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- Introduction

- Alkanes

Mr. Shields Regents Chemistry U16 L01

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Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry involves the study of Carbon
based compounds of which there are millions and
many more yet to be made

Much more diversity than found in inorganic


compounds

What are some examples of Carbon Based


compounds?
Petrochemicals - Biochemicals
Dyes - Polymers
Pharmaceuticals - Life
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Source
The source of almost all organic compounds
today is petroleum
Crude oil

Through Synthesis hydrocarbons can be further


modified into other organic compounds

Petroleum (crude oil) is first separted into


several different categories at refineries

Separation at refineries is a distillation process


based on BP (mol. Wt.)
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Why so many C compounds?
Carbon atoms can bond with other carbon
atoms in chains. These bonds are
Covalent.

Since Carbon has 4 unpaired electrons it


can form 4 covalent bonds.

C

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Formation of Carbons 4 covalent bonds

Carbons ability to form 4 covalent bonds, even with itself,


leads to carbons ability to form millions of different
compounds, some simple some very complex.
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Properties of Covalent Substances
Covalent compounds are Molecular Compounds
What do we mean by Molecular and What kind of properties do
they have?

Low melting points & boiling points


Poor conductors of heat & electricity
Solids tend to be soft
Can not be worked (not malleable)
May be Polar or nonpolar
Non-polar is not soluable in water
Polar may be slightly sol. to sol. in water
Non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvents
React more slowly than ionic compounds 6
Structural Formulas
Shows kind & number of atoms and how they
are bonded together.

They are 2-D drawings of 3-D objects so


structural formulas arent totally realistic.
H
HCH
H

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Structural Formulas
A single line represents one pair of
electrons (a single bond).

= A double line represents two pairs of


electrons (a double bond).

A triple line represents three pairs of


electrons (a triple bond).
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Condensed Structural Formulas
These formulas show kind & number of atoms as
well as some information regarding what atoms are
joined to what atoms but not how.

They dont depict bonds

Examples: CH4, CH3OH, CH3Cl, CH2Cl2,


CH3CH2CH2CH3, CH3COOH
No information given on how
these oxygen are bonded to this carbon 9
Molecular Formulas
These formulas show kind & number of atoms but
not necessarily any other information

Condensed Structural formula


Examples: CH3OH, CH3CH2CH2CH3, CH3COOH

Molecular formula
Becomes: CH4O, C4H10, C2H4O2

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Molecular Shape
When carbon is bonded to 4 other atoms carbon is at
the center of a tetrahedron and the 4 other atoms are
located at the corners.

This is known
As a
Tetrahedron

If there are 3 Cs
Bonded to each other
Then there are 3 joined
tetrahedrons 11
Vocabulary Interlude
Hydrocarbons: organic compounds
containing only Carbon and Hydrogen.
Straight chain: All internal C bonded to only 2
other Cs
Ex: c-c-c-c-c-c-c
Branched: One or more int. C bonded to 3 or 4
other Cs
Ex: c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c c
| | |
c c c-c-c
|
c
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Vocabulary

Saturated: organic compounds containing


only single bonds (carbon bonded to 4 atoms)

Unsaturated: organic compounds containing


one or more double or triple bonds.

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Vocabulary
Homologous Series: a group of
compounds with related structures and
properties.

Each member of the series differs from the one


before it by the same additional unit. (Ex. The
Alkanes; each differs by one -CH2 unit)

Ex: CH4 C2H6 C3H8

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Primary Categories of Hydrocarbons

There are 3 major Hydrocarbon Categories


These can be Straight Chain or Branched
Alkanes (Single Bonds) [hydrogen = 2n +2]
CH3CH2CH2CH3
Alkenes (Double Bond) [H = 2n]
CH3CH2CH=CH2
Alkynes (Triple Bond) [H = 2n 2]
CH3CH2C CH

Table Q in your Reference Tables is where you can


Get this information! 15
Naming straight-chain Alkanes

All alkane names have the suffix ane.

The prefix depends on the number of Cs.

Ex: Methane 1 Carbon


Ethane 2 Carbon

Whats the Molecular formula of each?


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Prefix # of C atoms
Meth ane 1
Eth 2
Prop 3
But 4
Pent 5
Hex 6
Hept 7
Oct 8
Non 9
Dec 10
(Check out Table P in your Reference Tables) 17
Alkanes
A Homologous series of
Formula Name
saturated hydrocarbons. CH4 Methane

Compounds with a C2H6 Ethane


related structure differing
by the same repeating C3H8 Propane
unit (-CH2-)
C4H10 Butane
- General formula is C5H12 Pentane
CnH2n+2 (n= no. of carbon
atoms) C6H14 Hexane
Problem: Whats the molecular
C7H16 Heptane
formula for the 18
alkane with 27 carbon
Problem: What is the structural formula for pentane?

C-C-C-C-C (Shown w/o the


Hydrogens)

Problem: What is the name of the following


Hydrocarbon?

CH3-CH2-CH2 Hexane!

CH2-CH2-CH3
Is it a branched or straight chain hydrocarbon?
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Properties of Alkanes
Physical Properties
Mol. M.P. B.P.
Change systematically
Formula
with the number of Cs
CH4 -182 -162
C2H6 -183 -89
As the number of Cs C3H8 -188 -42
In a homologous C4H10 -138 -0.5
series increases, the C5H12 -130 36
b.p. & m.p. increases. C6H14 -95 69
C7H16 -91 98
(Due to increasing Intermolecular force C H -57 126
8 18
in the form of temporary dipoles)
C9H20 -54 151 20
SIMPLE HYDROCARBONS
Draw the structural formula, condensed
structural formula and molecular formula
for the following:

propane

Octane

Which should have the highest M.P & B.P.?


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