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GAS HYDRATES

GAS HYDRATES

2
TYPES OF HYDRATES
STRUCTURE I
STRUCTURE II
STRUCTURE H
Occurences in Nature
RECOVERY OF METHANE GAS FROM GAS
HYDRATES
Modifying the equilibrium conditions by

1. Depressurization
2. Inhibitor injection
3. Thermal stimulation
Gas Hydrate Production Methods

DepressurizationThermal Inhibitor
Injection Injection Methanol
Hot Brine
Gas Gas or Gas Gas
Out Out Out

Imperm. Rock Imperm. Rock Imperm. Rock


Gas Hydrate
Gas Gas
Dissociated Hydrate Hydrate Hydrate

Dissociated Hydrate Dissociated Hydrate


Free-Gas Reservoir
Impermeable Rock Impermeable Rock

After Collett, 2000


EXPLOITATION SCHEMES
1. DEPRESSURISATION: At fixed temperature,
operating at pressures below hydrate formation
pressure.
2. INHIBITION: Inhibition of the hydrate formation
conditions by using chemicals such as methanol
and salts.
3. HEAT SUPPLY: At fixed pressure, operating at
temperatures above the hydrate formation
temperature. This can be achieved by insulation
or heating of the equipment.
DEPRESSURIZATION METHOD:
Depressurization involves lowering the hydrate
pressure below the stability point, causing the
hydrate to dissociate.
Depressurization results in rapid hydrate
dissociation, but with an associate drop in the
hydrate temperature. Without an external heat
source, depressurization lowers the hydrate
temperature to a new equilibrium condition,
halting the depressurization process.
DISADVANTAGES OF DEPRESSURIZATION
METHOD:

in sandy sediments, depressurization has been


shown, through numerical simulation, to be the
most feasible production technology.
Production of water.
Disturbing the marine life.
INHIBITOR INJECTION METHOD:

Inhibitor injection involves the injection of an organic or


inorganic compound that shifts the hydrate equilibrium
point to lower temperatures for isobaric conditions.
As with depressurization, inhibitor injection could require
additional inhibitor or a heat source to compensate for
the decrease in hydrate temperature with dissociation.
The most common thermodynamic organic inhibitors are
methanol, monoethylene glycol (MEG) and di-ethylene
glycol (DEG) commonly referred to as glycol.
Dissolved salts (e.g., NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, NaBr) can also be
inhibitors.
CARBON DIOXIDE INJECTION METHOD:
Under high pressure, low temperature suboceanic
conditions the hydrate structure can accommodate
small molecules other than methane (CH4), such as
carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) in both the
small and large cages. Although CO2 and N2 clathrates
generally are not naturally as abundant as those of
CH4, their occurrence forms the foundation of an
unconventional approach for producing natural gas
hydrates that involves the exchange of CO2 with CH4 in
the hydrate structure.
THIS UNCONVENTIONAL CONCEPT HAS SEVERAL
DISTINCT BENEFITS OVER THE CONVENTIONAL
METHODS:
1. The heat of CO2 formation (-57.98 kJ/mol) is greater than
the heat of dissociation of CH4 hydrate (54.49 kJ/mol)
providing a low-grade heat source to support additional
methane hydrate dissociation. (it releases energy via an
exothermic reaction)
2. exchanging CO2 with CH4 will maintain the mechanical
stability of the geologic formation. (mechanical
stability of the hydrate reservoir)
3. the process is environmentally friendly, providing a
sequestration mechanism for the injected CO2.(it
sequesters greenhouse gas) (mitigating global warming)
VARIOUS ISSUES RELATED TO EXTRACTION
OF GAS HYDRATES