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Transmission Line

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Transmission Line

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Transmission Line

UNIT V

Transmission Line

By Sachin Ruikar

Syllabus

Line parameters, skin effect,general solution, physical

significance of the equations,wavelength,velocityof

propagation, the distortion less line, Reflection on a

line not terminated in Z0, reflection coefficient, open

and short circuited lines, reflection factor and

reflection loss, Standing Waves, Standing wave

ratio,Input impedance of dissipation line,Input

impedance of open and short circuit lines,power and

impedance measurement on lines,reflection losses on

the unmatched load,

Various Types Of

Transmission Line

transport electrical energy from one point to another.

separated by a distance. When an electrical source is applied between

the two conductors, the line gets energized and the electrical energy

flows along the length of the conductors.

A two-conductor transmission

09/21/17 line may

Ruikar Sachin, appear

Walchand Collegein any of the forms 3

shown in the figure of Engg, Sangli

Various Types Of

Transmission Line

Co-axial cable

Consists of a solid conducting rod surrounded by the two conductors. This line has

good isolation of the electrical energy and therfore has low Electromagnetic

Interference (EMI).

Consists of two parallel conducting rods. In this case the electrical energy is

distributed between and around the rods. Theoretically the electric and magnetic

fields extend over infinite distance though their strength reduces as the distance from

the line. Obviously this line has higher EMI.

Microstrip line

Consists of a dielectric substrate having ground plane on one side and a thin metallic

strip on the other side. The majority of the fields are confined in the dielectric

substrate between the strip and the ground plane. Some fringing field exist above the

substrate which decay rapidly as a function of height. This line is usually found in

printed circuit boards at high frequencies.

If the two conductors are symmetric around the ground, then the line is called the

balanced line, otherwise the line is an un-balanced line. Transmission lines (a), (c)

and (d) are un-balanced line, whereas the line (b) is a balanced line.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 4

of Engg, Sangli

Coaxial Cable Applications

In practice, it is usually unnecessary to

find the impedance of coaxial cable since

the impedance is part of the cable

specification

As indicated in the table, there are

standard impedances for coaxial cable

Impedance Application Typicaltypenumbers

(ohms)

50 RadioTransmitters RG8/U

CommunicationsReceivers RG58/U

75 CableTelevision RG59/U

TVAntennafeedlines

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 5

93 Computernetworks

of Engg, Sangli RG62/U

Transit Time Effect

,

It is important to note that No Signal can travel with infinite velocity. That is to say that if a

voltage or current changes at some location, its effect cannot be felt instantaneously at

some other location. There is a finite delay between the 'cause' and the effect. This is

called the ' Transit Time' effect.

Consider the two-conductor line which is connected to a sinusoidal signal generator of

frequency at one end and a load impedance at the other end. Due to the transit time effect

the voltage applied at AA' will not appear instantaneously at BB'.

Let the signal travel with velocity along the line. Then the Transit time

At some instant let the voltage at AA' beVp . Then Vp will appear at BB' only after tr .

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin,

However, during this time the voltage at AA'Walchand

changes College

to (say )VQ . 6

of Engg, Sangli

Transit Time Effect

Ideally the transit time effect should be included in analysis of all electrical

circuits. However if the time period of the signal is much larger than

the transit time, we may ignore the effect of transmit time. That is, the transit

time effect can be neglected if

Transit time effect becomes important when the length of the line becomes

comparable to the wavelength. As the frequency increases, the wavelength

reduces, and the transit time effect becomes more and more important.

of Engg, Sangli

Transmission Line Parameters

Types of Circuit

Lumped

Distributed

of Engg, Sangli

Lumped Circuit Model

of Engg, Sangli

Distributed Circuit Elements

The distributed parameters can be defined per unit length of the line.

R = Resistance of both conductors together for unit length of the line (ohms/m)

L = Inductance (self and mutual) for both conductors together for unit length of the line (Henery/m)

C = Capacitance between two conductors for unit length of the line (Farad/m)

G = Leakage conductance between

09/21/17 Ruikartwo conductors

Sachin, for unit

Walchand length of the line (Mho/m).

College 10

of Engg, Sangli

Transmission Line parameter

Primary line constant

Secondary line constant

of Engg, Sangli

Primary line constant

Resistance( R):

Transmission lines are made up of the conducting wires. These are not

pure conductors and have some resistance per unit length (km or mile) depending

on type of conductor used. Hence, resistance does exist throughout the wire.

Inductance (L):

A wire carrying current gives rise to inductance. Since current is present in

the line, the conductor is surrounded and linked by magnetic flux and this

phenomenon demonstrates its effect in the distributed inductance all along the

lines.

Capacitance (C):

Capacitance is formed when two conducting wires are separated by a

dielectric material in between them. Transmission lines also have two current

carrying conductors and dielectric between them. The dielectric may be air (e.g.

open wire) or core material or dielectric substrate; thus, the distributed capacitance

exists throughout the wire.

Conductance (G):

The dielectric or insulator of the transmission line may not be perfect.

Because of leaky capacitance, a leakage current flows and leakage conductance

(G) exists between the conductor throughout its length.

of Engg, Sangli

Common Transmission Line

of Engg, Sangli

Distributed parameters of a two

conductor Transmission line

RL

CG

of Engg, Sangli

Secondary Line Constant

The characteristic impedance (Z0),

propagation constant ( ), attenuation

constant ( ) and phase constant () are

called as Secondary line constants.

These are again expressed per unit length

of the fine. These constants vary with

frequency and also depend on primary

line constants. But primary line constants

are independent of frequency.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 15

of Engg, Sangli

Relation between Primary &

Secondary Line constant

As in Fig. consider a short length line of l

kilometer long. The short line has a resistance R

l, inductance L l, capacitance C l.

1

Total shunt impedance = Z 2 ohms

09/21/17

JC )l

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

(GSangli

of Engg,

16

Determination of Zo in terms of

primary constant

For a T section, the characteristics imp(Zo)

Z12

Zo Z1 Z 2

4

1

Putting Z 1 ( R JL)l and Z2 =

in above equation gives, (G JL)l

( R JL) 2 l 2 ( R JL)

Z0

4 (G JC )

As l 0 , the line impedance will be equal to characteristics

impedance

( R JL) Z

Zo

(G JC ) Y

Where, Z = (R + JL) Ruikar

09/21/17

= Total series impedance per unit length

Sachin, Walchand College 17

Y = (G+jC) = Total shunt admittance

of Engg, Sangli per unit length

Determination of Zo in terms

of primary constant

Charecteristics impedance in terms of

magnitude & phase

1

1 L 2

R 2 2 L2 tan

Zo R Zo Zo

G 2

C tan 1 C

2 2

G

i.e.

R 2

L 2

1 2

L C

Zo 4 2 . .(tan 1

) (tan 1

)

G C 2

09/21/17

2 2

R G

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 18

of Engg, Sangli

Determination of Zo in terms

of primary constant

when is small (low frequency)

R

Zo

G

L

Zo

C

of Engg, Sangli

Determination of propagation

constant ( )in terms of primary

For T network

l Z1 Zo

e 1

2Z 2 Z2

By putting values of Z1 & Z2 , we get

( R JL)(G JC )l

2

l

e 1 Zo(G JC )l

2

Then

l ( R JL)(G JC ) 2

e 1 ( ( R JL)(G JC .).l .l ...............(d )

2

The exponential term e l can be expressed as

l

e 1 l l .........................................(e)

09/21/17 2Ruikar

2 Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

20

Determination of propagation

constant ( )in terms of primary

By comparing equation (d) & (e) , we get

( R JL)(G JC ) ZY

But can be written in terms of magnitude & phase form

J P P cos JP sin

Propagation constant can be written as in terms attenuation constant per unit

length & Phase constant per unit length.

of Engg, Sangli

Determination of & in terms

of primary constant

Propagation constant can be written in terms of magnitude & Phase form

1 L C

( R L )(G C ) . . tan

4 2 2 2 2

tan 2 2

2 R G

Thus

4 ( R 2 2 L2 )(G 2 2 C 2 ) J .

OR 2 2

( R L )(G C )

2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

( 2 2 ) ( R 2 2 L2 )(G 2 2 C 2 ) ...................(a)

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 22

of Engg, Sangli

Determination of & in terms

of primary constant

J ( R JL)(G JC )

( J ) ( R JL)(G JC )

2

Comparing real part of the equations, we get,

2 2 ( RG 2 LC )..........................(b)

Adding equation (a) and (b) , we get,

1

2

(R L )(G C ) (RG LC )

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

09/21/17 2 (R L )(G C ) (RG LC )

1 2 2 2 2 2 2

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

2

23

Practical values of Zo, & for

underground cable

R L,.and .G C

Characteristics Impedance can be found as

( R JL ) R R

Zo 45

(G JC ) JC C

And propagation constant

RC cos(45 0 ) J RC sin 45 0

RC RC

J ( J )

2 2

RC RC

Nepers /km radians / km

09/21/17 2 2

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 24

of Engg, Sangli

DISTORTIONS IN A

TRANSMISSION LINE

Types of Line Distortions

Frequency distortion

Phase (delay) distortion

Impedance distortion

of Engg, Sangli

DISTORTIONS IN A

TRANSMISSION LINE

Distortions due to Zo varying with time

reduced

L C

for distortion less line constant

R G

(R JL)

Z0

(G JC)

L

R (1 J )

Zo R

C

G (1 J )

G

R

Zo 0

G

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 26

of Engg, Sangli

DISTORTIONS IN A

TRANSMISSION LINE

Distortion due to varying with time

( R JL)(G JC )

2 RG JRC JGL 2 LC

If RG LC RGLC

then RG LC 2 RGLC

2 RG J 2 RGLC 2 LC

2 ( RG J LC ) 2

( RG J LC ) J

RG

09/21/17 LC Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 27

of Engg, Sangli

DISTORTIONS IN A

TRANSMISSION LINE

Distortions due to varying with frequency is reduced

from equations

2 ( RG J LC ) 2

( RG J LC ) J

RG

LC

put the value of

1

LC LC

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 28

of Engg, Sangli

Loading of Transmission Line

There are two types of loading

Continuous loading

In this, a tape of iron or some magnetic materials such as mu metal (u-metal)

is wound around the conductor to be loaded, thus increasing the permeability

of surrounding medium and hence, increasing the conductance

Example: submarine cable

Lumped loading

Here, loading coils are introduced at uniform space (interval) on the

transmission line. The loaded line behaves as if inductance is uniformly

increased at all frequencies upto cut-off frequency. Beyond cut-off frequency,

the attenuation increases very sharply and the line behaves like a low-pass

filter.

Example: telephone cable

of Engg, Sangli

Effects of loading:

Effect of proper loading (continuous or lumped loading), on the

secondary constants of the line may be summed up as below.

practically a pure resistance.

constant over the working frequency range.

propagation is reduced to a value which is practically constant over

the working frequency range.

used.

of Engg, Sangli

TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

Voltage and current on a transmission line is a function of both time and

position. I1 I2

V f z, t V1 V2

I f z, t

dz

H

I I + DI I I + DI

+ + + +

E

V V + DV V V + DV

H

I I + DI I I + DI

- - - -

of Engg, Sangli

TRANSMISSION LINE

EQUATIONS

Both Electric and Magnetic fields are present in the

transmission lines

These fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave

propagation for TEM mode waves, which is the simplest mode, and assumed for

most simulators(except for microstrip lines which assume quasi-TEM, which is

an approximated equivalent for transient response calculations).

Electric field is established by a potential difference between

two conductors.

Implies equivalent circuit model must contain capacitor.

Magnetic field induced by current flowing on the line

Implies equivalent circuit model must contain inductor.

of Engg, Sangli

TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

Voltage & current equations for small

section of a line

DV ( RDx JLDx ) I

DI (GDx JCDx )V

DV

( R JL ) I

Dx

DI

(G JC )V

09/21/17 Dx Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

33

TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

Now if the lumped circuit model should be valid for

arbitrarily high frequency (i.e. arbitrarily small ), the

analysis has to be carried out in the limit X 0

DV dV

lim ( R JL ) I

Dx o Dx dx

DI dI

lim (G JC )V

Dx o Dx dx

d 2V dI

( R J L )

dx 2 dx

BY Putting the value of dI/dx , we get

d 2V

2

( R J L )(G J C )V 2

V

dx

d 2I dV

(G J C )

dx 2 dx

By putting the value of dV/dx

d 2I

09/21/17 2 ( R J L )(

Ruikar Sachin, JC

G Walchand )I 2 I

College 34

dx of Engg, Sangli

TRANSMISSION

2

LINE EQUATIONS

d V

2

V 2

dx

d 2I

2

2

I

dx

Thus both voltage & current are governed by

Linear Differential equation

The solution of the above equations can be written as

x x

V V e V e

I I e x I e x

These

09/21/17 are general line

Ruikarequations

Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

35

TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS

v(t ) V e jt e x V e jt e x

i (t ) I e jt e x I e jt e x

but J

jt ( J ) x jt ( J ) x

v(t ) V e e V e e

i (t ) I e jt e ( J ) x I e jt e ( J ) x

BY separating the terms we get

v(t ) V e x e Jt Jx V ex e Jt Jx

i (t ) I e x e Jt Jx I ex e Jt Jx

t x phase(V ) for forward travelling wave

09/21/17

t x phaseRuikar

(V Sachin,

) forWalchand

backwardCollege travelling wave36

of Engg, Sangli

Physical Interpretation of

Voltage & Current Solution

V ( x) V e x V e x

Forward travelling wave x

Backward traveeling wave x

I ( x) I e x I e x

d x

[V e V e x ] ( R JL)[ I e x I e x ]

dx

V e x V e x ( R JL)[ I e x I e x ]

coefficient of e x : V ( R JL) I

coefficient of e x : V ( R JL) I

Since, ( R JL)(G JC )

of Engg, Sangli

Physical Interpretation of

Voltage & Current Solution

V ( R JL) R JL

Zo

I

G JC

and

V

( R JL) R JL

Zo

I

G JC

V V e x V e x

V x V x

I e e

09/21/17 Zo Ruikar Sachin,

Zo Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

38

Lossless & Distortion less line

Lossless Line ( R G 0)

R JL

Zo

G JC

L

Z0

C

propagation Constant

( R JL )(G JC )

for above conditions

J LC

LC

0

1

09/21/17 RuikarSachin, Walchand College 39

LC

of Engg, Sangli

Distortionless line

Distortionless line RC LG

from equations

2 ( RG J LC ) 2

( RG J LC ) J

RG

LC

put the value of

1

LC LC

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 40

of Engg, Sangli

A Non Terminated Transmission Line

Vs

I Is cosh x sinh x General line equation

Zo

Above equation give voltage & current at a distance x from

the sending end in terms of sending end voltage(Vs) and sending

end current (Is)

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 41

of Engg, Sangli

A Non Terminated Transmission

Line

When boundary conditions at the output side are used, the

constants can be expressed in terms of receiving-end voltage and

receiving-end current. Then, the general line equations will be as

given below, where (L x) represents distance from receiving end.

VR

I I R cosh ( L x) sinh ( L x)

Zo

Above equation give voltage & current at a distance (L - x) from

receiving end in terms of receiving end voltage VR and receiving

end current I R

of Engg, Sangli

An Infinite Line

When a line is infinite, the condition at the distant (receiving) end like open and

short will not have any effect at the input side. Also, there will be no reflected

wave as no wave can actually reach at the output side. Hence, second term in the

right side of equations given below will be absent.

x x

V V e V e

I I

e x I

e x

Thus, the voltage and current at a distance x from sending end on a infinite line

are,

x

V V e

I I

e x

Here V+ & I+ represent sending end voltage & current of infinite line. These

equation represent exponential form as shown in fig

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An Infinite Line

An infinite line is equivalent to a finite line terminated in its Zo

This can bs shown in fig below

Hence, the input impedance seen at AB is equal to Zo.

Let ' l ' be the finite length of line upto AB.

let VR and I R be the voltage ¤t at AB.

VR

Thus we have Zo.

IR

putting x l and V VR , I I R in the line equation

V Vs cosh x IsZo sinh x

09/21/17 Vs College

I Ruikar Sachin, Walchand

Is cosh x

of Engg, Sangli

sinh x 44

General line equation

Zo

An Infinite Line

VR Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l

Vs

I R Is cosh l sinh l

Zo

V Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l

Zo R

IR Vs

Is cosh l sinh l

Zo

Cross multiplying, we get

ZoIs cosh l Vs sinh l Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l

ZoIs(cosh l sinh l ) Vs (cosh l sinh l )

ZoIs Vs

Vs

Thus, input impedance of the line Zo

Is

Thus, infinite line is equivalent to a finite line

terminated in characteristics impedance Zo

of Engg, Sangli

Open & Short Circuited Line

In transmission line there are two waves travelling in opposite direction on a

line between receiving and sending end. These two waves will be added when

are in phase and will cancel when out of phase on the line. The point where

these waves are added is called Antinodes while Nodes are the points on

the line where these waves cancel out. In a shorted end open-circuited line,

complete reflection occurs. This will result in a standing wave on the line.

(a) Open-circuited line :

When two points are open, then there exist a voltage between two points but

current will be zero. Thus, the impedance at open end will be infinite. At a /4

distance from open end, incident wave will be 90o earlier and the reflected wave

will be 90 later than the open end. Thus, two waves are 180 out of phase. At

this point, minima occurs while the maxima are produced at distance from the

open end. The current and voltage distribution along the line is shown in Fig.

of Engg, Sangli

Open & Short Circuited Line

When the two points are short circuited then the voltage between two

points is zero. But there will be maximum current between two points.

Thus, the impedance at the shorted end will be zero. When shorted the

voltage (VR) being zero, there will be no electric energy. But the

current (IR) being not zero, the magnetic energy (1/2 L12) will not be

zero. Because the electric and magnetic energy exist simultaneously

throughout the line, the redistribution of energy takes place at the

shorted end and the standing waves are produced.

The voltage and current distribution differs from open-circuited

case. The voltage and current positions are interchanged. That is with

shorted line, voltage goes through minima at even multiple of quarter

wavelength ( /4) distances from load end. The maxima occurs at odd

multiple of quarter wavelength ( /4) distances from load end. The

of Engg, Sangli

Input Impedance of short and

open circuited Line

of Engg, Sangli

Input Impedance of short and

open circuited Line

Then, at x l , I R 0, V VR , from the equation below

Vs

I Is cosh l sinh l General line equation

Zo

Vs

I 0 Is cosh l sinh l

Zo

Vs cosh l

Zoc Zo Zo coth l

Is sinh l

Hence, open circuited input impedance

Zoc Zo coth l

of Engg, Sangli

Input Impedance of short and

open circuited Line

At x l , I R I, VR V 0, then general equation of line

V Vs cosh x IsZo sinh x

But for short circuit line V 0

V 0 Vs cosh l IsZo sinh l

Vs sinh l

Zsc Zo Zo tanh l

Is cosh l

therefore , shortcircuited impedance of line can be written as

Zsc Zo tanh l

of Engg, Sangli

Input Impedance of short and open

circuited Line

When line is infinite, l due to which

coth l tanh l 1

Thus, Zoc & Zsc as expressed by equations will be Zo.

Thus again it is proved that infinite line has a input impedance of Zo.

multiplying Zsc & Zoc, we get

Zsc Zoc Zo tanh l Zo coth l Zo 2

OR

Zo Zsc Zoc

dividingZs c & Zoc,

Zsc Zo tanh l

tanh 2 l

Zoc Zo coth l

Thus,

Zsc

tanh l

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

51

Zoc

Wavelength, Velocity of

propagation and group velocity

Wavelength:

It is the distance that a wave travels along the

line so that the total phase shift is 2 radians

It is the distance between two points on the

line at which the voltage or current are in

phase or phase shift is 3600.

2

or

2

Ruikar

Sachin, Walchand College

of Engg, Sangli

09/21/17 52

Wavelength, Velocity of propagation and

group velocity

Velocity of propagation(p)

It is defined as the velocity with which a signal of single

frequency will propagate along the line at a particular

frequency(f). Its unit is Km/sec or miles/sec.

The velocity of propagation along the line is based on the

changes of the phase along the line. Hence, it is referred as

phase velocity or wave velocity.

p f

This is because a phase change of 2 radians represent one

cycle in time & occurs at a distance of . Hence,

1

P T

f

using equation of , weget

2

p f .f

or

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 53

p

of Engg, Sangli

Wavelength, Velocity of propagation and

group velocity

Group velocity(vg)

Generally is not a constant multiple of w. d 1 2

g

Hence if the signal is composite there will d 1 2

be shift in phase relation during

Relation between phase and group velocity

propagation. This phenomenon is known

as dispersion which results in distortion.

p differntiating with respect to gives

For complex wave with distortion, vp is

difficult to define. d d

For a signal with small dispersion, the 1 ( )

d P d d

velocity of propagation is equal to group

d 2

velocity.

dv 1

Example AM signal p 1 vp

Group velocity is very important for phase d vg

modulated & frequency modulated waves or

and transmission of signal through vp

waveguides.. It is given by equation vg

dv

1 p

d

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 54

of Engg, Sangli

STANDING WAVES AND

IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION

How standing waves are formed on a line?

The voltage and current on the line are superposition of the two waves travelling

in the opposite directions.

Where l is the distance measured from the load towards the generator l=-x.

The general equation of line are

V V e x V e x

I I e x I e x

Now for the distance l of load end

V (l ) V e l V e l

I (l ) I e l I e l

Incident Wave V e x V e l

Reflected wave V e x V e l

of Engg, Sangli

Voltage Reflection Co-efficient and

its Relation to Load Impedance

As a measure of reflected energy we define a quantity called '

Voltage Reflection Coefficient ' as

Reflection coefficien t (l )

V e l V 2l

(l ) l

e

V e V

(l ) represents the reflection coefficien t at a

distance of ' l ' from load end

Larger value of reflection coefficien t indicates

more reflection from load.

Substituting above equation in V(l ) & I(l )

V (l ) V e l [1 (l )]

V l

I (l )

09/21/17 Sachin,

e [1Ruikar (l )]Walchand College 56

Zo of Engg, Sangli

Impedance

Impedance seen at any distance l from the load in terms of the ' Reflection

Coefficient ' then is

V (l ) 1 (l )

Z (l ) Zo

I (l ) 1 (l )

Cross multiplying & simplifying, we get

Z (l ) Zo

(l )

Z (l ) Zo

Above equation gives reflection coefficient at a distance of

' l ' from load end. When l 0, we have Z(l ) Z R , hence we get

Z R Zo

(0) L

Z R Zo

Where L is the reflection coefficent at the load end &is defined as

V Re felected voltage at load end

L

V Incident voltage at load end

Reflection coefficient can also be defined in terms of current

I Re felected current at load end

L

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 57

I Incident current at load endSangli

of Engg,

Impedance at any point

Reflection coefficien t (l )

V e l V 2l

(l ) l e L e 2l

V e V

The voltage & current at any location on the line

as give by the equation

V (l ) V e l [1 L e 2l ]

V l

I (l ) e [1 L e 2l ]

Zo

The input impedance at any point on the line is given by

[1 L e 2l ]

Z (l ) Zo 2l

[1 L e ]

Substituting from L equation into above equation

l Z R Z O l

e e

Z (l ) Zo Z R ZO

l Z R Z O l

09/21/17 e Ruikar Sachin,

e Walchand

College 58

Z R Z O of Engg,

Sangli

Impedance at any point

( Z R Z O )e l ( Z R Z O )e l

Z (l ) Zo l l

(

R Z Z O ) e ( Z R Z O ) e

Rearranging the above equation, gives

Z R (e l e l ) Z O (e l e l )

Z (l ) Zo l l l l

Z R (e e ) Z O ( e e )

e l e l e l e l

Since sinh l and cosh l

2 2

Z R cosh l Zo sinh l

Z (l ) Zo

Z

R sinh l Zo cosh l

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 59

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Impedance transformation

At x - x' impedance Z1 can be obtained

from equation of Z(l )

Z cosh l Zo sinh l

Z (l ) Zo R

Z R sinh l Zo cosh l

by putting Z R Z 2

Z cosh l Zo sinh l

Z1 Zo 2

Z

2 sinh l Zo cosh l

where l is the distance from y - y' at which impedance is Z2

Crooss multiplying &simplifies we get

If we go from X to Y length is negative.

Z cosh l Zo sinh l If we go from Y to X length is positive.

Z 2 Zo 1

Z1 sinh l Zo cosh l

but cosh(l ) cosh l

sinh(l ) sinh l

Above equation can be rearranged

Z1 cosh(l ) Zo sinh(l )

Z 2 Zo

09/21/17 Z 1 sinh( l ) Zo cosh(l )

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 60

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Impedance transformation

Equation below is the generalised imedance transformation from

any point on the line to any other point on the line with appropriate

use of the sign for the length l.

Z 2 cosh l Zo sinh l

Z1 Zo

Z

2 sinh l Zo cosh l

Note : all the length measured towards the generator are positive

and all the lengths measured away from generator are negative.

Z2

Zo cosh l sinh l

Z1

Zo

Zo Z2

sinh l cosh l

Zo

i.e. normalised impedance w.r.t. the Zo. of the line.

Z 2 cosh l sinh l

Z1 Zo

Z

2 sinh l cosh l

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 61

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Analysis of Loss Less

Transmission line

To minimize the power loss on the line R=0 & G =0; because power

is lost in the resistance of the two conductor and the conductance of

the dielectric separating the two conductor.

jLjC j LC

j L L

Zo

j C C

It should be noted that for a loss - less line, is purely imaginary &

Characteristic impedance is purely real.

0; LC

In practice we do not find a loss - less line. However we get low

loss transmission line.

A line is called low loss provided it has R L and G C

at the frequency of operation.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 62

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Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line

The line parameter for a low loss line can be written as

j ( R jL)(G jC )

R G

jL 1 j jC 1 j

L C

1/ 2 1/ 2

R G

j LC 1 j 1 j

L C

Since; R / L are G/C are 1, expanding the brackets binomially

and retaining only first order terms, we get,

R G

j j LC 1 j 1 j

2L 2C

Again the product (R/ 2L)(G/ 2C ) is a second order term and

therefore can be neglected, giving

R G

j j LC 1 j 1 j

2 L 2 C

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 63

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Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line

Separating real and imaginary parts we get

R C G L

Attenuation constant :

2 L 2 C

phase constant : LC

It can be observed that the phase constant of a low loss line is same as that

of the loss less line for given L and C.

The use of is made only in power loss calculation.

In practice if the condition << implies negligible reduction in the wave

amplitude over one wavelength distance on the transmission line.

Substituting j in equation of general transmission line as

V (l ) V e l V e l

V l V l

I (l ) e e

Zo Zo

Then,

V (l ) V e jl V e jl

V j l V j l

I (l ) e e

Zo Zo

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 64

The refelection coefficienof t from equation can be written as

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Analysis of Loss Less Transmission line

The Reflection coefficient (l ) at any point on the line

V e l V 2l

(l ) l e L e 2l

V e V

Putting j in above equation

Z Z O 2 j l

(l ) L e 2 jl R e

Z R ZO

The voltage & current equation can be written as

V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j 2 l

I (l )

V

Zo

e jl 1 L e j 2 l

Let the reflection coefficient at the load end be written in

the amplitude and phase form as

L L e j

Then we have

V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

09/21/17

I (l )

V

Zo

e jl 1 L e j ( of

2 l )

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

Engg, Sangli

65

Analysis of Loss Less Transmission

line

As we move towards the generator the phase 2 l

becomes more negative and point P rotates clockwise on

the dotted circle. The radius of the circle is L . Length of the

vector OP gives the magnitude of the quantity (1 )e j ( 2 l )

L

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Spatial Variation of Current & Voltage

The previous equations indicate that the amplitudes of the voltage and

current vary as a function of distance on the line.

1 L

Wherever 2l 0 or even multiple of , the quantity in the brackets is

maximum in the voltage expression, and minimum 1 L

in the current expression. That is wherever the voltage amplitude is

maximum, the current amplitude is minimum.

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Spatial Variation of Current & Voltage

Similarly wherever 2l odd multiple of ,the voltage is minimum

and the current is maximum

NOTE

The voltage and current variation at every point on the line is e j t

only.

The distance between two adjacent voltage maxima (or minima) or

two adjacent current maxima (or minima) corresponds to

2 l 2 then l

2

The distance between adjacent voltage and current maxima or

minima corresponds to

2 l then l

4

We then say that the voltage and current are in space quardrature,

i.e, when voltage is maximum the current is minimum and vice versa.

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

The maximum and minimum peak voltages measured In telecommunications,

on the line are standing wave ratio (SWR)

is the ratio of the amplitude

of a partial standing wave at

an antinode (maximum) to

the amplitude at an adjacent

Let us define a quantity called ' Voltage Standing node (minimum), in an

Wave Ratio (VSWR) ' as electrical transmission line.

VSWR is accurate indicator of reflection coefficient on the transmission line.

Vmax > Vmin. And is always greater than 1.

It could be infinity when Vmin=0.

Since, =1 corresponds to L =0 (No reflection).

Similarly, = infinity, corresponds to L =1 (FULL).

small as possible.

VSWR=1, corresponds to max power transfer.

09/21/17

Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College

VSWR = ofinfinity(

69

Engg, Sangli), no power delivery to the load.

Return Loss & Reflection Co-efficient

The return loss is defined as

Return loss (RL) 20log L dB

The return loss indicates the factory by which the reflected signal is down

compared to the incident signal.

For perfect match L 0 and the return loss is , whereas for the worst

case of L 1 the return loss is 0 db.

Higher the return loss better is the match.

For acceptable value of VSWR 2,

VSWR- 1 2 - 1 1

L

VSWR 1 2 1 3

Return loss (RL) - 20log(1/3) 9.54

The return loss should be higher than 9.54.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 70

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Impedance Variation on Transmission Line

The general equation of line in terms of reflection coefficent are,

V (l ) V e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

V

I (l )

Zo

V (l ) 1 L e j ( 2 l )

Z (l ) Zo

I (l ) 1

L e j ( 2 l )

Z Zo

Substituting L R

ZR Zo

ZR Zo j ( 2 l )

V (l ) 1 ZR Zo

e

Z (l ) Zo

I (l ) 1 ZR Zo j ( 2 l )

e

ZR Zo

Rearranging terms of Z & Zo and noting that

e jl e - jl 2 cos l and e jl e - jl 2 j sin l

Z cos l jZo sin l

Z (l ) Zo L

Zo cos l jZ L sin l

OR interms of normalise impedance

09/21/17 Z cos lRuikar

j sin l Walchand College

Sachin, 71

Z (l ) Zo L Sangli

cos l jZ L sin l

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Impedance Variation on Transmission Line

The maximum impedance occurs where the voltage is maximum and

current is minimum and its value is

Vmax 1 L

Z (l ) max Zo

Rmax

I min 1 L

Noting that quantity inside the square brackets is the VSWR, we get

Rmax Zo

Similarly, the minimum impedance occurs at a location where the voltage

is minimum and the current is maximum,

Vmin 1 L

Z (l ) min Zo Rmin

I max 1 L

Rmin Zo /

The magnitude of the impedance at any point on the loss-less line is bounded by

and

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 72

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Important Characteristics of a

Loss Less Transmission Line

Line characteristics repeat every / 2

Normalized impedance inverts every / 4

distance

For load impedance ZL= Zo, the

impedance at any point on the line is Zo.

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Line characteristics repeat every /2

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Normalized impedance inverts

every /4 distance

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For load impedance ZL= Zo, the

impedance at any point on the line is Z o.

Important

If a line is terminated in the characteristics impedance Zo ,

the impedance at every point on the line is Zo . That is the

input impedance of the line is independent of the length of

the line.

This is called the 'Matched Load' condition.

Golden Rule

All high frequency measurements should be carried out in the

matched load conditions (i.e. ZL=Zo ) so that the cable

09/21/17lengths used in measurement

Ruikar Sachin, setups

Walchanddo not play any role.

College 76

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Power delivered to the load

obtained using Circuit concept

Consider a loss-less transmission line with characteristic impedanceZo . Let

the line be terminated in a complex load impedance Z=R+JX=Zo. Since

the load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance, there is

reflection on the line, and the voltage and the current on the line can be

given as

Since the reference point l=0 is at the load end, the power delivered to the

load is

Since the difference of any complex number and its conjugate is in the

purely imaginary part, is a purely imaginary quantity. Therefore

the power delivered to the load is

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Power delivered to the load

using Wave concept

The power delivered to the load can also be calculated using a different

approach and that is, the power given to the load is the difference of the

power carrried by the incident wave towards the load and the power carried

away by the reflected wave. Since the travelling waves always see the

characteristic impedance, the incident and reflected powers and

respectively are,

We therefore get

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Complex Power at any point on

the line

The complex power at any point on the line is

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NOTE

The i.e., the power loss at any point

on the line is same as that at the load. This

makes sense because since the line is lossless,

any loss of power is only in the load impedance

energy stored in the reactive fields is a function

of length. This is due to the fact that for

mismatched lines we have loads , and

hence there is voltage and current variations on

the line due to standing waves. The capacitive

and inductive energies are different at different

locations.

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Special Cases of Line Termination

Impedance of the line are

Z L cosh l Zo sinh l

Z (l ) Z in (l ) Zo for lossy

Zo cosh l Z L sinh l

simplifying the equation j for lossless

Z L jZo tan l

Z (l ) Zo

Zo jZ L tan l

a ) Shorted line Z L Z R 0

Zin JZo tan l

L 1

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Special Cases of Line Termination

b) Open circuited Line Z L

Zin JZo cot l

L 1

c) Matched Load

Zin Zo

L 0

1

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Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+

For Impedance calculations the knowledge of V+ is not needed.

However for power calculation we need to know V+ .

We can obtain V+ by transforming the load impedance to the

generator end of the line and then applying lumpled circuit analysis.

The transformed impedance at the generator end is

Z L Zo R jX

Z 0 cos l jZ L sin l

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Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+

From circuit (b) the voltage and current at AA' are

Vs

IA

Zs Z L

Z L Vs

VA ZsIs

Zs Z L

From Fig(a) the voltage and the current at the generator

end are j l

V (l ) V e 1

j ( 2 l )

L e

I (l )

V

Zo

e jl 1 L e j ( 2 l )

Equating the two voltages we get

Z L Vs

V e j l

1 L e j ( 2 l )

Zs Z L

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 84

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Evaluation of Arbitrary Constant V+

Z Vse j l

V L

( Zs Z L )(1 L e jl )

supplied to the transformed impedance

is same as that supplied to the load

1

PL P Re(VA I A )

2

2

1 Vs

PL R

2 Z L Zs

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 85

of Engg, Sangli

Analysis of transmission line in

terms of admittance

The characteristic admittance Yo which is the reciprocal of

characteristics impedance Zo.

The characteristic admittance is a ratio of I+ and V+ by definition. For

losless line since the characteristic impedance Zo is real, so is the

characteristic admittanceYo.

Now convert every impedance to the corresponding admittance. i.e.

YL 1 / Z L ,

Y (l ) 1 / Z (l )

we can write equation of reflection coefficent on any location on the line

1 / Y (l ) 1 / Yo Yo Y (l )

(l )

1 / Y (l ) 1 / Yo Yo Y (l )

Similarly we can write admittance at any point on the line

YL cos l jYo sin l

Y (l ) Yo

09/21/17 Yo cos l jY sin l

L Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 86

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

The standing wave patterns provide the top envelopes that bound

the time-oscillations of voltage and current along the line. In other

words, the standing wave patterns provide the maximum values

that voltage and current can ever establish at each location of the

transmission line for given load and generator, due to the

interference of incident and refelected wave.

repeat in space with a period of length /2, due to constructive or

destructive interference between forward and reflected waves. The

patterns for a loss-less line are exactly periodic in space, repeating

with a /2 period.

Again, note that although we talk about maxima and minima of the

standing wave pattern we are always examining a maximum of

voltage or current that can be achieved at a transmission line

location during any period of oscillation.

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

The voltage standing wave pattern provides immediate information

on the transmission line circuit

If the load is matched to the transmission line ( ZR = Z0 ) the

voltage standing wave pattern is flat, with value | V+ |.

If the load is real and ZR > Z0 , the voltage standing wave

pattern starts with a maximum at the load.

If the load is real and ZR < Z0 , the voltage standing wave

pattern starts with a minimum at the load.

If the load is complex and Im(ZR ) > 0 (inductive reactance),

the voltage standing wave pattern initially increases when

moving from load to generator and reaches a maximum first.

If the load is complex and Im(ZR ) < 0 (capacitive reactance),

the voltage standing wave pattern initially decreases when

moving from load to generator and reaches a minimum first.

09/21/17 Ruikar Sachin, Walchand College 92

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Graphical Approach for Transmission Analysis

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Impedance Matching

A number of techniques can be used to eliminate reflections when

the characteristic impedance of the line and the load impedance are

mismatched.

a specific frequency of operation (narrow band techniques) or for a

given frequency spectrum (broadband techniques).

an impedance transformer between line and load

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Impedance Matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Single stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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Double stub impedance matching

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SUMMARY

Types of Transmission Line

Transmission Line Parameter

Transmission Line Secondary Constant

Determination of

Distortions in Transmission Line

Transmission Line Equation

Physical Interpretation of Voltage & Current Solution

Non Terminated Transmission Line

Input Impedance of short and open circuited Line

STANDING WAVES AND IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION

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SOME IMPORTANT QUESTION

1. What is transit time effect?

2. When does transit time become appreciable?

3. What is distributed element?

4. What is transmission line?

5. What equation govern voltage & current on a transmission line?

6. What is propagation constant, attenuation constant and phase constant?

7. What is characteristic impedance? What does it signify?

8. If the ratio of voltage & current for a travelling wave is negative. What does

it signify?

9. Why do we get standing waves on a transmission line.

10. What is impedance transformation?

11. If impedance at any point on a transmission line is known, can we find

impedance uniquely at any point on the line?

12. What are loss-less and low-loss transmission lines?

13. What is voltage standing wave ratio?

14. What is the range of VSWR?

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SOME IMPORTANT

QUESTION

15. How is VSWR related to the reflection coefficient?

16. What is normalized impedance? What is its significance?

17. What is maximum and minimum impedance seen on a line which is

terminated in a particular.

18. What is matched load?

19. What is smith chart?

20. What is a lossy transmission line?

21. How does VSWR vary along a lossy transmission line?

22. What are drawback of single stub matching & double stub matching?

23. What is double stub matching technique? What is its advantage over

single stub matching?

24. What is a quarter wavelength transformer? What impedance can be

matched using this transformer.

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Assignment

BATCH A1: Q1, Q9, Q17

BATCH A2: Q2, Q10, Q18

BATCH A3: Q3, Q11, Q19

BATCH A4: Q4, Q12, Q20

BATCH B1: Q5, Q13, Q21

BATCH B2: Q6, Q14, Q22

BATCH B3: Q7, Q15, Q23

BATCH B4: Q8, Q16, Q24

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Assignment Question

Q1. A 50-ohm line is connected to an unknown impedance. Voltage measurements along the

line reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage values are 1.75 and 0.25 volts,

respectively. Moreover, the closest distance to the load at which a voltage maximum is

observed is 0.125.

Determine the reflection coefficient L, the load impedance ZL, and the closest distance

to the load at which a voltage minimum is observed. For another load, the same maxima

and minima are observed, but now the closest distance to the load at which a minimum is

observed is 0.125. Determine L and ZL. Also Find SWR.

Q2. The SWR at the load of a line is 9. If the matched-line loss is 10 dB, what is the SWR at

the line input?

Q3. A 50-ohm line feeds a half-wave dipole antenna with impedance of 73+j42.5 ohms. The

line has matched-line loss of 3 dB. What is the total loss of the line? What is the SWR at

the load and at the line input? If the line length is doubled, what is the matched-line loss,

the total loss, the input and load SWRs?

Q4.A load ZL = 50+j10 is connected to a generator VG = 10 0o volts with a 100-ft (30.48

m) cable of a 50-ohm transmission line. The generators internal impedance is 20 ohm, the

operating frequency is 10 MHz, and the velocity factor of the line, 2/3. Determine the

voltage across the load, the total power delivered by the generator, the power dissipated in

the generators internal impedance and in the load. determine the Thevenin equivalent

circuit. Using this circuit determine the load voltage.

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Assignment Question

Q5. A 150 ft long RG-58 coax is connected to a load ZL = 25 + 50j ohm. At the

operating frequency of 10 MHz, the cable is rated to have 1.2 dB/100 ft of

matched-line loss. Determine the total loss of the line and the excess loss due to

the mismatched load.

Q6. If the reflected wave at the load of a transmission line is 6 dB below the incident

wave, what is the SWR at the load? What percentage of the incident power gets

transferred to the load?

Q7. A 100- lossless transmission line is terminated at an unknown load

impedance. The line is operated at a frequency corresponding to a wavelength

= 40 cm. The standing wave ratio along this line is measured to be S = 3. The

distance from the load where there is a voltage minimum is measured to be 5 cm.

Based on these two measurements, determine the unknown load impedance.

Q8. The wavelength on a 50 transmission line is 80 cm. Determine the load

impedance if the SWR on the line is 3 and the location of the first voltage

minimum is 10 cm from the load. At what other distances from the load would one

measure a voltage minimum? A voltage maximum?

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Assignment Question

Q9. A load is connected to a generator by a 30-ft long 75-ohm RG-59/U coaxial

cable. The SWR is measured at the load and the generator and is found to be equal

to 3 and 2, respectively. Determine the attenuation of the cable in dB/ft. Assuming

the load is resistive, what are all possible values of the load impedance in ohm?

Q10. A lossless 50-ohm line with velocity factor of 0.8 is connected to an unknown

load. The operating frequency is 1 GHz. Voltage measurements along the line

reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage values are 6 V and 2 V. It is

observed that a voltage minimum occurs at a distance of 3 cm from the load.

Determine the load reflection coefficient L and the load impedance ZL.

Q11. The SWR on a lossy line is measured to be equal to 3 at a distance of 5 meters

from the load, and equal to 4 at a distance of 1 meter from the load.

a. Determine the attenuation constant of the line in dB/m.

b. Assuming that the load is purely resistive, determine the two possible values

of the load impedance.

Q12. The wavelength on a 50-ohm transmission line is 8 meters. Determine the load

impedance if the SWR on the line is 3 and the location of the first voltage maximum

is 1 meter from the load. At what other distances from the load would one measure

a voltage minimum? A voltage maximum?

of Engg, Sangli

Assignment Question

Q13. A 50-ohm transmission line is terminated at a load impedance: ZL = 75 + j25

a. What percentage of the incident power is reflected back into the line?

b. In order to make the load reflectionless, a short-circuited 50-ohm stub of length d

is inserted in parallel at a distance l from the load. What are the smallest values of

the lengths d and l in units of the wavelength that will make the load reflectionless?

Q14. A lossless 50-ohm transmission line is connected to an unknown load impedance.

Voltage measurements along the line reveal that the maximum and minimum voltage

values are 6 V and 2 V. Moreover, the closest distance to the load at which a voltage

minimum is observed has been found to be such that: e2jlmin = 0.60.6j. Determine

the load reflection coefficient L and the impedance ZL.

Q15. A 50 transmission line is connected to a parallel combination of a 100

resistance and a 1nf capacitance. Find the VSWR of the line at a frequency of 2MHZ.

Also find the maximum and minimum resistance

Q16. The transmission line has primary constants R=0.1 /m, G=0.01mho/m,

L=0.01H/m, C=100PF/m. Find the characteristics impedance of the line at 2GHZ.. If

the line is connected to a load impedance 10+J20 . Find the reflection coefficient i)

at the load end of the line. ii) at a distance of 20cm from the load.

of Engg, Sangli

Assignment Question

Q17. A 50 loss less line transmission line is connected to a load of 50+J50 . The

maximum voltage measured on the line is 50V. Find the power delivered to the

load and the peak and the peak voltage at the load end of the line.

Q18. A transmission line has L=0.25 H/m, C=100PF/m, and G=0. What should be

the value of R for the line so that the line can be treated as low loss line? The

frequency of operation is 100MHZ

Q19. A line of 300 characteristics impedance is terminated in admittance

0.01+J0.02. Find i) The reflection coefficient at the load end ii) Reflection

coefficient at a distance of 0.2 from the load end. Iii) Impedance at a distance of

0.2 from the load end.

Q20. Derivethe expression of impedance at any point.

Q21. Determine Characteristics impedance & Propagation Constant in terms of

Primary constant.

Q22. Explain important characteristics of loss less line.

Q23. Explain loading of line.

Q24. What are types of line distortions in line.

of Engg, Sangli

ANY Question

??

of Engg, Sangli

WHAT NEXT

QUIZ

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

1. Transmission line equations assume the

following propagation along the line

direction

a. TE

b. TEM

c. TM

d. All above

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS: b

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

2. For a lossless line (R,G=0) the

characteristic impedance depends on

a. The ratio L/C

b. The angular frequency

c. The ratio L/C & angular frequency

d. None of these

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS: a

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

3. For a coaxial line, the conductivity of the

dielectric between the two conductors

leads to the following parameter being

non-zero

a. R

b. G

c. L

d. C

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS:b

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

4. The origin of the Smith chart corresponds

to a reflection coefficient of value

a. 1

b. 0

c. -1

d. Any of these

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS : b

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

5. The input impedance of a transmission

line does NOT depend on

a. The reflection coefficient at the load end

b. The frequency of operation

c. The length of the line

d. Depends of all of these

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS: d

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

6. In a lossless transmission line

characteristics impedance repeats every

.. /2

/4

a. Every

/8

b. Every

c. Every

d. Every

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS: a

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

7.In a lossless transmission Normalized

impedance inverts every ..

a. Every /2

b. Every /4

c. Every /8

d. Every

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS: b

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

8.In fig below, Voltage standing wave

pattern for for various load are given,

which will be pure inductive load pattern

of Engg, Sangli

QUIZ

ANS : c

of Engg, Sangli

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