2V dI
( R J L )
dx 2 dx
BY Putting the value of dI/dx , we get
d 2V
2
( R J L )(G J C )V 2
V
dx
d 2I dV
(G J C )
dx 2 dx
By putting the value of dV/dx
d 2I
09/21/17 2 ( R J L )(
Ruikar Sachin, JC
G Walchand )I 2 I
College 34
dx of Engg, Sangli
TRANSMISSION
2
LINE EQUATIONS
d V
2
V 2

dx
d 2I
2
2
I
dx
Thus both voltage & current are governed by
Linear Differential equation
The solution of the above equations can be written as
x x
V V e V e
I I e x I e x
These
09/21/17 are general line
Ruikarequations
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of Engg, Sangli
35
TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS
v(t ) V e jt e x V e jt e x
i (t ) I e jt e x I e jt e x
but J
jt ( J ) x jt ( J ) x
v(t ) V e e V e e
i (t ) I e jt e ( J ) x I e jt e ( J ) x
BY separating the terms we get
v(t ) V e x e Jt Jx V ex e Jt Jx
i (t ) I e x e Jt Jx I ex e Jt Jx
t x phase(V ) for forward travelling wave

09/21/17
t x phaseRuikar
(V Sachin,
) forWalchand
backwardCollege travelling wave36
of Engg, Sangli
Physical Interpretation of
Voltage & Current Solution
V ( x) V e x V e x

Forward travelling wave x

Backward traveeling wave x
I ( x) I e x I e x
d x
[V e V e x ] ( R JL)[ I e x I e x ]
dx
V e x V e x ( R JL)[ I e x I e x ]
coefficient of e x : V ( R JL) I
coefficient of e x : V ( R JL) I
Since, ( R JL)(G JC )

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 37


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Physical Interpretation of
Voltage & Current Solution
V ( R JL) R JL
Zo
I
G JC
and
V
( R JL) R JL
Zo
I
G JC
V V e x V e x
V x V x
I e e
09/21/17 Zo Ruikar Sachin,
Zo Walchand College
of Engg, Sangli
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Lossless & Distortion less line
Lossless Line ( R G 0)
R JL
Zo
G JC
L
Z0
C
propagation Constant
( R JL )(G JC )
for above conditions
J LC
LC
0
1
09/21/17 RuikarSachin, Walchand College 39
LC
of Engg, Sangli
Distortionless line
Distortionless line RC LG
from equations
2 ( RG J LC ) 2
( RG J LC ) J
RG
LC



put the value of
1

LC LC
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 40
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A Non Terminated Transmission Line

V Vs cosh x IsZo sinh x


Vs
I Is cosh x sinh x General line equation
Zo
Above equation give voltage & current at a distance x from
the sending end in terms of sending end voltage(Vs) and sending
end current (Is)
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A Non Terminated Transmission
Line
When boundary conditions at the output side are used, the
constants can be expressed in terms of receiving-end voltage and
receiving-end current. Then, the general line equations will be as
given below, where (L x) represents distance from receiving end.

V VR cosh ( L x) I R Zo sinh ( L x) General line equation


VR
I I R cosh ( L x) sinh ( L x)
Zo
Above equation give voltage & current at a distance (L - x) from
receiving end in terms of receiving end voltage VR and receiving
end current I R

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 42


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An Infinite Line
When a line is infinite, the condition at the distant (receiving) end like open and
short will not have any effect at the input side. Also, there will be no reflected
wave as no wave can actually reach at the output side. Hence, second term in the
right side of equations given below will be absent.
x x
V V e V e
I I
e x I
e x
Thus, the voltage and current at a distance x from sending end on a infinite line
are,
x
V V e
I I
e x
Here V+ & I+ represent sending end voltage & current of infinite line. These
equation represent exponential form as shown in fig

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An Infinite Line
An infinite line is equivalent to a finite line terminated in its Zo
This can bs shown in fig below

To the right of AB the line is still an infinite line.


Hence, the input impedance seen at AB is equal to Zo.
Let ' l ' be the finite length of line upto AB.
let VR and I R be the voltage &current at AB.
VR
Thus we have Zo.
IR
putting x l and V VR , I I R in the line equation
V Vs cosh x IsZo sinh x
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Is cosh x
of Engg, Sangli
sinh x 44
General line equation
Zo
An Infinite Line
VR Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l
Vs
I R Is cosh l sinh l
Zo
V Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l
Zo R
IR Vs
Is cosh l sinh l
Zo
Cross multiplying, we get
ZoIs cosh l Vs sinh l Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l
ZoIs(cosh l sinh l ) Vs (cosh l sinh l )
ZoIs Vs
Vs
Thus, input impedance of the line Zo
Is
Thus, infinite line is equivalent to a finite line
terminated in characteristics impedance Zo

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 45


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Open & Short Circuited Line
In transmission line there are two waves travelling in opposite direction on a
line between receiving and sending end. These two waves will be added when
are in phase and will cancel when out of phase on the line. The point where
these waves are added is called Antinodes while Nodes are the points on
the line where these waves cancel out. In a shorted end open-circuited line,
complete reflection occurs. This will result in a standing wave on the line.
(a) Open-circuited line :
When two points are open, then there exist a voltage between two points but
current will be zero. Thus, the impedance at open end will be infinite. At a /4
distance from open end, incident wave will be 90o earlier and the reflected wave
will be 90 later than the open end. Thus, two waves are 180 out of phase. At
this point, minima occurs while the maxima are produced at distance from the
open end. The current and voltage distribution along the line is shown in Fig.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 46


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Open & Short Circuited Line
When the two points are short circuited then the voltage between two
points is zero. But there will be maximum current between two points.
Thus, the impedance at the shorted end will be zero. When shorted the
voltage (VR) being zero, there will be no electric energy. But the
current (IR) being not zero, the magnetic energy (1/2 L12) will not be
zero. Because the electric and magnetic energy exist simultaneously
throughout the line, the redistribution of energy takes place at the
shorted end and the standing waves are produced.
The voltage and current distribution differs from open-circuited
case. The voltage and current positions are interchanged. That is with
shorted line, voltage goes through minima at even multiple of quarter
wavelength ( /4) distances from load end. The maxima occurs at odd
multiple of quarter wavelength ( /4) distances from load end. The

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Input Impedance of short and
open circuited Line

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Input Impedance of short and
open circuited Line
Then, at x l , I R 0, V VR , from the equation below
Vs
I Is cosh l sinh l General line equation
Zo
Vs
I 0 Is cosh l sinh l
Zo
Vs cosh l
Zoc Zo Zo coth l
Is sinh l
Hence, open circuited input impedance
Zoc Zo coth l

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Input Impedance of short and
open circuited Line
At x l , I R I, VR V 0, then general equation of line
V Vs cosh x IsZo sinh x
But for short circuit line V 0
V 0 Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l
Vs sinh l
Zsc Zo Zo tanh l
Is cosh l
therefore , shortcircuited impedance of line can be written as
Zsc Zo tanh l

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Input Impedance of short and open
circuited Line
When line is infinite, l due to which
coth l tanh l 1
Thus, Zoc & Zsc as expressed by equations will be Zo.
Thus again it is proved that infinite line has a input impedance of Zo.
multiplying Zsc & Zoc, we get
Zsc Zoc Zo tanh l Zo coth l Zo 2
OR
Zo Zsc Zoc
dividingZs c & Zoc,
Zsc Zo tanh l
tanh 2 l
Zoc Zo coth l
Thus,
Zsc
tanh l
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
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Zoc
Wavelength, Velocity of
propagation and group velocity
Wavelength:
It is the distance that a wave travels along the
line so that the total phase shift is 2 radians
It is the distance between two points on the
line at which the voltage or current are in
phase or phase shift is 3600.
2
or
2
Ruikar
Sachin, Walchand College
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09/21/17 52
Wavelength, Velocity of propagation and
group velocity
Velocity of propagation(p)
It is defined as the velocity with which a signal of single
frequency will propagate along the line at a particular
frequency(f). Its unit is Km/sec or miles/sec.
The velocity of propagation along the line is based on the
changes of the phase along the line. Hence, it is referred as
phase velocity or wave velocity.
p f
This is because a phase change of 2 radians represent one
cycle in time & occurs at a distance of . Hence,
1
P T
f
using equation of , weget
2
p f .f

or
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 53
p
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Wavelength, Velocity of propagation and
group velocity
Group velocity(vg)
Generally is not a constant multiple of w. d 1 2
g
Hence if the signal is composite there will d 1 2
be shift in phase relation during
Relation between phase and group velocity
propagation. This phenomenon is known
as dispersion which results in distortion.
p differntiating with respect to gives
For complex wave with distortion, vp is
difficult to define. d d
For a signal with small dispersion, the 1 ( )
d P d d
velocity of propagation is equal to group
d 2
velocity.
dv 1
Example AM signal p 1 vp
Group velocity is very important for phase d vg
modulated & frequency modulated waves or
and transmission of signal through vp
waveguides.. It is given by equation vg
dv
1 p
d
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STANDING WAVES AND
IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
How standing waves are formed on a line?
The voltage and current on the line are superposition of the two waves travelling
in the opposite directions.
Where l is the distance measured from the load towards the generator l=-x.
The general equation of line are
V V e x V e x
I I e x I e x
Now for the distance l of load end
V (l ) V e l V e l
I (l ) I e l I e l
Incident Wave V e x V e l
Reflected wave V e x V e l

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Voltage Reflection Co-efficient and
its Relation to Load Impedance
As a measure of reflected energy we define a quantity called '
Voltage Reflection Coefficient ' as
Reflection coefficien t (l )
V e l V 2l
(l ) l

e
V e V
(l ) represents the reflection coefficien t at a
distance of ' l ' from load end
Larger value of reflection coefficien t indicates
more reflection from load.
Substituting above equation in V(l ) & I(l )
V (l ) V e l [1 (l )]
V l
I (l )
09/21/17 Sachin,
e [1Ruikar (l )]Walchand College 56
Zo of Engg, Sangli
Impedance
Impedance seen at any distance l from the load in terms of the ' Reflection
Coefficient ' then is
V (l ) 1 (l )
Z (l ) Zo
I (l ) 1 (l )
Cross multiplying & simplifying, we get
Z (l ) Zo
(l )
Z (l ) Zo
Above equation gives reflection coefficient at a distance of
' l ' from load end. When l 0, we have Z(l ) Z R , hence we get
Z R Zo
(0) L
Z R Zo
Where L is the reflection coefficent at the load end &is defined as
V Re felected voltage at load end
L
V Incident voltage at load end
Reflection coefficient can also be defined in terms of current
I Re felected current at load end
L
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 57
I Incident current at load endSangli
of Engg,
Impedance at any point
Reflection coefficien t (l )
V e l V 2l
(l ) l e L e 2l
V e V
The voltage & current at any location on the line
as give by the equation
V (l ) V e l [1 L e 2l ]
V l
I (l ) e [1 L e 2l ]
Zo
The input impedance at any point on the line is given by
[1 L e 2l ]
Z (l ) Zo 2l
[1 L e ]
Substituting from L equation into above equation
l Z R Z O l
e e
Z (l ) Zo Z R ZO
l Z R Z O l
09/21/17 e Ruikar Sachin,
e Walchand
College 58
Z R Z O of Engg,
Sangli
Impedance at any point
( Z R Z O )e l ( Z R Z O )e l
Z (l ) Zo l l
(
R Z Z O ) e ( Z R Z O ) e
Rearranging the above equation, gives
Z R (e l e l ) Z O (e l e l )
Z (l ) Zo l l l l
Z R (e e ) Z O ( e e )
e l e l e l e l
Since sinh l and cosh l
2 2
Z R cosh l Zo sinh l
Z (l ) Zo
Z
R sinh l Zo cosh l
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 59
of Engg, Sangli
Impedance transformation
At x - x' impedance Z1 can be obtained
from equation of Z(l )
Z cosh l Zo sinh l
Z (l ) Zo R
Z R sinh l Zo cosh l
by putting Z R Z 2
Z cosh l Zo sinh l
Z1 Zo 2
Z
2 sinh l Zo cosh l
where l is the distance from y - y' at which impedance is Z2
Crooss multiplying &simplifies we get
If we go from X to Y length is negative.
Z cosh l Zo sinh l If we go from Y to X length is positive.
Z 2 Zo 1
Z1 sinh l Zo cosh l
but cosh(l ) cosh l
sinh(l ) sinh l
Above equation can be rearranged
Z1 cosh(l ) Zo sinh(l )
Z 2 Zo
09/21/17 Z 1 sinh( l ) Zo cosh(l )
Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 60
of Engg, Sangli
Impedance transformation
Equation below is the generalised imedance transformation from
any point on the line to any other point on the line with appropriate
use of the sign for the length l.
Z 2 cosh l Zo sinh l
Z1 Zo
Z
2 sinh l Zo cosh l
Note : all the length measured towards the generator are positive
and all the lengths measured away from generator are negative.
Z2
Zo cosh l sinh l
Z1
Zo
Zo Z2
sinh l cosh l
Zo
i.e. normalised impedance w.r.t. the Zo. of the line.
Z 2 cosh l sinh l
Z1 Zo
Z
2 sinh l cosh l
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 61
of Engg, Sangli
Analysis of Loss Less
Transmission line
To minimize the power loss on the line R=0 & G =0; because power
is lost in the resistance of the two conductor and the conductance of
the dielectric separating the two conductor.
jLjC j LC
j L L
Zo
j C C
It should be noted that for a loss - less line, is purely imaginary &
Characteristic impedance is purely real.
0; LC
In practice we do not find a loss - less line. However we get low
loss transmission line.
A line is called low loss provided it has R L and G C
at the frequency of operation.
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 62
of Engg, Sangli
Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line
The line parameter for a low loss line can be written as
j ( R jL)(G jC )
R G
jL 1 j jC 1 j
L C
1/ 2 1/ 2
R G
j LC 1 j 1 j
L C
Since; R / L are G/C are 1, expanding the brackets binomially
and retaining only first order terms, we get,
R G
j j LC 1 j 1 j
2L 2C
Again the product (R/ 2L)(G/ 2C ) is a second order term and
therefore can be neglected, giving
R G
j j LC 1 j 1 j
2 L 2 C
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 63
of Engg, Sangli
Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line
Separating real and imaginary parts we get
R C G L
Attenuation constant :
2 L 2 C
phase constant : LC
It can be observed that the phase constant of a low loss line is same as that
of the loss less line for given L and C.
The use of is made only in power loss calculation.
In practice if the condition << implies negligible reduction in the wave
amplitude over one wavelength distance on the transmission line.
Substituting j in equation of general transmission line as
V (l ) V e l V e l
V l V l
I (l ) e e
Zo Zo
Then,
V (l ) V e jl V e jl
V j l V j l
I (l ) e e
Zo Zo
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 64
The refelection coefficienof t from equation can be written as
Engg, Sangli
Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line
The Reflection coefficient (l ) at any point on the line
V e l V 2l
(l ) l e L e 2l
V e V
Putting j in above equation
Z Z O 2 j l
(l ) L e 2 jl R e
Z R ZO
The voltage & current equation can be written as

V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j 2 l

I (l )
V
Zo

e jl 1 L e j 2 l
Let the reflection coefficient at the load end be written in
the amplitude and phase form as
L L e j
Then we have

V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

09/21/17
I (l )
V
Zo

e jl 1 L e j ( of
2 l )

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
Engg, Sangli
65
Analysis of Loss Less Transmission
line
As we move towards the generator the phase 2 l
becomes more negative and point P rotates clockwise on
the dotted circle. The radius of the circle is L . Length of the
vector OP gives the magnitude of the quantity (1 )e j ( 2 l )
L

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Spatial Variation of Current & Voltage
The previous equations indicate that the amplitudes of the voltage and
current vary as a function of distance on the line.
1 L
Wherever 2l 0 or even multiple of , the quantity in the brackets is
maximum in the voltage expression, and minimum 1 L
in the current expression. That is wherever the voltage amplitude is
maximum, the current amplitude is minimum.

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of Engg, Sangli
Spatial Variation of Current & Voltage
Similarly wherever 2l odd multiple of ,the voltage is minimum
and the current is maximum
NOTE
The voltage and current variation at every point on the line is e j t
only.
The distance between two adjacent voltage maxima (or minima) or
two adjacent current maxima (or minima) corresponds to

2 l 2 then l
2
The distance between adjacent voltage and current maxima or
minima corresponds to

2 l then l
4
We then say that the voltage and current are in space quardrature,
i.e, when voltage is maximum the current is minimum and vice versa.

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of Engg, Sangli
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
The maximum and minimum peak voltages measured In telecommunications,
on the line are standing wave ratio (SWR)
is the ratio of the amplitude
of a partial standing wave at
an antinode (maximum) to
the amplitude at an adjacent
Let us define a quantity called ' Voltage Standing node (minimum), in an
Wave Ratio (VSWR) ' as electrical transmission line.

Substituting for and we get


VSWR is accurate indicator of reflection coefficient on the transmission line.
Vmax > Vmin. And is always greater than 1.
It could be infinity when Vmin=0.
Since, =1 corresponds to L =0 (No reflection).
Similarly, = infinity, corresponds to L =1 (FULL).

For efficient power delivery to the load and L should be as


small as possible.
VSWR=1, corresponds to max power transfer.
09/21/17
Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College
VSWR = ofinfinity(
69
Engg, Sangli), no power delivery to the load.
Return Loss & Reflection Co-efficient
The return loss is defined as
Return loss (RL) 20log L dB
The return loss indicates the factory by which the reflected signal is down
compared to the incident signal.
For perfect match L 0 and the return loss is , whereas for the worst
case of L 1 the return loss is 0 db.
Higher the return loss better is the match.
For acceptable value of VSWR 2,
VSWR- 1 2 - 1 1
L
VSWR 1 2 1 3
Return loss (RL) - 20log(1/3) 9.54
The return loss should be higher than 9.54.
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 70
of Engg, Sangli
Impedance Variation on Transmission Line
The general equation of line in terms of reflection coefficent are,
V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )
V
I (l )
Zo
V (l ) 1 L e j ( 2 l )
Z (l ) Zo
I (l ) 1
L e j ( 2 l )

Z Zo
Substituting L R
ZR Zo
ZR Zo j ( 2 l )

V (l ) 1 ZR Zo
e
Z (l ) Zo
I (l ) 1 ZR Zo j ( 2 l )

e

ZR Zo

Rearranging terms of Z & Zo and noting that
e jl e - jl 2 cos l and e jl e - jl 2 j sin l
Z cos l jZo sin l
Z (l ) Zo L
Zo cos l jZ L sin l
OR interms of normalise impedance
09/21/17 Z cos lRuikar
j sin l Walchand College
Sachin, 71
Z (l ) Zo L Sangli
cos l jZ L sin l
of Engg,
Impedance Variation on Transmission Line
The maximum impedance occurs where the voltage is maximum and
current is minimum and its value is
Vmax 1 L

Z (l ) max Zo
Rmax
I min 1 L

Noting that quantity inside the square brackets is the VSWR, we get
Rmax Zo
Similarly, the minimum impedance occurs at a location where the voltage
is minimum and the current is maximum,
Vmin 1 L
Z (l ) min Zo Rmin
I max 1 L
Rmin Zo /
The magnitude of the impedance at any point on the loss-less line is bounded by

and
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 72
of Engg, Sangli
Important Characteristics of a
Loss Less Transmission Line
Line characteristics repeat every / 2
Normalized impedance inverts every / 4
distance
For load impedance ZL= Zo, the
impedance at any point on the line is Zo.

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Line characteristics repeat every /2

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Normalized impedance inverts
every /4 distance

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For load impedance ZL= Zo, the
impedance at any point on the line is Z o.

Important
If a line is terminated in the characteristics impedance Zo ,
the impedance at every point on the line is Zo . That is the
input impedance of the line is independent of the length of
the line.
This is called the 'Matched Load' condition.
Golden Rule
All high frequency measurements should be carried out in the
matched load conditions (i.e. ZL=Zo ) so that the cable
09/21/17lengths used in measurement
Ruikar Sachin, setups
Walchanddo not play any role.
College 76
of Engg, Sangli
Power delivered to the load
obtained using Circuit concept
Consider a loss-less transmission line with characteristic impedanceZo . Let
the line be terminated in a complex load impedance Z=R+JX=Zo. Since
the load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance, there is
reflection on the line, and the voltage and the current on the line can be
given as

Since the reference point l=0 is at the load end, the power delivered to the
load is

Since the difference of any complex number and its conjugate is in the
purely imaginary part, is a purely imaginary quantity. Therefore
the power delivered to the load is

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 77


of Engg, Sangli
Power delivered to the load
using Wave concept
The power delivered to the load can also be calculated using a different
approach and that is, the power given to the load is the difference of the
power carrried by the incident wave towards the load and the power carried
away by the reflected wave. Since the travelling waves always see the
characteristic impedance, the incident and reflected powers and
respectively are,

We therefore get

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 78


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Complex Power at any point on
the line
The complex power at any point on the line is

Substituting for voltage and current at location ,

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 79


of Engg, Sangli
NOTE
The i.e., the power loss at any point
on the line is same as that at the load. This
makes sense because since the line is lossless,
any loss of power is only in the load impedance

The imaginary power which is related to the


energy stored in the reactive fields is a function
of length. This is due to the fact that for
mismatched lines we have loads , and
hence there is voltage and current variations on
the line due to standing waves. The capacitive
and inductive energies are different at different
locations.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 80


of Engg, Sangli
Special Cases of Line Termination
Impedance of the line are
Z L cosh l Zo sinh l
Z (l ) Z in (l ) Zo for lossy
Zo cosh l Z L sinh l
simplifying the equation j for lossless
Z L jZo tan l
Z (l ) Zo
Zo jZ L tan l
a ) Shorted line Z L Z R 0
Zin JZo tan l
L 1

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 81


of Engg, Sangli
Special Cases of Line Termination
b) Open circuited Line Z L
Zin JZo cot l
L 1

c) Matched Load
Zin Zo
L 0
1

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of Engg, Sangli
Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+
For Impedance calculations the knowledge of V+ is not needed.
However for power calculation we need to know V+ .
We can obtain V+ by transforming the load impedance to the
generator end of the line and then applying lumpled circuit analysis.
The transformed impedance at the generator end is

Z L cos l jZo sin l


Z L Zo R jX
Z 0 cos l jZ L sin l

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of Engg, Sangli
Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+
From circuit (b) the voltage and current at AA' are
Vs
IA
Zs Z L
Z L Vs
VA ZsIs
Zs Z L
From Fig(a) the voltage and the current at the generator
end are j l
V (l ) V e 1
j ( 2 l )
L e

I (l )
V
Zo

e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )
Equating the two voltages we get
Z L Vs
V e j l
1 L e j ( 2 l )

Zs Z L
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 84
of Engg, Sangli
Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+
Z Vse j l
V L
( Zs Z L )(1 L e jl )

Since the line is lossless, the power


supplied to the transformed impedance
is same as that supplied to the load
1
PL P Re(VA I A )
2
2
1 Vs
PL R
2 Z L Zs
09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 85
of Engg, Sangli
Analysis of transmission line in
terms of admittance
The characteristic admittance Yo which is the reciprocal of
characteristics impedance Zo.
The characteristic admittance is a ratio of I+ and V+ by definition. For
losless line since the characteristic impedance Zo is real, so is the
characteristic admittanceYo.
Now convert every impedance to the corresponding admittance. i.e.
YL 1 / Z L ,
Y (l ) 1 / Z (l )
we can write equation of reflection coefficent on any location on the line
1 / Y (l ) 1 / Yo Yo Y (l )
(l )
1 / Y (l ) 1 / Yo Yo Y (l )
Similarly we can write admittance at any point on the line
YL cos l jYo sin l
Y (l ) Yo
09/21/17 Yo cos l jY sin l
L Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 86
of Engg, Sangli
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
The standing wave patterns provide the top envelopes that bound
the time-oscillations of voltage and current along the line. In other
words, the standing wave patterns provide the maximum values
that voltage and current can ever establish at each location of the
transmission line for given load and generator, due to the
interference of incident and refelected wave.

The patterns present a succession of maxima and minima which


repeat in space with a period of length /2, due to constructive or
destructive interference between forward and reflected waves. The
patterns for a loss-less line are exactly periodic in space, repeating
with a /2 period.

Again, note that although we talk about maxima and minima of the
standing wave pattern we are always examining a maximum of
voltage or current that can be achieved at a transmission line
location during any period of oscillation.

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
The voltage standing wave pattern provides immediate information
on the transmission line circuit
If the load is matched to the transmission line ( ZR = Z0 ) the
voltage standing wave pattern is flat, with value | V+ |.
If the load is real and ZR > Z0 , the voltage standing wave
pattern starts with a maximum at the load.
If the load is real and ZR < Z0 , the voltage standing wave
pattern starts with a minimum at the load.
If the load is complex and Im(ZR ) > 0 (inductive reactance),
the voltage standing wave pattern initially increases when
moving from load to generator and reaches a maximum first.
If the load is complex and Im(ZR ) < 0 (capacitive reactance),
the voltage standing wave pattern initially decreases when
moving from load to generator and reaches a minimum first.
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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Impedance Matching
A number of techniques can be used to eliminate reflections when
the characteristic impedance of the line and the load impedance are
mismatched.

Impedance matching techniques can be designed to be effective for


a specific frequency of operation (narrow band techniques) or for a
given frequency spectrum (broadband techniques).

A common method of impedance matching involves the insertion of


an impedance transformer between line and load

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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SUMMARY
Types of Transmission Line
Transmission Line Parameter
Transmission Line Secondary Constant
Determination of
Distortions in Transmission Line
Transmission Line Equation
Physical Interpretation of Voltage & Current Solution
Non Terminated Transmission Line
Input Impedance of short and open circuited Line
STANDING WAVES AND IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION

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SOME IMPORTANT QUESTION
1. What is transit time effect?
2. When does transit time become appreciable?
3. What is distributed element?
4. What is transmission line?
5. What equation govern voltage & current on a transmission line?
6. What is propagation constant, attenuation constant and phase constant?
7. What is characteristic impedance? What does it signify?
8. If the ratio of voltage & current for a travelling wave is negative. What does
it signify?
9. Why do we get standing waves on a transmission line.
10. What is impedance transformation?
11. If impedance at any point on a transmission line is known, can we find
impedance uniquely at any point on the line?
12. What are loss-less and low-loss transmission lines?
13. What is voltage standing wave ratio?
14. What is the range of VSWR?

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SOME IMPORTANT
QUESTION
15. How is VSWR related to the reflection coefficient?
16. What is normalized impedance? What is its significance?
17. What is maximum and minimum impedance seen on a line which is
terminated in a particular.
18. What is matched load?
19. What is smith chart?
20. What is a lossy transmission line?
21. How does VSWR vary along a lossy transmission line?
22. What are drawback of single stub matching & double stub matching?
23. What is double stub matching technique? What is its advantage over
single stub matching?
24. What is a quarter wavelength transformer? What impedance can be
matched using this transformer.

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Assignment
BATCH A1: Q1, Q9, Q17
BATCH A2: Q2, Q10, Q18
BATCH A3: Q3, Q11, Q19
BATCH A4: Q4, Q12, Q20
BATCH B1: Q5, Q13, Q21
BATCH B2: Q6, Q14, Q22
BATCH B3: Q7, Q15, Q23
BATCH B4: Q8, Q16, Q24

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Assignment Question
Q1. A 50-ohm line is connected to an unknown impedance. Voltage measurements along the
line reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage values are 1.75 and 0.25 volts,
respectively. Moreover, the closest distance to the load at which a voltage maximum is
observed is 0.125.
Determine the reflection coefficient L, the load impedance ZL, and the closest distance
to the load at which a voltage minimum is observed. For another load, the same maxima
and minima are observed, but now the closest distance to the load at which a minimum is
observed is 0.125. Determine L and ZL. Also Find SWR.
Q2. The SWR at the load of a line is 9. If the matched-line loss is 10 dB, what is the SWR at
the line input?
Q3. A 50-ohm line feeds a half-wave dipole antenna with impedance of 73+j42.5 ohms. The
line has matched-line loss of 3 dB. What is the total loss of the line? What is the SWR at
the load and at the line input? If the line length is doubled, what is the matched-line loss,
the total loss, the input and load SWRs?
Q4.A load ZL = 50+j10 is connected to a generator VG = 10 0o volts with a 100-ft (30.48
m) cable of a 50-ohm transmission line. The generators internal impedance is 20 ohm, the
operating frequency is 10 MHz, and the velocity factor of the line, 2/3. Determine the
voltage across the load, the total power delivered by the generator, the power dissipated in
the generators internal impedance and in the load. determine the Thevenin equivalent
circuit. Using this circuit determine the load voltage.

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Assignment Question
Q5. A 150 ft long RG-58 coax is connected to a load ZL = 25 + 50j ohm. At the
operating frequency of 10 MHz, the cable is rated to have 1.2 dB/100 ft of
matched-line loss. Determine the total loss of the line and the excess loss due to
the mismatched load.
Q6. If the reflected wave at the load of a transmission line is 6 dB below the incident
wave, what is the SWR at the load? What percentage of the incident power gets
transferred to the load?
Q7. A 100- lossless transmission line is terminated at an unknown load
impedance. The line is operated at a frequency corresponding to a wavelength
= 40 cm. The standing wave ratio along this line is measured to be S = 3. The
distance from the load where there is a voltage minimum is measured to be 5 cm.
Based on these two measurements, determine the unknown load impedance.
Q8. The wavelength on a 50 transmission line is 80 cm. Determine the load
impedance if the SWR on the line is 3 and the location of the first voltage
minimum is 10 cm from the load. At what other distances from the load would one
measure a voltage minimum? A voltage maximum?

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Assignment Question
Q9. A load is connected to a generator by a 30-ft long 75-ohm RG-59/U coaxial
cable. The SWR is measured at the load and the generator and is found to be equal
to 3 and 2, respectively. Determine the attenuation of the cable in dB/ft. Assuming
the load is resistive, what are all possible values of the load impedance in ohm?
Q10. A lossless 50-ohm line with velocity factor of 0.8 is connected to an unknown
load. The operating frequency is 1 GHz. Voltage measurements along the line
reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage values are 6 V and 2 V. It is
observed that a voltage minimum occurs at a distance of 3 cm from the load.
Determine the load reflection coefficient L and the load impedance ZL.
Q11. The SWR on a lossy line is measured to be equal to 3 at a distance of 5 meters
from the load, and equal to 4 at a distance of 1 meter from the load.
a. Determine the attenuation constant of the line in dB/m.
b. Assuming that the load is purely resistive, determine the two possible values
of the load impedance.
Q12. The wavelength on a 50-ohm transmission line is 8 meters. Determine the load
impedance if the SWR on the line is 3 and the location of the first voltage maximum
is 1 meter from the load. At what other distances from the load would one measure
a voltage minimum? A voltage maximum?

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Assignment Question
Q13. A 50-ohm transmission line is terminated at a load impedance: ZL = 75 + j25
a. What percentage of the incident power is reflected back into the line?
b. In order to make the load reflectionless, a short-circuited 50-ohm stub of length d
is inserted in parallel at a distance l from the load. What are the smallest values of
the lengths d and l in units of the wavelength that will make the load reflectionless?
Q14. A lossless 50-ohm transmission line is connected to an unknown load impedance.
Voltage measurements along the line reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage
values are 6 V and 2 V. Moreover, the closest distance to the load at which a voltage
minimum is observed has been found to be such that: e2jlmin = 0.60.6j. Determine
the load reflection coefficient L and the impedance ZL.
Q15. A 50 transmission line is connected to a parallel combination of a 100
resistance and a 1nf capacitance. Find the VSWR of the line at a frequency of 2MHZ.
Also find the maximum and minimum resistance
Q16. The transmission line has primary constants R=0.1 /m, G=0.01mho/m,
L=0.01H/m, C=100PF/m. Find the characteristics impedance of the line at 2GHZ.. If
the line is connected to a load impedance 10+J20 . Find the reflection coefficient i)
at the load end of the line. ii) at a distance of 20cm from the load.

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Assignment Question
Q17. A 50 loss less line transmission line is connected to a load of 50+J50 . The
maximum voltage measured on the line is 50V. Find the power delivered to the
load and the peak and the peak voltage at the load end of the line.
Q18. A transmission line has L=0.25 H/m, C=100PF/m, and G=0. What should be
the value of R for the line so that the line can be treated as low loss line? The
frequency of operation is 100MHZ
Q19. A line of 300 characteristics impedance is terminated in admittance
0.01+J0.02. Find i) The reflection coefficient at the load end ii) Reflection
coefficient at a distance of 0.2 from the load end. Iii) Impedance at a distance of
0.2 from the load end.
Q20. Derivethe expression of impedance at any point.
Q21. Determine Characteristics impedance & Propagation Constant in terms of
Primary constant.
Q22. Explain important characteristics of loss less line.
Q23. Explain loading of line.
Q24. What are types of line distortions in line.

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ANY Question
??

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WHAT NEXT
QUIZ

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QUIZ
1. Transmission line equations assume the
following propagation along the line
direction
a. TE
b. TEM
c. TM
d. All above

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QUIZ
ANS: b

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QUIZ
2. For a lossless line (R,G=0) the
characteristic impedance depends on
a. The ratio L/C
b. The angular frequency
c. The ratio L/C & angular frequency
d. None of these

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QUIZ
ANS: a

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QUIZ
3. For a coaxial line, the conductivity of the
dielectric between the two conductors
leads to the following parameter being
non-zero
a. R
b. G
c. L
d. C

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QUIZ
ANS:b

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QUIZ
4. The origin of the Smith chart corresponds
to a reflection coefficient of value
a. 1
b. 0
c. -1
d. Any of these

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QUIZ
ANS : b

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QUIZ
5. The input impedance of a transmission
line does NOT depend on
a. The reflection coefficient at the load end
b. The frequency of operation
c. The length of the line
d. Depends of all of these

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QUIZ
ANS: d

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QUIZ
6. In a lossless transmission line
characteristics impedance repeats every
.. /2
/4
a. Every
/8
b. Every

c. Every
d. Every

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QUIZ
ANS: a

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QUIZ
7.In a lossless transmission Normalized
impedance inverts every ..
a. Every /2
b. Every /4
c. Every /8
d. Every

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QUIZ
ANS: b

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QUIZ
8.In fig below, Voltage standing wave
pattern for for various load are given,
which will be pure inductive load pattern

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QUIZ
ANS : c

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