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DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING OF GAS

MEASUREMENT
Training on
Professional development course
4-16 October 2015

LNG Processing

Fadlilatul Taufany, PhD


CONTENT

THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG


THE LNG VALUE CHAIN
THE LNG PROCESSING (LNG TRAIN) TECHNOLOGY
LAYOUT DRAWING OF COMPLETE LNG PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGY
GA DRAWING OF LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
SIMPLIFIED P&ID LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
BASIC DESIGN CALCULATION

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Properties of LNG
1. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled and condensed to a liquid
2. At atmospheric pressure LNG has a temperature of about 162C
3. LNG contains about 85-95 % methane
4. Liquefaction reduces the volume of gas by approximately 600 times
5. LNG is colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic
6. Flammability range, 5-15 vol % concentration in air
7. Auto-ignition temperature, 540C
8. LNG is therefore mainly produced for transportation purposes

Gas market is far from the source of the natural gas: More economical to
transport the gas as LNG instead of in a natural gas pipeline.
LNG also offers greater flexibility than pipeline gas.
Example composition of LNG (mol %)
85-95 % methane (C1)
3-8 % ethane (C2)
1-3 % propane (C3)
1-2 % butanes (iso-C4 and n-C4)

0-2 % pentanes (iso-C5 and n-C5)

0-2 % nitrogen (N2)


CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Typical composition of natural gas:
Water
Impurities CO2,H2S, Hg
Nitrogen

Methane
LNG

Ethane

Propane
NGLs Butane LPG
Pentane
Hexane C5 +
Heptane
Octane
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Composition of LNG
LNG
GPSA Specification
Specifications Units Limit

HHV btu/scf 1000-1160

CO2 content ppmV < 50

H2S content ppmV <4

Total sulfur mg/Nm3 < 35


Example composition of LNG (mol %)
Nitrogen mol% < 1.0 85-95 % methane (C1)
3-8 % ethane (C2)
C4 +content mol% < 2.0
1-3 % propane (C3)
1-2 % butanes (iso-C4 and n-C4)
C5+content mol% < 0.1
0-2 % pentanes (iso-C5 and n-C5)

(Ref: GPSA, section 2 product specifications) 0-2 % nitrogen (N2)

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Liquid Phase of LNG

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF NATURAL GAS
Compacted / Densed of LNG

1 m3 LNG corresponds to ca 600


Sm3 natural gas
S = Standard state, 160 F and 1 atm

At temperatures above -110 C


LNG vapour is lighter than air
Natural gas

LNG is lighter than water


LNG Density: 450 kg/m3
LNG Water density: 1000 kg/m3

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Advantages of LNG
1. Virtually no ash, sludge or hazardous waste is produced
2. Particulate emissions are approximately 95% less than burning coal
3. Over Coal, Distillate and Naphtha, LNG has lower:
Sulfur dioxide emissions (by 100%),
Nitrogen Oxide emissions (by 75%)
Carbon Dioxide emissions (by 50%)
4. Comparable calorific (heating) value with other liquid fuels.
Fuel Calorific Value % Sulphur
(Kcal/Kg)

Imported coal 6,000 0.5 - 1.2

LNG 11,500 0.1


Naphtha 11,200 0.15
Diesel 10,800 < 1.0
Fuel Oil 10.200 2.0
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Advantages of LNG

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Typical transportation feasibility of LNG

Far transportation
distance, and
Significant amount of
delivered content

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE DESCRIPTION OF LNG
Sensitivity of LNG price towards its demand

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE LNG VALUE CHAIN

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE LNG VALUE CHAIN

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE LNG VALUE CHAIN
Typical Cost Distribution
SUBJECT TO DISCUSS
Power Electricity End
Generation Transmission User

LNG
Gas Pipeline LNG LNG Receiving
Production Plant Shipping Terminal

Gas Gas End


Distribution Marketing User

15-20 % 30-45 % 10-30 % 15-25 %

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SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
THE LNG VALUE CHAIN
Worldwide LNG Plant

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
World's LNG Liquefaction Plants: Source: www.globallnginfo.com As of October 2015
On-Stream Under Construction Planned Proposed/Under Study

Adgas LNG Plant (UAE) Australia Pacific LNG Plant (Australia) Abadi Floating LNG Plant (Indonesia) Annova LNG Project (USA)
Algeria LNG Plants (Algeria) Cameron LNG Plant (USA) Alaska South Central LNG (SCLNG) Plant (USA) Aurora LNG Project (Canada)
Angola LNG Plant (Angola) Caribbean FLRSU (Colombia) Arrow LNG Plant (Australia)Cancelled! Bear Head LNG Project (Canada)
Atlantic LNG Plant (Trinidad & Tobago) Cove Point LNG Plant (USA) Baltic LNG Plant (Russia) Cambridge Energy (CE) FLNG Project (USA)
Bontang LNG Plants (Indonesia) Freeport LNG Plant (USA) Bonaparte LNG Plant (Australia) Cameroon LNG Project (Cameroon)
Brunei LNG Plant (Brunei) Gladstone LNG Plant (Australia) Brass LNG Plant (Nigeria) Canaport LNG Project (Canada)
Damietta LNG Plant (Egypt) Gorgon LNG Plant (Australia) Browse Floating LNG Plant (Australia) Coral South Development FLNG Project
(Mozambiq.)
Darwin LNG Plant (Australia) Ichthys LNG Plant (Australia) Corpus Christi LNG Plant (USA)
Downeast LNG (USA)
Donggi-Senoro LNG Plant (Indonesia) Iran (NIOC) LNG Plant (Iran) Suspended! Delta Caribe LNG Plant
(Venezuela)Suspended! Elba Island LNG Project (USA)
EG LNG Plant (Equatorial Guinea) Petronas Floating LNG-1 Plant (Malaysia)
Douglas Channel LNG Barge Plant (Canada) Far East LNG Project (Russia)
Egyptian LNG Plant (Egypt) Petronas Floating LNG-2 Plant (Malaysia)
Fishermans Landing LNG Plant (Australia) Goldboro LNG Project (Canada)
Kenai LNG Plant (Alaska, USA) Prelude Floating LNG Plant (Australia)
Gulf LNG Plant (Papua New Gulf LNG Project (USA)
Marsa El Brega LNG plant (Libya) Sabine Pass LNG Plant (USA)
Guinea)Cancelled!
Lavaca Bay FLNG (USA)Cancelled!
MLNG Satu Plant (Malaysia) Wheatstone LNG Plant (Australia)
Jordan Cove LNG Plant (USA)
Live Oak LNG Project (USA)
MLNG Dua Plant (Malaysia) Yamal LNG Plant (Russia)
Kitimat LNG Plant (Canada) Louisiana LNG Energy (USA)
Nordic (Skangass) LNG Plant (Norway) Lake Charles LNG Plant (USA)
Mamba Development FLNG project (Mozambiq.)
North West Shelf LNG Plant (Australia) LNG Canada Plant (Canada)
Mozambique LNG Project (Mozambique)
Oman & Qalhat LNG Plant (Oman) Olokola LNG Plant (Nigeria)
Nigeria LNG Project-T7 (Nigeria)
Peru LNG Plant (Peru) Oregon LNG Plant (USA)
Pechora LNG Project (Russia)
Pluto LNG Plant (Australia) Pacific Northwest LNG Plant (Canada)
Port Arthur LNG Project (USA)
PNG LNG Plant (Papua New Guinea) Papua LNG Plant (Papua New
Guinea) Prince Rupert LNG Project (Canada)
Qatargas I LNG Plant (Qatar)
Pars LNG Plant (Iran) Suspended! Rio Grande LNG Project (USA)
Qatargas II LNG Plant (Qatar)
Persian LNG Plant (Iran)Suspended! Sakhalin LNG II expansion Project (Russia)
Qatargas III,IV LNG Plant (Qatar)
Shtokman LNG Plant (Russia) Scarborough FLNG Project (Australia)
Queensland Curtis LNG Plant (Australia)
Sunrise LNG Plant (Australia) Tanzania (BG) LNG Project (Tanzania)
RasGas I LNG Plant (Qatar)
Vladivostok LNG Plant (Russia) Tassie Shoal LNG Project (Australia)
Sakhalin LNG Plant (Russia)
Texas LNG Project (USA) WCC
Snohvit LNG Plant (Norway)
LNG Project (Canada)
Tangguh LNG Plant (Indonesia)
Woodfibre
Yemen LNG Plant (Yemen) LNG project (Canada)

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SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
Project Country Start Capacity Trains Liquefaction Driver
THE LNG VALUE CHAIN
Cooling Heating EPC Contractor
Year mtpa Nos. Process Media Media

Camel Algeria 1964 0.44 3 TEAL,Cascade Stm/T SW Steam Technip/Prichard


Kenai USA 1969 0.95 2 Phillips,Cascade G/T CW ? Phillips/Bechtel/SW
Libya Libya 1970 0.64 4 APCI,MR Stm/T SW Steam Esso R&E/Snam/Bechtel
Brunei Brunei 1972 1.44 5 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T CW Steam JGC/Procon
Skikda,Ph1 Algeria 1972 1.0 1 TEAL,2Pressure Stm/T SW Steam Technip
Adgas,Tr1&2 UAE 1977 1.23 2 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam CCEC/Bechtel
Bontang,A/B Indonesia 1977 1.67 2 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam Bechtel
Arun,No1-3 Indonesia 1978 1.67 3 APCI,PP+MR F5x3 SW Steam Bechtel
Arzew,No1 Algeria 1978 1.22 6 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam Bechtel
Arzew,No2 Algeria 1980 1.22 6 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam Pullman Kellogg
Skikda,Ph2 Algeria 1980 1.21 2 Prichard,PRICO Stm/T SW Steam Prichard/ Pullman kellogg
Buntulu,Satu Malaysia 1983 2.53 3 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam JGC/Kellogg
Bontang,C/D Indonesia 1983 1.67 2 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam Bechtel
Arun,No4&5 Indonesia 1984 1.67 2 APCI,PP+MR F5x3 SW Steam CCEC
Arun,No6 Indonesia 1987 1.67 1 APCI,PP+MR F5x3 SW Steam JGC
Woodside,Tr1-3 Australia 1988 2.43 3 APCI,PP+MR F5x4 Air HotWater JGC/Kellogg/Kaiser
Bontang,E Indonesia 1990 2.3 1 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam CCEC
Bontang,F Indonesia 1993 2.3 1 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam CCEC/IKPT
Adgas,Tr3 UAE 1994 2.3 1 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam CCEC
Buntulu,Dua Malaysia 1995 2.65 3 APCI,PP+MR F6+F7 SW+Air Steam JGC/Kellogg
QatarGas,Tr1&2 Qatar 1997 2.2 2 APCI,PP+MR F5x4 SW Steam CCEC
Bontang,G Indonesia 1998 2.6 1 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam CCEC/IKPT
Atlantic,Tr1 Trinidad T 1999 3.0 1 Phillips,Cascade F5x6 Air HotOil Bechtel
Bontang,H Indonesia 1999 2.95 1 APCI,PP+MR Stm/T SW Steam Kellogg/IKPT
Nigeria,Tr1& 2 Nigeria 1999 2.95 2 APCI,PP+MR F6+F7 CW HotOil JGC/Kellogg/Technip/Snam
RasLaffan,Tr1&2 Qatar 1999 2.9 2 APCI,PP+MR F7x2 SW+CW Steam JGC/Kellogg
Oman,Tr1&2 Oman 2000 3.3 2 APCI,PP+MR F6+F7 SW HTF CCEC/FW
Atlantic,Tr2&3 Trinidad T 2002 3.3 2 Phillips,Cascade F5x6 Air HotOil Bechtel
Nigeria,Tr3 Nigeria 2002 2.95 1 APCI,PP+MR F6+F7 CW HTF JGC/Kellogg/Technip/Snam
Buntulu,Tiga Malaysia 2003 3.87 2 Shell,PP+MR F7+F7 Air HotOil JGC/Kellogg
QatarGas,Tr3 Qatar 2003 4.7 1 APCI,PP+MR F5x5 SW Steam CCEC
RasLaffan,Tr3 Qatar 2004 4.7 1 APCI,PP+MR F7x2 SW+CW Steam CCEC
SEGas,Tr1 Egypt 2004 5.0 1 APCI,PP+MR Fr7x2 Air HotOil JGC/Kellogg/Technicas
Woodside,Tr4 Australia 2004 4.2 1 Shell,PP+MR F7x2 Air HotWater Kellogg/JGC/Hatch/Clough
Atlantic,Tr4 Trinidad T 2005 5.2 1 Phillips,Cascade F5x8 Air HotOil Bechtel
Idku,Tr1&2 Egypt 2005 3.6 2 Phillips,Cascade F5x5 Air ? Bechtel
Nigeria,Tr4 Nigeria 2005 4.0 1 APCI,PP+MR F7x2 Air HTF JGC/Kellogg/Technip/Snam
RasLaffan,Tr4 Qatar 2005 4.7 1 APCI,PP+MR F7x2 SW+CW Steam CCEC
Darwin Australia 2006 3.5 1 Phillips,Cascade LM2500x6 Air ? Bechtel
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Comparison of the specification between the natural gas & LNG

LNG Natural Gas


GPSA Specification GPSA Specification
Specifications Units Limit
HHV btu/scf 950 - 1150
CO2 content Mol% 3-4
H2S content gr/100scf 0.25 - 1
Total sulfur gr/100scf 5 - 20
Nitrogen mol% 3-4
C4+ content mol% < 2.0
C5+ content mol% < 0.5

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Typical schematic diagram of Natural Gas processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Typical schematic diagram of LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Typical cost breakdown of LNG Plant

LNG Train 48%


Liquefaction Dehydration
36% 3%

Gas Treating
7%
Fractionation
Jetty
2%
3%

Offsite
Utility Storage Facility
14% & Loading
13%
22%
G/T, Air Cooled LNG Plant

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Typical products from LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Acid gas removal in LNG processing
Acid Gas (CO2 and H2S) removal
Acid gas causes corrosion, reduces heating value, and may freeze and create solids
in cryogenic process
Typical requirements for LNG: Max 50 ppmv CO2, Max 4 ppmv H2S
(ppmv - parts per million by volume)
Acid gas disposal (after capture): venting (in small quantities),
thermal oxidation (burning)
About 80% of AGRU cost is associated with solvent regeneration system

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Acid gas removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Basic design of acid gas removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
4 scenarios for acid gas removal from natural gas:

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


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LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
1. CO2 removal from a gas that contains no H2S

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
2. H2S removal from a gas that contains no CO2

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
3. Simultaneous removal of both CO2 and H2S

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
4. Selective removal of H2S from a gas that contains both CO2 and H2S

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
AMINES

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF COMMONLY USED AMINES

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
BASIC AMINES CHEMISTRY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Amines of acid gas removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Dehydration & Hg removal in LNG processing
Dehydration (water removal)
Water will freeze in cryogenic process (eliminates line blockage caused by hydrat
formation
To reduced pipeline corrosion
To increase the heating value of Natural Gas
Typical requirement: Max 1 ppmw (weight) H2O
Mercury removal
Mercury can cause corrosion problems, especially in aluminium main cryogenics
heat exchangers.
Requirement: Max 0.01 ng/Nm3

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Dehydration & Hg removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Natural Gas Dehydration

Absorption:
A dehydration process in
which the gas is contacted
with a liquid that
preferentially absorb the
water vapor.
Adsorption:
A dehydration process to
adsorb water from natural
gas using solid desiccants.

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Natural Gas Dehydration
Adsorption Absorption
Water Content Target <10 ppmv 10 ppmv
Dehydration medium Solid Liquid
Corrosion - v
Foaming - v
Adsorbent/Absorbent Alumina, Silica Gel, EG, DEG, TEG, TREG,
Molecular Sieve Propylene Glycol

Adsorption is very effective in the dehydration of natural gas.

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Natural Gas Dehydration

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Dehydration & Hg removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process in LNG processing
PROCESS CLASSIFICATION:
External Refrigerant type
Cascade
Mixed Refrigerant Process (MR Process)
- Single MR
- Dual MR
- C3 Pre-cooled
Self-refrigerant Process
Expander Process
Nitrogen Cycle (Peak-shaving & On-board)
EXISTING PROCESS:
Single MR Process (PRICO)
TEALARC Dual MR (Technip)
CASCADE Process (Phillips)
C3 Pre-cooled MR Process (Air Products and Chemicals Inc.; APCI)

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process C3 Pre-cooled MR Process (APCI) in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process CASCADE Process (Phillips) in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process Single MR Process (PRICO) in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process TEALARC Dual MR (Technip) in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Feasibility of liquefaction process in LNG processing

Bubble point Heat of vaporation


Constitutent
(0C) Hfg (BTU/mol)
Objective of C3MR: N2 -184 2241
1. Bubble point at lower temperature C1 -148 3337
2. Higher heat of vaporation
C2 -32 5864
C3 18 7496
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Liquefaction process CASCADE & C3MR in LNG processing

CASCADE C3MR

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Fractionation process in LNG processing
Uses of Fractionation Unit:
Make liquid products for sale (LPG and Condensate help econ)
Make refrigerants (MR make-up or high purification C3)
Stabilize NGLs for reinjection

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Full containment of LNG container in LNG processing

The material for the LNG container for the large capacity of LNG storage is 9% Ni steel in consideration of the
design of -161 ~ -168 o C of the design temperature of LNG as shown in the following sheet TEMPERATURE
RANGE FOR MATERIAL OF CRYOGENIC STORAGE TANKS.

In principle, stainless steel type 304 is used for the tank having small capacity and in case that the use of
9% Ni steel is not economical.
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Full containment of LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Full containment of LNG container in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Layout drawing of complete LNG processing

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LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Layout drawing of LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
PFD used in layout drawing in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing CO2 removal unit in LNG processing

To remove CO2 from the Feed Gas by chemical reaction between MDEA and water to
obtain protonated species and bicarbonate. The absorption is a accelerated by fast
reaction between CO2 and piperazine, which together form Carbamate. The
Carbamate in turn reacts with the bulk aqueous MDEA and transfers its CO2 to MDEA
CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing of dehydration unit in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing of Hg removal unit in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing of Hg removal unit in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing of feed gas/MP C3 chiller unit in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
GA drawing of feed gas/LP C3 chiller unit in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF ACID GAS REMOVAL

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT
LNG PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY
Amines of acid gas removal in LNG processing

CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE


SHOOTING OF GAS MEASUREMENT