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Angele Yao
Vedia A. Genon
Chelsea Paclibar
Jannica Mariano Orline Nercuit
Princess Anisah Jaruni
Amadeo Rubio
Emmanuel Ines
Eugine Ariola
Fatima Rea Dyan Asani
The Moro, also called the Bangsamoro or Bangsa
Moro, are the Muslim population of the
Philippines, forming the largest non-Catholic
group in the country and comprising about 5.1%
(as of August 2007) of the total Philippine
population.[1] There are around 12 indigenous
communities, of which the majority have
converted to the religion of Islam and are now
Muslims or Moros; most are the followers of
Islam of the Shafi'i madh'hab.
The Moro people mostly live in Mindanao, Sulu and
Palawan. Due to continuous movement of their people
since the 16th century until present due to the
Philippine - Bangsa Moro War, their communities can
be found in all large cities in the Philippines, including
Manila, Cebu and Davao. Many Moros also have
emigrated to Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei in the last
half of the 20th century due to the conflict in the
Southern Philippines. Newer communities can be
found today in Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, Semporna in
neighbouring Sabah, Malaysia,[7] North Kalimantan in
Indonesia, as well in Bandar Seri Begawan of Brunei.
The full Islamization of the west coast of Mindanao
was accelerated with the arrival of Muhammad
Sharif Kabungsuwan. It was not long after his arrival
that Sharif kabungsuwan established the Sultanate
of Maguindanao, possibly in 1516.
The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro recognises
"Bangsamoro" as an identity and calls for the creation of a
new autonomous political entity called Bangsamoro.[11] The
native Moro Communities of Mindanao and Sulu are termed
considered as Filipino Muslim by the Philippine government.
Ethnic divisions
Philippine ethnic groups also referred to as indigenous
peoples are as follows:
Jama Mapun/Sama
Tausugs are also be called as
An Islamized tribal group in the
Sulu archipelago
Derived from two words tao
meaning man and sg meaning
current it literally means "people
of the current
They populate the Filipino
province of Sulu as a
majority, but they also reside
in the provinces of
Zamboanga del Sur, Basilan,
Tawi-Tawi, Palawan, Cebu and
Manila as minorities.
Language and Literature
The Tausug language is called "Sinug" with "Bahasa" to mean
Language. The Tausug language is related to Bicolano, Tagalog and
Visayan languages, being especially closely related to the
Surigaonon language of the provinces Surigao del Norte, Surigao
del Sur and Agusan del Sur and the Butuanon language of
northeastern Mindanao specially the root Tausug words without the
influence of the Arabic language, sharing many common words.

English Tausug Surigaonon Cebuano

What is your Unu in ngn Unu an ngayan Unsa'y ngalan
name? mu? mu? nimo?
Ang ngalan
My name is In ngn ku An ngayan ku
nako ay
Muhammad Muhammad ay Muhammad
"Parang Sabil" (Sword of Honor) is Kinding Sindaw's newest
dance and music drama, depicting the conquest of the Tausug
people by the Americans, a historical event of the previous
century now largely forgotten in Philippine and American
histories. The story is immortalized in the "Parang Sabil"
ballad of the Tausug people.

Since the tausugs are an ethnic
group which is sea faring in nature,
they are exposed to silk and some
designs similar to Chinese
malongs of an unusual curvilinear
tradition while the rest can be seen
from Arabic design.
BIYATAWI - is a blouse made of
plain material like satin and is
ornamented with tambuku (gold or
silver buttons) on the breast,
shoulders, and cuffs. It is usually
worn with sawwal (loose trousers)
of silk or brocade. A habul tiyahian
is either slung across the shoulder
or allowed to hang on one arm

PATADJUNG - is an all-purpose
skirt worn by both men and
women. It has various other uses:
as a turung or headcover, sash or
waistband, blanket, ham-mock, and

PIS SIABIT this is the head gear

worn by Tausug men. It can also be
left to hang in the shoulder.
The Tausugs follow Sunni Islamic beliefs and
practices. The Five Pillars are observed, although
only the elderly practice daily prayers regularly.
All illness, accidents, and other misfortunes are
ultimately Gods will. However, the Tausug
retains elements of pre-Islamic belief and,
additionally, see the world as inhabited by local
spirits capable of causing good or ill fortune.
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of
Islam, the word Sunni comes from the
word Sunnah meaning tradition, the
sultan, is the head of an Islamic polity,
he is invested with religious
authority. The imam is an important
community figure. He officiates at life-
crisis rites, offers religious counsel,
and leads the faithful in prayer.
Major events in the religious calendar include
fasting during Ramadan.
Hari Raya Puasa - a day of feasting immediately
following Ramadan.
Hari Raya Hadji - the feast of sacrifice on the
tenth day of the month of Jul-Hadj.
Panulak Balah (lit., "to send away evil"), a day of
ritual bathing on the last Wednesday of Sappal.
Maulideen Nabi - the birthday of the Prophet, on
the twelfth day of Maulud.
The Tausug are famous for
being the best pearl divers
in the world. Fishing is
done in off-shore waters
from motorized boats
using bamboo traps, hook
and line and fishing nets.

A Tausug marriage is
usually arranged by
parents, with the exception
of the children of brothers,
first and second cousins
are favoured spouses.
Marriageable women are
kept in relative seclusion to
protect their value to their

Tiyula itum- a combination of

the word tula and itum. Tula
is cooking with soup and itum
is black because ofthe burned
coconut asthe main ingredient
being mixed to the meat.
Tiyula itum is always cooked
in the famous occasions of the
LOKOT-LOKOT- made from
rice flour, which is repeatedly
pounded until it becomes fine
powder. Water and other
ingredients are then added
and blended to create a thick
mixture. The mixture is then
poured in a strainer with
holes called ulayan and
formed into rolls using two
wooden spoons called the

BAULU- Made of egg andflour.-

Describe as a small cake ,
mamon or Madeleine.- The
baulu is artistic because the
batter is placed on molds and
baked .
Badjaos means man of the seas. Widely known as
the Sea Gypsies of the Sulu and Celebes Seas
They move with the wind and the tide on their
small houseboats called vintas.
The Badjao are scattered along the coastal areas
of Tawi Tawi, Sulu, Basilan, and some coastal
municipalities of Zamboanga del Sur in the
They are grouped together with the religiously-
similar Moro people.
Sinama is the most common name for these languages,
but they are also called Bajau, especially in Malaysia.
In 2006, the linguist Robert Blust, proposed that the
Sama-Bajaw languages derived from the Barito lexical
region, though not from any established group. It is thus
a sister group to other Barito languages
like Dayak and Malagasy. It is classified under
the Bornean geographic group.
The Bajau are a colorful, festive and musical people
Their paintings and carvings are integral to their life cycle.
Sama-Bajau people are also well known for weaving and
needlework skills.
They are now seen in modern architecture, dance, drama,
music, and design.
The basic traditional dance movement is the igal or pangalay
performed by the female.

Badjao literature is meant to be sung.

It attributes its oral forms of literature such as:
- animal tales
- trickster tales
- magical tales
- novelistic tales from the tribes in Samal.
The songs are usually sung during marriage celebrations
(kanduli pagkawin), accompanied by dance (pang-igal) and
musical instruments
like pulau (flute), gabbang (xylophone), tagunggo'(kulint
ang gongs), and in modern times, electronic keyboard.
Among the more specific examples of Sama-Bajau songs
are three love songs collectively referred to
as Sangbayan.
The panulkin is sung only by the imam and has
traditional tune and lyrics. It is sung during the vigil of
the dead, from 7am to 1am. It is a way of keeping awake
and of making the community aware that somebody has
several types of Sama-Bajau
traditional songs, they include:
bua-bua anak
several types of Sama-Bajau
traditional songs, they include:
bua-bua anak
In wedding ceremonies, the wedding beautician must be adept
at applying the special makeup on the bride and groom.
A Badjao wedding is a three day affair with dancing, food and
festivities. The whole town is invited. Today, the ceremony has
been mixed with modern formal rite.
Marriage arrangements are made after the girls third
menstrual period cloth .The boy is about a year older. Early
marriage has evolved as a solution to the cramped living
conditions in the houseboat.
Traditional badjao community may have a Dukun, a
spiritual leader.
Thanks - giving offering to the Omboh Dilaut, the God
of the Sea, whenever a particularly large catch is brought
Spirit mediums are consulted at least once a year fora
public sance and nightly trance dancing.
In times of epidemics, the mediums are also called upon
to remove illness causing spirits from the community.
They do this by setting a "spirit boat" a drift in the open
sea beyond the village or anchorage
The traditional attire of a Badjao is the patadjong.
can serve as head cover, waistband, sash, blanket,
hammock, shoulder bag, cradle, pouch, hood, or pillow.
Traditional foods

Iranun was one of the oldest existing nations in the
world during the ancient times with definite integral
territory wherein the sovereign power and authority
was exercised over it by the ligimate ruler. Iranun as
a nation inhabited mainly the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf).
Its villages were established and concentrated in the
Iranun Bay (Illana Bay).

The language of
the Maranao and Maguindanao is strongly
rooted in the Iranun tongue. The Iranun may
perhaps be the mother language and the rest
are just a mere dialects. For several
centuries, the Iranuns in the Philippines
Iranun / Ilanun formed part of the Sultanate of
people Maguindanao. In the past, the seat of the
Orang Iranun / Maguindanao Sultanate was situated
Ilanun at Lamitan and Malabang. Both of which were
Mga Iranun / Ilanun the strongholds of the Iranun society.
Iranuns fought the Western invaders under
the flag of the Maguindanao Sultanate. The
Iranun were excellent in maritime activity.
They used to ply the route connecting
The ancient alphabets of the Iranun were patterned
in India. The system of writing was one of the good
achievements of the Iranun during its foreign
contacts with the Indian people. Although it was
primitive, the Iranun have their own system of
writing. This system of writing was influenced and
gradually changed to the present system patterned
from the arabs. They called it kirim. The kirim was
looked like sometimes a bird, a tree, a roof, and

The ancient Iranun has its own arts. The most
popular one until the present time is the ukir (
engraving naga). The ukir is used almost furnitures
and fixtures of the Iranun including houses. The
bawor (cabenit or apparador now a days) has an
ukir differrent forms and patterned. Sarimanok is
another type of ukir during the ancient Iranun which
was passed generation to generation. Most of the
museums and libraries now a days have these arts
In Iranun culture, each set of musical instruments categorized from
the point of performance art, the meaning of a set of musical
instruments as kulintangan, gandang and gong categorized as
gholintangan or "bertitik" performing arts. Musical instruments can
be played in a certain rhythm like the rhythm timpalas and Andu

Kulintangan is a percussion Gandang is a musical instrument

Gong is a musical instrument from the family of gong made from animals hide such as cow,
instrument made from and is small in size. It is played by goat or buffalo. Gendang comes in
copper. It comes in many many ethnic groups in Sabah such as
many sizes and can have different
shapes and sizes, and is Iranun. It is played to create festive functions.
called by various names. ambience and to entertain guests at
Gongs of different festivities such as feasts, weddings,
shapes produce different ceremonies to celebrate finishing
sounds Quran recital, cukur jambul (cutting
newborns hair) and circumcisions.
Science and Math
The ancient Iranun were good scientists of their time. They were
astronomers. They name heavenly bodies as: makabangis, sulo a
mangangayaw, manok, madakel, laya. They arranged the twelve
months (12) to 30 days and 29 days. Therefore there are three
hundred fifty four (354) day in one year (common year) and three
hundred fifty five (355) leaf year. They divided one month into two
groups: Sbang and delem. They used heavenly bodies as compass.
They can determine west, east, south, north by the used of the
heavenly bodies at night. Their knowledge in astronomy and
navigation was older than the knowledge of the western people
(Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and others). There were eight (8)
tahons, five (5) kutika, and eight (8) bintang. All these are
instruments of the ancient Iranun in compution. Even they were in
the mid of the forest, they can calculate low or high tide through this
knowledge in science. In Mathematics/arithmetic, gibo (thousand),
laksa (one hundred thousand), pandang (million of thousasands).
They had also a system of counting. They used riray system. Some of
the mathematical terminology were: laksa, salaksa, laksalaksa, yuta,
sayuta,sayutayuta. All these were few among their mathematical
terminologies. Arabic numerals and system of counting including
mathematical nomenclature were introduced and adopted during the
Shariffs period. Thus a modification was observed.
Wedding Fiesta/Ceremony
During the ancient Iranun, wedding fiest/ceremony was a long process. Parental system
was the usual practice. Iranun usually practice maharlika system. The man who was
belonged to the ruling family of the village marries the daughter of the ruling family of
other village (Prince is for Princess Principle).

Iranun wedding process undergoes four stages. These stages were: panunuriman
(observation), pangingidong (Whispering) from the kakamaman side (groom side),
sarangguni (actual negotiation of the two parties facilitiated by other group, usually the
Council of Elders of the bride family), and gurangna (wedding ceremony). In some cases,
sarangguni and gurangna were fused into one. It depends on the negotiation.

During the ancient Iranun, dowry (sunggodan/btang/btad sa adat) was term of material
not money, for example: land/lot, bulawan (gold), and other valuable materials (animals).
In some cases uripin (slaves were accepted as dowry or even the entire sovereign of the
groom father served as dowry in case of a single child). After signing of contract
between the two parties, the groom was granted to court and talked/'invite the bride to
ocassion with one chaperon. The groom was granted to sleep in the house of the bride.
Wedding ceremony among maharlika (ruling family) was full of decors (pandara). There
were activity (siapa sa manggis, kulintang contest, and other wedding activities were
observed) to give honor and respect to the royal wedding.

The common class (kadakelan) used only sambulayang with no flag and pamanay. The
uripin has no wedding ceremony. The ruling family used the complete set of pandara
(pasandalan, sambulayang with flag at the top of the pole, ubor-ubor, and pamanay).
Usually bright colors were used (red,green and yellow). Among the ancient Iranun red
means bravery, green means sovereign, and yellow means ruling family. These colors
Costumes and Dresses
Ancient Iranun man were using samping (vernacular for bahag) and
sablay (Tsaliko in modern time), and tubaw. However, ancient Iranun
were shoeless. They were not using shoes due to absence of
knowledge on shoemaking. They were foot bearers people. For the
women, ancient Iranun were using loose blouses in the primitive
style. Later, it was improved when foreign contacts with the Chinese.
Traditional Food
The Iranun tribe showed off their food of amik, kumukunsi (rice flour,
sugar and
duck eggs, deep fried in spiral shapes), patulakan (similar to suman),
and tiyathag
(deep fried rice flour).
The Kalagan live on the island of Mindanao in the southern
Philippines. They are located in an area between the interior
uplands and the western coast of the Davao Gulf. These
Kalagan are mainly of the Tagakaolo Kalagan branch. They
have converted to Islam either through intermarriage or
through contact with their close neighbors, the Magindanaw.

The Kalagan are thought to be one of various groups of

lowland Filipinos who came to the islands from Asia's
southwestern mainland several thousand years ago. Their
lifestyle and culture are very similar to that of the
Magindanaw. Their language, also called Kalagan, resembles a
number of other languages in the region.
While some Kalagan receive wages for labor, others are
"slash and burn" farmers. Maize is the major crop grown
and is harvested two or three times a year. The coastal
Kalagan are also fishermen, and some are plantation
What Are Their Lives Like?
The Kalagan are self-sufficient farmers, producing nearly all
their own food. Wet rice is grown in the lowlands, and dry
rice and corn are farmed in the mountainous areas. Yams and
sweet potatoes are also staple crops. Vegetables such as
tomatoes, squash, and beans are grown; coconuts abound;
and many kinds of fruit are available. Goats are raised for
meat, and chickens are raised for both eggs and meat. In
addition to farming, the Kalagan catch fish and obtain wild
foods and other various materials from the marshes.

The Kalagan of highest rank in their society do not perform

manual labor. Among the rest of the people, male/female
division of labor is not very pronounced. Men do the
plowing, tilling and other heavy farm work. The women do
most of the domestic work, often assisted by their older
Many household items are hand crafted from
wood, bamboo, rattan, thatch, and fiber. Most of
these are for personal use, but some woven
items, mats, and baskets are made for
commercial sale.
Kalagan art is limited mostly to weaving,
making baskets, and crafting certain ornaments.
Personal adornment in the form of bright
clothing, beaded jewelry, and other accessories
is distinctive and colorful. On special occasions,
graceful dances are performed to the rhythmic
music of gongs and other instruments.

The Kalagan social structure is unusual because it is modified

by a system of social rank, certain rules of descent, and
distinctive patterns of marriage. Social rank is generally less
important than blood ties. Higher-ranking families maintain
elaborate genealogies to prove their descent.

Kalagan marriages are usually monogamous (having only

one spouse). Although polygyny (having more than one
wife) is permitted, it is practiced only by those of high rank
and wealth. There is a strong preference for marriage
between related families, especially to second cousins. After
marriage, the couples usually live in the husband's
community, although today, young couples may form their
own independent households.
Decorative Comb
The hand carved comb is made of wood. Glass beads
and pieces of mirror are fixed in patterns onto the comb
using a sticky, rubbery substance (sicoco) from a tree. 18
bead strings of varying length hang down from the
comb. On top is a tail of horse hair, also pasted on the
comb with sicoco.
What are their beliefs?
Tagakaolo Kalagan were not introduced to Islam until Muslim
missionaries arrived in the area during the 1500s. About half of
the entire group of Kalagan came under Islamic influence at
that time. However, many of the Kalagan remained animists
(believe that non-human objects have spirits). Today, many of
them are still ethnic religionists, believing in the traditions and
religions of their forefathers. They continue to believe in a
variety of "environmental spirits." Many tales are also told of
magic, sorcery, and supernatural beings. Muslim religious
leaders and teachers (imams and panditas) direct religious life
and teach young boys to read and memorize the Koran
(Islam's holy book). Muslim holidays and other observances
are celebrated to varying degrees.

What Are Their Needs?

Missions agencies may be working
among the Kalagan, but they have few
resources to help them. Evangelistic
materials in their own language are
very much needed to win them to
The Kalibugan or Kolibugan is a sama word which
means half-breed or mix breed.


Bits and Facts
They are the Islamized people of the Subanen tribe,
inhabiting the interior part of the Zamboanga

Their culture has been altered by the intermarriage

to their Muslim neighbors and other groups for

They are an intermarried clan of Tausug and Samal.

Music and Instruments
DIONLI ( love song )
BUWA ( lullaby )
GENADONG ( ballad
GELOY ( funeral
song )

Wedding practises
Similar to that of other tribes:

Parental arrangement
Use of go-between
The Maguindanao people are part of the wider Moro
ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest
Filipino ethnic group. Their name means people of
the plains.
The Maguindanaon are divided into two principal
groups, each with its own dialect and traditional
location: The Tau-sa Ilud (people of the lower
valley) and the Tau-sa Laya (people of the upper
Tau-sa Ilud
Are concentrated in the areas around Cotabato City
and extend to South Dinaig. Traditionally, they
constituted the Sultanate of Maguindanao based
near present day Cotabato City.
Their dialect is characterized by more rapid,
harder consonant intonations, with preference for
using d rather than r and variations on the use
of l and r.
Tau-sa Laya
Are concentrated in the areas of Datu Piang and
extend south to areas which include Buluan. As a
group, they constituted the Rajahship of Buayan
based near present-day town of Datu Piang.
Their dialect is distinguished by a slower cadence, a
drawl, with frequent omission of the consonants
between vowels and a preference for using l
rather than r, periodic variations of r for d and
some differentiated vocabulary.
Their primary means of livelihood is a semi-
sedentary agriculture and grow corn and upland
Language (literatures,
music and arts)
They speak Maguindanaoan and second languages
Cebuano, Tagalog and Arabic and/or English. Because of
the mass influx of Cebuano migrants to Mindanao, many
of the Maguindanao people tend to be exposed to the
Cebuano language from Visayas easily enough to be able
to speak it. Arabic, a Central Semitic language, is also
spoken by a minority of the Moro people, being the
liturgical language of Islam. Most Maranaos however, do
not know Arabic beyond its religious uses. Chavacano is
a Philippine Spanish creole, that gained popularity as a
Philippine major language during the short-lived
Republic of Zamboanga. Most of the Maguindanao
people with part-Tausug or Yakan from Zamboanga and
Basilan have also attained the ability to speak this
language, specifically the Zamboanga dialect known as
Language (literatures,
music and arts)
The literary elements of the Maguindanao include folk
speech and folk narratives. The folk speech is expressed
in the antuka/pantuka/paakenala (riddles) and bayok
(lyric poems), while the narratives may be divided into
the Islamic and folk traditions. The Islamic includes the
Quran; the tarsila or genealogical narratives; the luwaran,
an embodiment of customary laws; hadith or sayings of
the Prophet; the quiza or religious stories. The folk
tradition comprises the tudtul, (folktales), and the epics
Raja Indarapatra, Darangen, and Raja Madaya.
For the Maguindanao, riddles promote friendship in a
group. They are also tools for basic pedagogy. The
structure of a Maguindanao riddle consists of an image
and a subject. There are four types of image:
comparative, descriptive, puns or puzzles, and narrative.
Language (literatures,
music and arts)
The native Maguindanaon have a culture that
revolves around kulintang music, a specific
type of gong music, found among both
Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the
Southern Philippines.

Arts of nearly every type are strikingly less
evident in this culture than in many nearby
groups. Representational art is confined
mostly to weaving, basket making, and
certain ornaments. Graceful dances are
performed on special occasions to the
rhythmic music of gongs and other
instruments. Personal adornment in the
forms of bright clothing, beaded jewelry, and
other accessories is distinctive and colorful.
Culture (belief, wedding,
marriage, burial)
Religious Beliefs
The predominant religion among the Maguindanao
is a form of folk Islam. Islamic beliefs and practices,
which are gradually becoming more orthodox, are
superimposed on a preexisting animistic belief
system. People continue to believe in a variety of
environmental spirits, and many tales are told of
magic, sorcery, and supernatural beings. Even Sarip
Kabungsuwan, who is credited with having brought
Islam to this area, is described as having had
powers of magic and sorcery.
Culture (belief, wedding,
marriage, burial)
Religious Practitioners
Muslim religious leaders and teachers (imam and
pandita ) preside over religious life and young
schoolboys in reading and memorizing the Quran.
They are the formal religious practitioners in the
society. There are also other, less visible, religious
functionaries who perform important services in
appeasing the environmental spirits. An example is
the apo na palay, or "grandfather of the rice," who
conducts rituals and chants incantations over the
rice fields at night to ensure a good harvest.
Culture (belief, wedding,
marriage, burial)
Filipino Muslims in the Mindanao region of the
Philippines commonly practice pre-arranged
marriages and betrothal. The wedding include the
pangalay, a celebration or announcement
performed by means of the playing of percussion
instruments like as the gabbang, the kulintang, and
the agong. Included in the wedding ceremony that
is officiated by an Imam are readings taken from
the Qur'an and the placement of the groom's
fingerprint on the forehead of the bride.
Culture (belief, wedding,
marriage, burial)
It can be a nuclear, monogamous or polygyny. Monogamous
marriages are the norm among the Maguindanao. Polygyny is
permitted by Islamic law and local tradition, and continues to be
practiced by some persons of wealth and high rank. Young people
raised in the same extended household or village are considered to
be too closely relatedregardless of blood connectionto be
married to one another. This creates local exogamy at this level.
There is a strong preference, however, for marriage between
related families, especially marriage of second cousins, so there is
a marked tendency toward kindred endogamy. There are even
some marriages between first cousins, although these are rare and
are forbidden by customary law. After marriage the couple usually
reside in the husband's community. Today the couple may form an
independent household, whereas in the past they more often
joined the man's parents in an extended household. Divorce can
and does occur, especially early in a marriage. It is usually because
of infertility, incompatibility, infidelity, or failure of the bride's
relatives to pay an agreed bride-wealth. The marriage bond is
generally strong after the birth of a child.
Culture (belief, wedding,
marriage, burial)
Once the body has been bathed, it's then wrapped in a one
piece shroud (usually white called a "kafan".)
The process is similar to the way the five daily prayers are
done, but with no bowing (Ruku) and prostating (Sujud).
Crying for the dead is allowed, but must not be expressed
through wailing, shrieking, beating one's chest and cheeks
or breaking objects. After the death of an individual, the
body is washed in order to "physically cleanse the corpse." A
cloth is placed on the remains while in the bathing process.
When burying the dead, the body should be laying sideways
with his/her face directly touching the soil while covered in
the white cloth. The deceased must be buried facing west.
The body is put into the ground without a casket.
The grave must not be sealed with cement.
An open space must be allowed so that when it rains, water
sips down to the corpse.
Manners and Customs
(dressing and food)
The Maguindanaos observe a code of conduct called
LUWARAN. Among the provisions of this code is one on
borrowing and losses. A Maguindanao is expected to
return promptly any time borrowed from another person.
Failure to do is considered as stealing. Anything who
fails to return an object has to replace it completely or
else, one Suffers punishment.

A Maguindanao considers an oath or a promise as very

important. Anyone who makes a promise or an oath
must fulfill it. Non-fulfillment could mean danger to him!
Pre-arranged marriages are also common among this
group. They believe that this type of marriage leads to a
happy, successful and enduring relationships.
Manners and Customs
(dressing and food)
Maguindanao houses are made of
bamboo and nipa palms. Their
floors are made out of available
tree trunks. They can beautifully
convert any material into a useful
part of the house. Modernization
has come to the community and
many hot now use galvanized iron
instead of nipa palms for roofing.

Their manner of dressing is similar

to that of other Muslims. They
wear bright cotton materials for
their malong. However, many of
the women have adapted the
western style of clothing worn by
women in the urban area.
Palawano Language
The Palawano languages are
spoken on the province of
Palawan in the Philippines.
There are three related, but not
mutually intelligible, languages,
each with a number of dialects,
which called themselves
Palawano(Spanish, from the
endonym Palawan).
The three Palawano languages
share the island with several other
languages which are not part of
the Palawan language cluster,
though they share fair amount of
vocabulary. These languages are:
Kalamian Languages and;
Banggi language and;
Palawano Culture & Arts
The Palawan culture is characterized by the different influences of cultures
that are interwoven through the ages with the already existing cultures on the
Palawan is known as the cradle of Philippine society. This is due to the
discovery of human remain in a cave in Palawan, called the Tabon Cave. In
the cave, a tem of anthropologist found artwork and different human skeletal
remains that are probably more than twenty thousand years old.
On Palawan, there was already an unofficial government and there was some
sort of alphabet. There was also trade with sailors from China and Malaysia.
Festivals & Fesast of
Love Affair with Nature, celebrated every February 14.
Balayong Festival, celebrated every March 4.
Pangalipay sa Baybay, Every 1st week of April.
Kamarikutan Pagdiwata Arts Festival, celebrated every
April full moon (before or after holy week).
Seafood Festival celebrated every April 3rd week.
Karagatan Festival celebrated every 1st week of May.
Feast of the Forest celebrated every 3rd week of June
Baragatan sa Palawan celebrated every 3rd week of June.
City Fiesta celebrated every December 8.
Palawan Music (Tagbanuas)
In the Central West highlands, is the
Palawan Island. One of the tribes in
Palawan are the Tagbanuas. The
tagbanuas has retained their ancient
culture. The Calamianes Group of Island
elaborate funeral celebrations. Five days Gimbal
after internment, the relatives goes to the
homes of the deceased to perform, funeral
Then the participants chant the Batac, a
lengthy song recounting the significant
adventures of a mytical person named
dumaracol. The singing goes on for three
successive nights for evening till dawn.
The Tagbanuas believe that music has
power to heal sick. To cure a Tagbanua
who is very ill his companion drive off the
evil spirits by beating the gongs and
The musical instruments of the Tagbanuas
consists of drums with shark skin head
(gimbal). It leads ensemble and has a Beberek
preparatory rhythm, falling into an ostinato
Bamboo flutes (beberak), jews harp
(aroding), guitars and banjos are also used.
Palawan Arts and Crafts
The traditional costumes of the Tagbanua
were fashioned from the bark of trees,
particularly the salugin. Tagbanua
The tagbanua have had more aesthetically wood carving
delicate creations in terms of body & sculpture
accessories. In the past, when both men
and women wore their hair long, they filed
and blackened their teeth, and carved
earplugs from the hardwood bantilinaw.
These ornately designed plugs were inlaid
with mother-of-pearl in geometric patterns.
The tagbanua also carved wooden combs
and bracelets.
Baskets and wood carvings are the more
notable products of Tagbanua artistic
crafts today. These baskets occasionally
made of blackened and natural bamboo,
which make the designs stand out. Bayong -
The soft rice baskets, called bayong- bayong
bayong, are made with different unusual
shapes. These have generally square bases
and round tops.
Blackened wood carvings of animals, with simple etched
or incised features exposing the original grain of the
wood, are the most well known examples of Tagbanua
wood carvings or sculpture.
Palawano Beliefs
The principle on which the Palawan base their life is called ingasiq,
meaning compassion. This underlies all their actions and
emphasizes the importance of behaving with generosity and
sympathy towards others.
Their ceremonies, prayers, chanting and healing dances are all part
of what they call adat et kegurangurangan, or the customs of the
For the Palawan, the universe is vertical and divided into fourteen
different layers. The souls of the beljan(shamans) are able to travel
to these other levels in order to heal the world and to re-establish
the cosmic balance.
Shamans are not seen as special or sacred people, but are those
who, either in a trance or dream, are able to enter the invisible
world and contact super-human beings. They can see and extract
impurities that are causing sickness from a patients body. They
are also usually experts in the use of medicinal plants.
Good health is dependent on a balance between the body and its
life force (kuruduwa). The loss of kuruduwacreates a disturbance,
which makes the body vulnerable to illness and attacks by
malevolent beings.
Wedding Ceremony of
Typically, the Taut Bato can be found
in Palawan, Philippines and doesn't
have courtship. Partnering of kids by
their own parents is the common
process. These people marry very
young around 9 and over for the girls
as well as 15 and over for the boys.
The boy takes care of the girl until
adolescence. Nevertheless, it's a
concept that he won't sleep with the
girl until the start of menstruation
The man provides a dowry of saucers,
plates, and patadyong fabric. Dowry
can be also on a credit basis. At the
moment, this can be provided in cash
or money.
During the wedding ceremony, the
couple will sit together and eat boiled
cassava. The bride gets a piece of
cassava and gives it to her groom
and vice-versa. If the groom's parent
Maranao is the term used for the people of Lanao, a
predominantly Muslim region in the Philippine island of
Mindanao. They are famous for their artwork,
sophisticated weaving, wood and metal craft, and their
epic literature. The word Maranao, also spelled
Maranaw, means "People of the Lake", referring to the
indigenous people who inhabited the lands around Lake
Lanao whose principal town is Marawi City. The
Maranaos are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who
constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group.
Maranao Epic: Darangan
Darangan, which is written in
Maranao (Maranaw) language
narrates the heroic feats of the
Maguindanao peoplehighlighting
the bravery and prowess of the
skilled Moro warriors.
Darangan consists of several episodes, and three of
these have been translated and have grown in
popularity: Bantugan, Daramako-e Babay, and
Indarapatra and Sulayman. Bantugan is fabled as
the ancestor of them all.
In 2005, the Darangen Epic of the Maranao people
of Lake Lanao was selected by UNESCO as a
Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of
Darangan consists of several episodes, and three
of these have been translated and have grown in
popularity: Bantugan, Daramako-e Babay, and
Indarapatra and Sulayman. Bantugan is fabled as
the ancestor of them all.
revolves around the life of Prince Bantugan, brother of
King Madali, the ruler of Bumbaran.

Daramoke-a-Babay is a sequel to Bantugan. It recounts the
bravery and might Bantugan. In the battles, no one equals
his courage and fighting skills.

Indarapatra at Sulayman
Kulintang music is also played at state functions, and
to accompany healing ceremonies, rituals (pagipat), and
animistic religious ceremonies. It is played informally
in the home for the enjoyment of family members.
Kulintang music was once used for communicating
long distance messages from one village or longhouse
to another. Traditionally, kulintang performers are
volunteers whose only reward is recognition and

The main role of kulintang music in the community is

as nonprofessional, social entertainment at feasts,
festive and harvest gatherings, parades, weddings and
ceremonies marking the return of pilgrimages to Mecca.
Sarimanok, Papanoka "Mra" or "Mara patik" is a legendary
bird of the Maranao that is a ubiquitous symbol of their art.
It is depicted as a Hoodhud (Arabic) with colorful wings and
feathered tail, holding a fish on its beak or talons.
The head of Sarimanok is like the head of a Hoopoe
(Balalatoc in maranaw) and is profusely decorated with
scroll, leaf and spiral motifs. It is a symbol of good fortune.
Courting a Maranao lady could be difficult. A
suitor should be the most hardworking and
patient bachelor in town. A go-between who
will mediate for the contracting parties of the
groom needed. The parents of the groom
contact the parents of the bride regarding the
desire of their son marry. The woman's family
announces the dowry. When all is settled, the
wedding celebration takes place in fun and
They have these very colourful dresses and they are very
happy when they have the chance to attend a certain
wedding ceremony.

The corpse is cleaned and wrapped in a white

cloth. It is then buried in a tarking (grave) about
1.8 meters deep which is then covered with soil
because of the belief in the resurrection, the top is
not cemented.

Pouring of water over the grave completes the

burial. Pandiaga or activities related to consoling
the bereaved family is done after the burial; these
are made on following days after death: 3 days, 7
days, 20 days, 40 days, 50 days, 100 days and on
the death anniversary.
Dress and foods
The most prominent traditional wear is the malong,
a large, colorful woven cloth wrapped around the
body. One common way women wear it is around
the waist with its folds draped over the left arm.
Men wrap it around the waist like a skirt.
The malong is one kind of dress material which can
be used in many ways. Women wear it as skirt, a
dress, a blouse or a gown. The rest of the family use
it either as hammock, a fruit basket, a sleeping bag,
a bathrobe, a baby carriage or a simple market bag.
The malong has many uses depending on the need
of the wearer. It can be used as a cape, coat, blanket
or umbrella. Maranao or Maguindanao women
wear the malong over a blouse called arbita. Also,
they wear a turban called kombong made of muslin
fabric. White is used as kombong when the wearer
has been to Mecca.

The Maranaos are superstitious. They believe in the

hidden powers of the ANTING-ANTING amulets.
These Items which they wear on their necks, arms
or legs believed to bring them good luck
Kuning- Rice is the staple food of Filipinos, and the same
is true for the Maranaos. For important occasions and
gatherings, or even on a regular day, Maranaos have a
special way of preparing rice. Rice is colored with
turmeric and flavored with salt, laurel leaves and olive
oil, and cooked the usual way, creating the kuning. The
word has a Malay origin which literally means yellow
thus kuning is usually translated as yellow rice but is
sometimes referred to as turmeric rice.
Palapa is an important ingredient in Maranao cooking. It is made of
caramelized shallots (sakurab in Maranao), ginger and chili peppers. It is
mainly used as an ingredient in many Maranao dishes such as the bakas
piaparan, yellow fin tuna cooked in coconut milk, turmeric and palapa (see
image above). Palapa is also used as a garnish adding more flavor to cooked
food (see image below).
Grated Coconut- Another common ingredient in Maranao cooking is
grated coconut. It is usually roasted and mixed with meat such as piarun a
odang (spiced shrimp), piarun a manuk (spiced chicken) and piarun a atay
(spiced chicken liver).
Rendang- is a dish that originates from Indonesia and through trade and
migration, this dish has also found its way in Southern Philippines and
has become one of the specialties of the Maranao people. Rendang is
usually cooked with beef and is described as caramelized beef curry.
The coconut milk used in its preparation is reduced to a dark and sweet
consistency. For other Filipinos, rendang may be compared with beef
caldereta with a hint of latik and curry. It is traditionally served with
plain rice.
Sangil, their name is derived from Sanghe, refering to an
archipelago in eastern Indonesia original home of the
Sangil. Singil are also known as Sangir and Sangu.
The population is concentrated in Balut and Sarangani
islands (2,085) off Mindanao, and Jose Abad Santos
(685) in the province of Davao del Sur where there are a
total of 4,322 (NSO 1980). The national population is
some 10,344 (NM 1994).
They speak a language with Indonesian affinities. Islamic
in influence, much of the indigenous culture has changed
and been absorbed into the coastal societies, especially
into the Kalagan group.
Arrived in Southern Mindanao
Their migration perhaps was a result of Dutch
colonial pressure and increasing Christianization of
their homeland (Sangihe Archipelago) starting in the
second half of the 18th century.
Built a fortress against the Villalobos Army which now
called Fort Villalobos
The Sangil tribe are considered as Moros and thus faced
issues regarding to identity, land and liberty of the
The Sangil earn their livelihood by fishing and cultivating
small quantities of food crops. A few of them engage in
boat building of vessels like vintas and pump boats.
There were Sangil Sultans in the past and their tribe
fought the villalobos army during its exploration.
There are already Islam in their arrival in southern
Islamic in influence, much of the indigenous culture has
changed and been absorbed into the coastal societies,
especially into the kalagan group. The culture is
associated with lowland and coastal adaptations with a
mixture of intensive cultivation and horticulture. The
traditional crop include rice in upland fields, sweet
potato , corn and banana. The people also engage in
boat-making and cash cropping with coconuts.
Languange: Bahasa Yakan (has characteristics of
both Sama-Bajau Sinama and Tausug )

Literature: Origin myth or legend, Animal folktale

Origin of the world and of the Mankind

Conflict between monkeys and butterflies

Music and Arts.
kulintangan (kwintangan) kayu
is a percussion instrument
consisting of wooden beams
played after the planting
season, toenhance plant
growth. (The kulintangan or
kwintangan consists of several
bronze gongs arranged
according to size, and used
during celebrations such as
weddings and graduations. It is
also played by any individual in
the home and after work, for
self-expression and relaxation.
The agong is a percussion
instrument used to announce
marriage or for tolling the
One popular Yakan dance is adapted from the Tausug s
pangalay and called by the same name. The dance is
accompanied by the kulintangan kayu and performed by
three people. In the Yakan bumblebee mimetic dance
usually performed by a male dancer, a searcher
successfully finds honey with the aid of a torch. He
overeats, and the result is a stomachache (Orosa-
Goquingco 1980:175). Another example of a mimetic
dance is the tahing baila which imitates the movement of
a fish (Tiongson 1991:236). At weddings, the tumahik or
war dance is performed by the groom as well as by male
relatives of both the groom and bride. Dressed in Yakan
finery, the dancer uses a spear and a shield to fight an
imaginary enemy to the music of the kulintangan.
The Yakan have designs or motifs
used repeatedly in all their visual
arts and crafts. The pussuk
labbung is a sawtooth design
used for cloth baskets and the
native sword called kris.
Weapons such as knives and
swords are part of the Yakan's
visual arts. The punnyal is a small
knife. The taming is the
traditional shield used along with
two types of spears, the budjak
and the sankil, now used only in
war dances.

The funeral must take place within twenty-four

hours after death. The body is placed in the grave
on its right side, facing Mecca. After the grave has
been filled the imam reads a prayer that teaches the
deceased to utter the right words on its way to the
Judgment. A goat id sacrificed to help the spirit get
across the sea while it is on a journey to next world.
The grave is finally arranged, and a grave marker is
placed on top of it. This grave marker symbolizes a
boat that is intended not for the passage across the
sea but for the spirit's use in the next world.
Marriage/ Wedding
As Muslims, Yakan men are allowed to have four wives, but
polygyny is becoming increasingly rare. MostYakanshave
only one wife, although some have two and a very few have
three or more.
Both bride and groom wore face paints and were garbed in
authentic Yakan attires.
Yakan Wears (Semmek) worn by both bride and groom
Trousers Yakan Sawal, striped trousers with zig zag and
diamond repeat patterns made from bamboo fibers.
Mens button up shirt Badju Yakandesigned to match
the trousers.
Head scarf Yakan Pis, geometic intricate weave worn to
cover the hair on a daily basis.
Apron Seputangan Teed has many different designs but is
the most time consuming and decorative weave of the
Sash Sakan Pinalantupan is made from a mix of Pineapple
and bamboo fibers.
Brides button up jacket Pagal Batois made from satin or
cotton cloth and sometimes mixed with lurex threads.
Brass buttons Batawi, hand made and worn on the
womens jacket.
(Actually same lang sa tausug
like sawal, badju etc)
AS A sign of thanksgiving for
good graces, the Yakans, the
indigenous group of Basilan,
serve dulang, a medley of
molded sticky rice with
chicken, fried fish and
vegetables on a banana leaf.
The Yakans of Basilan presented
their foods such as kaliya or
Yakan chicken. Yakan chicken
must be prayed over before
slaughtering. It is then cooked
with chilli, ginger, onion leaves,
garlic cloves, lemongrass and
powdered rice.