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DON MARIANO MARCOS MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITY

Copyright 2002 by Harcourt College Publishers, a division of Thomson Learning

North La Union Campus


Sapilang, Bacnotan, La Union

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Center of Development in Teacher Education

BLEPT Review 2017

GENERAL EDUCATION:
General Biology

.
Biology-> derived from Greek word
bio-life
logy-study
-> study of life

Aristotle-> Father of Biology

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BRANCHES OF
BIOLOGY

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Characteristics of Living Things

All living things are made up of cells


The cell is the basic unit of life, both in structure
and function; it is living material bounded by a
membrane
Cells come from and give rise to other cells
Some organisms are unicellular; some are
multicellular

.
Characteristics of Living Things

All living things grow & develop


growth - increase in size and/or number of
cells
growth may be different in different locations
development changes in roles of cells
during life cycle of an organism
individual changes as development proceed
throughout life

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Characteristics of Living Things

All living things regulate their metabolism


metabolism - the sum of the chemical reactions
and energy transformations that take place
within a cell
homeostasis - the tendency of an organism to
maintain a relatively constant internal
environment

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Hierarchical Organization of Living
Things
The biosphere

Cells
Organs and 10 m
organ systems Cell
Ecosystems
Organelles
Communities
1 m
Atoms
Tissues 50 m
Populations Molecules
Organisms

.
Characteristics of Living Things

All living things perceive and respond to


stimuli
stimulus - physical or chemical changes in the
internal or external environment of an organism
cells talk to each other through cell signaling
via special molecules (such as hormones,
neurotransmitters)
organisms signal state via behavior

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Characteristics of Living Things
All living things reproduce
All life arises from previous living forms
Reproduction can be asexual (copying):
Simple cells merely split
Many unicellular organisms reproduce this way
Variation only by mutation in genes

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Characteristics of Living Things
All living things reproduce
Reproduction can be sexual:
Sex = genetic recombination
Complex, typically involves fusion of specialized egg
and sperm cells to form a zygote (fertilized egg)
Genes provided by parents
Provides for variation in offspring

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Organisms Contain an Information System

Information must be transferred from


one cell generation to the next

In multicellular organisms,
information must also be transferred
from one generation to the next
.
Organisms Contain an Information
System
Cells have an information
system made up of nucleic
acids specifically: DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid)
The information is encoded in
regions of DNA called genes, the
units of heredity
Genes are instructions that use a
special, unique code
Instructions are generally for the
production of specific proteins
The nucleic acid code is virtually
identical in all species

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The Diversity of Organisms
Biologists use a hierarchical binomial system
for classifying organisms.
about 1.8 million living species have been
identified, likely millions more
Taxonomy - the science of classifying and naming
organisms
Carolus Linnaeus 18th century Swedish
botanist; developed a system of classification that
is the basis of what is used today
binomial system because a combination of two
names, genus and specific epithet, uniquely
identifies each species

.
Species - basic unit of classification or
taxonomy
if sexual, a group of organisms that can interbreed
and produce fertile offspring
if asexual, grouped based on similarities (DNA
sequence is best)
Genus - a group of closely related species
Species name has two parts (binomial)
Genus and specific epithet (using Latin or Latinized
language)
The specific epithet usually describes something
about the organism, or is based on the name of the
discover

.
Species name has two parts (binomial)
Genus name is always capitalized
specific epithet is never capitalized
The complete species name is always
italicized (or underlined)
Example: Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
May abbreviate genus name if used
already and context is clear: H. sapiens

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Taxonomic classification is
hierarchical
A group of related genera make up a Family
Related families make up an Order
Related orders Class
Related classes Phylum or Division
Related phyla or divisions Kingdom
Related kingdoms Domain, the highest level of
classification in the modern system.

The gold standard for related is based on DNA


sequence similarities, but other criteria are used as
well (we dont have the complete DNA sequence of all
known species)

.
Taxonomy: Species:
Panthera
pardus
Hierarchical
Organization:
Genus: Panthera
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum Family: Felidae
Class
Order
Order: Carnivora
Family
Genus
species Class: Mammalia

Phylum: Chordata

Kingdom: Animalia

Bacteria Domain: Eukarya Archaea


.
Dumb Domain
Kings Kingdom
Play Phylum
Chess Class
On Order
Fine Family
Green Genus
Sand Species
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The most widely accepted
classification
system today includes
three domains and six kingdoms

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Three Domains of Life
Archaea: containing ancient prokaryotic
organisms which do not have a nucleus
surrounded by a membrane. They have an
independent evolutionary history to other
bacteria and their biochemistry is very
different to other forms of life.

.
Eubacteria: prokaryotic organisms which
do not have a nucleus surrounded by a
membrane.
Eukarya: organisms that have a
membrane-bound nucleus. This domain is
further subdivided into the kingdoms
Protist, Fungi, Plant and Animal.

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Domain Eukarya
Protista
Single celled and simple multicellular
organisms having nuclei
includes protozoa, algae, water molds, and
slime molds
lump group for eukaryotes that do not fit in
the other 3 kingdoms within eukarya

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Domain Eukarya
Protista
NOTE: This kingdom is likely on the way out, to
be replaced by several kingdoms based on
genetic/evolutionary relationships instead

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Domain Eukarya
Fungi
organisms with cell walls consisting of chitin
mostly multicellular, multi-tissued
includes molds, yeasts, mushrooms
mostly decomposers

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Domain Eukarya
Plantae (plants)
complex multicellular organisms having tissues and
organs
Plant cells have walls containing cellulose
most contain chlorophyll in chloroplasts, and carry
on the process of photosynthesis
Nonvascular (mosses) and vascular (ferns, conifers,
flowering plants)
Mostly producers

.
Plantae
complex multicellular organisms having tissues and
organs
Plant cells have walls containing cellulose
most contain chlorophyll in chloroplasts, and carry
on the process of photosynthesis
Nonvascular (mosses) and vascular (ferns, conifers,
flowering plants)
Mostly producers

.
Animalia (animals)
Complex multicellular organisms that
depend on other organisms for
nourishment
Cells lack walls
Typically have organs and organ
systems
Most forms are motile

.
Hierarchical Organization of Living
Things
The biosphere

Cells
Organs and 10 m
organ systems Cell
Ecosystems
Organelles
Communities
1 m
Atoms
Tissues 50 m
Populations Molecules
Organisms

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A TOUR OF THE CELL

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Cell theory
All living organisms are
composed of cells
smallest building blocks of all
multicellular organisms
all cells are enclosed by a
surface membrane that
separates them from other cells
and from their environment
specialized structures with the
cell are called organelles; many
are membrane-bound

.
Cell theory
Today, all new cells arise from
existing cells
All presently living cells have a
common origin
all cells have basic structural and
molecular similarities
all cells share similar energy
conversion reactions
all cells maintain and transfer genetic
information in DNA
the genetic code is essentially
universal

.
Cell organization and homeostasis
Plasma membrane surrounds cells and
separates their contents from the external
environment

Cells are heterogeneous mixtures, with


specialized regions and structures (such as
organelles)

.
Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells
prokaryotic cells
do not have internal
membranes (thus
no nuclear
membrane)
main DNA molecule
(chromosome) is
typically circular; its
location is called the
nuclear area
other small DNA
molecules (plasmids)
are often present, found
throughout the cell

.
Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic cells
prokaryotic cells
plasma membrane is
typically enclosed in a cell
wall
often the cell wall is covered
with a sticky layer of
proteins and/or sugars
called a capsule
do not completely lack
organelles; have:
plasma membrane
ribosomes
generally just called bacteria
prokaryotic cells are typically
1-10 mm in diameter

.
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Basic features of all cells:


Plasma membrane
Semifluid substance called cytosol
Chromosomes (carry genes)
Ribosomes (make proteins)

.
Prokaryotic cells are characterized by
having
No nucleus
DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid
No membrane-bound organelles
Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

.
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by
having
DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a
membranous nuclear envelope
Membrane-bound organelles
Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma
membrane and nucleus
Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger
than prokaryotic cells

.
Nuclear
envelope
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
Nucleolus NUCLEUS
Rough ER Smooth ER
Flagellum Chromatin

Centrosome
Plasma
membrane

CYTOSKELETON:
Microfilaments
Intermediate
filaments
Microtubules
Ribosomes

Microvilli

Golgi
Peroxisome apparatus
Mitochondrion
Lysosome
.
Nuclear envelope Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
NUCLEUS Nucleolus
Chromatin
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosomes

Central vacuole
Golgi
apparatus
Microfilaments
Intermediate
filaments CYTO-
SKELETON
Microtubules

Mitochondrion
Peroxisome
Chloroplast
Plasma
membrane

Cell wall
Plasmodesmata
Wall of adjacent cell

.
The Nucleus: Information Central

The nucleus contains most of the cells


genes and is usually the most conspicuous
organelle
The nuclear envelope encloses the
nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm
The nuclear membrane is a double
membrane; each membrane consists of a
lipid bilayer

.
Ribosomes: Protein Factories

Ribosomes are particles made of ribosomal


RNA and protein
Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in
two locations:
In the cytosol (free ribosomes)
On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or
the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes)

.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum:
Biosynthetic Factory
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accounts
for more than half of the total membrane in
many eukaryotic cells
The ER membrane is continuous with the
nuclear envelope
There are two distinct regions of ER:
Smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes
Rough ER, with ribosomes studding its surface

.
Functions of Smooth ER

The smooth ER
Synthesizes lipids
Metabolizes carbohydrates
Detoxifies poison
Stores calcium

.
Functions of Rough ER

The rough ER
Has bound ribosomes, which secrete
glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to
carbohydrates)
Distributes transport vesicles, proteins
surrounded by membranes
Is a membrane factory for the cell

.
The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and
Receiving Center
The Golgi apparatus consists of flattened
membranous sacs called cisternae
Functions of the Golgi apparatus:
Modifies products of the ER
Manufactures certain macromolecules
Sorts and packages materials into transport
vesicles

.
Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments

A lysosome is a membranous sac of


hydrolytic enzymes that can digest
macromolecules
Lysosomal enzymes can hydrolyze proteins,
fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids

.
Some types of cell can engulf another cell
by phagocytosis; this forms a food vacuole
A lysosome fuses with the food vacuole and
digests the molecules
Lysosomes also use enzymes to recycle the
cells own organelles and macromolecules,
a process called autophagy

.
Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments

A plant cell or fungal cell may have one or


several vacuoles
Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis
Contractile vacuoles, found in many freshwater
protists, pump excess water out of cells
Central vacuoles, found in many mature plant
cells, hold organic compounds and water

.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts change
energy from one form to another

Mitochondria are the sites of cellular


respiration, a metabolic process that
generates ATP
Chloroplasts, found in plants and algae,
are the sites of photosynthesis
Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles

.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Are not part of the endomembrane system
Have a double membrane
Have proteins made by free ribosomes
Contain their own DNA

.
Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion
Mitochondria are in nearly all eukaryotic
cells
They have a smooth outer membrane and
an inner membrane folded into cristae
The inner membrane creates two
compartments: intermembrane space and
mitochondrial matrix
Some metabolic steps of cellular respiration
are catalyzed in the mitochondrial matrix
Cristae present a large surface area for
enzymes that synthesize ATP
.
Chloroplast structure includes:
Thylakoids, membranous sacs, stacked to form
a granum
Stroma, the internal fluid

.
Peroxisomes: Oxidation

Peroxisomes are specialized metabolic


compartments bounded by a single membrane
Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide and
convert it to water
Oxygen is used to break down different types
of molecules

.
The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that
organizes structures and activities in the
cell
The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers
extending throughout the cytoplasm
It organizes the cells structures and
activities, anchoring many organelles
It is composed of three types of molecular
structures:
Microtubules
Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments

.
Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support,
Motility, and Regulation
The cytoskeleton helps to support the cell
and maintain its shape
It interacts with motor proteins to produce
motility
Inside the cell, vesicles can travel along
monorails provided by the cytoskeleton
Recent evidence suggests that the
cytoskeleton may help regulate biochemical
activities
.
Centrosomes and Centrioles
In many cells, microtubules grow out from a
centrosome near the nucleus
The centrosome is a microtubule-
organizing center
In animal cells, the centrosome has a pair of
centrioles, each with nine triplets of
microtubules arranged in a ring

.
Cilia and Flagella

Microtubules control the beating of cilia and flagella,


locomotor appendages of some cells
Cilia and flagella differ in their beating patterns

.
Direction of swimming

(a) Motion of flagella


5 m

Direction of organisms movement

Power stroke Recovery stroke

(b) Motion of cilia


15 m
.
Cilia and flagella share a common
ultrastructure:
A core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma
membrane
A basal body that anchors the cilium or
flagellum
A motor protein called dynein, which drives the
bending movements of a cilium or flagellum

.
Microfilaments (Actin Filaments)

Microfilaments are solid rods about 7 nm in


diameter, built as a twisted double chain of
actin subunits
The structural role of microfilaments is to bear
tension, resisting pulling forces within the cell
They form a 3-D network called the cortex
just inside the plasma membrane to help
support the cells shape
Bundles of microfilaments make up the core
of microvilli of intestinal cells

.
Microfilaments that function in cellular motility
contain the protein myosin in addition to actin
In muscle cells, thousands of actin filaments
are arranged parallel to one another
Thicker filaments composed of myosin
interdigitate with the thinner actin fibers

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings .


Cell Walls of Plants

The cell wall is an extracellular structure that


distinguishes plant cells from animal cells
Prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists also have
cell walls
The cell wall protects the plant cell, maintains its
shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water
Plant cell walls are made of cellulose fibers
embedded in other polysaccharides and protein

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
cell membranes are selectively permeable
some substances readily pass through, others do
not
most permeable to small molecules and lipid-
soluble substances
water(!) and other small molecules like CO2 and O2 can
pass through easily
some examples of molecules that do not pass through
easily: amino acids, sugars, ions

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes

cell membranes are selectively permeable


some passage across the membrane is assisted with special
channels to allow or speed up the passage
the specific selectivity can vary depending on the
membrane

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
diffusion across membranes is
based on random motion of
particles
particles move by random
motion (kinetic energy); over
time, the concentration across a
membrane will tend to equalize
diffusion is the net movement of
particles from an area with a
high (initial) concentration to an
area with a low (initial)
concentration

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
a difference in concentrations establishes a concentration
gradient, which provides the energy for diffusion
given enough time, equilibrium will be reached (the
concentrations on both sides of the membrane will be
equal)
often equilibrium is never reached due to continual removal
and/or continual production of a substance
rate of diffusion is a function temperature and of the size,
shape, and charge nature of the substance

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
osmosis is diffusion of a solvent
across a membrane
in biology, the solvent is typically
water
solutes do not always travel across
membranes with water, but they affect
movement by affecting the
concentration of water
osmotic pressure is determined by
the amount of dissolved substances in
a solution; it is the tendency of water
to move into the solution

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
comparing two solutions:
isotonic - both have the same osmotic pressure
if they have different osmotic pressures, then:
water will tend to flow out of one solution and into the other
hypertonic solution
more tonics, thus:
higher osmotic pressure
water will tend to flow into it
hypotonic solution
less tonics, thus:
lower osmotic pressure
water will tend to flow out of it

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
comparing two solutions:
isotonic
hypertonic
hypotonic

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
turgor pressure is hydrostatic pressure in cells with a cell wall
a cell wall enables cells to take in extra amounts of water without bursting
the cells take in water and push against the cell wall, which pushes back
many cells use turgor pressure as part of maintaining structure; thus, if they
lose turgor pressure, plants wilt

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
special integral membrane proteins assist in
transport across membranes (carrier-
mediated transport)
facilitated diffusion when net
transport follows a concentration
gradient, but proteins are needed to
assist in transport
the carrier protein often provides a
regulated channel or pore through the
membrane
typically used to transport ions and large
molecules like glucose, although water
channels also exist
added energy is not required
(concentration gradient provides the
energy), and in some cases is harvested
during transport
.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
carrier-mediated active
transport requires energy to
work against a concentration
gradient
energy is often supplied by ATP
powering a protein pump that
moves a substance
against a gradient
example: sodium-potassium pump in
nearly all animal cells (moves 3 Na+
out, 2 K+ in)

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
more carrier-mediated active
transport
linked cotransport can also
provide the energy for
active transport
Na+, K+, or H+ is transported
down its gradient, providing
energy
another substance is
transported at the same time
against its gradient, using the
energy
the Na+, K+, or H+ gradient is
often produced by active
transport via a pump that
uses ATP

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes

large particles are transported across membranes via


exocytosis and endocytosis

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes
exocytosis - fusion of vesicles or vacuoles with the
plasma membrane that results in secretion
outside the cell or discarding waste outside the
cell

.
Transport and transfer across cell
membranes

endocytosis vesicles or vacuoles bud into


the cell from the plasma membrane,
bringing materials into the cell; several
types

.
endocytosis
phagocytosis large solid particles are ingested
(including whole cells in some cases)

.
endocytosis
pinocytosis smaller regions of dissolved
materials are ingested

.
endocytosis
receptor-mediated
endocytosis receptor
proteins in the plasma
membrane bind to specific
molecules, causing protein
conformational (shape)
changes that lead to the
formation of a coated vesicle
typically, lysosomes bind with
the vesicles or vacuoles
formed via phagocytosis or
receptor-mediated endocytosis

.
Where does
exocytosis
fit?

Where does
endocytosis
fit (all
forms)?
.