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Gerunds and infinitives
can function as:
(subjects, objects, subject
Gerund, is a verb-ing form that
used as a noun. Gerund can
function as subject, object,
complement and adjective.
Verbs that take only Gerunds
Appreciate Keep
Avoid Mention
Delay Mind
Deny Miss
Discuss Postpone
Dislike Quit
Enjoy Recall
Excuse Recommend
Finish Resent
understand suggest
Gerund as Subject
1. Cooking takes a lot time
2. Learning english is interesting
3. Hunting tigers is very dangerous
4. Swimming is my hobby
Gerund as Object
1. Tony enjoys reading a horror novel
2. They dont mind opening the door
3. I enjoy fishing every day
4. When I was a kid. I couldnt do the
Gerund as Complement
(following is/are/was/were. etc)

1. My hobby is writting poetry
2. His favorite sport is surfing
3. Her job is teaching the student
4. What she want to do now is sleeping
Gerund to Explain Noun
1. The waiting room is very cozy
meaning: a room for waiting
2. My grandma needs a walking stick to walk
meaning: a helping stick to walk
3. Every building must be facilitated with
some smoking area
meaning: an area to smoke
Gerund as a Prohibition
1. No smoking
2. No trespassing
3. No littering
4. No parking
5. No kissing
Gerund as Certain Phrasal
Used to
Accustumed to + V-ing (Terbiasa)
Get Used to
Confess to + V-ing (Mengakui)

Object to +V-ing (Keberatan)

Look Forward to + V-ing (Menunggu)

Gerunds used
as Object of the Preposition
1. I am thinking about taking the
children to Mexico
2. She always taking care of her family
Common preposition combinations
followed by gerunds
Be excited about, complain about, talk
about, think about, worry about
Apologize for, blame for, famous for
Believe in, interested in, succeed in
Take care of, instead of, be accused of
Insist on, count on, concentrate on
Keep from, prevent from, profit from
In addition to, look forward to, be used to
By and Go Pattern
A. By + gerund
You will get a good grades by studying
B. Go + gerund
I will go fishing with you tomorrow.
An infinitive looks like a verb
because it begins with to, but it
behaves as a noun (subject, object,
purpose), adjective, or adverb.
Basic Form of Infinitives
A. Positive Form
To + base form of the verb
Example : I want to dance
B. Negative Form
Not + infinitive
Example : He decided not to go
to the party.
Infinitives as a Noun

A. As Subject
Example: To leave now would be rude.
B. As Object
Example: No one wants to stay.
C. As Purpose
Example: Her goal is to win.
Infinitives as Adjective
1. Barack Obama is the candidate to watch
this election.
to watch infinitive as an adjective
2. The candidate to trust is Tony.
to trust modifying or describing candidate.
Adjectives followed by
Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, careful,
delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, lucky,
pleased, ready, sad, sorry,
Infinitives as Adverb
1. The team was slow to score.
To score modifies the word slow. Slow is
an adjective.
2. My grandmother has come to stay.
To stay modifies come.
Infinitives in the Subject Position
To live in the United States is my
It is my dream to meet the President
Form of Gerund and Infinitives
Gerund Infinitives

Pefect Having moved To have moved

Passive Being done To be seen

Having been selected To have been chosen
Progressive To be working
To have been playing
The Different between
Gerund and Infinitives
Gerund Infinitives
Gerunds often follow Infinitives often follow
verbs that indicate that verbs that indicate that
an action is happening an action will or could
or has happened. happen.
Example: Example:
We enjoy going to concerts We hope to go to the
(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done

not things you havent done yet.) (You can hope for things that could happen
not things that have already happened)