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ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES - I

Learning objectives
At the end of this lesson the learner will be able to

Know the history of gausalas and gosadans in india

Understand the role of gausalas and gosadans in dairy development

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ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES - I

Course outline
Introduction
Five Year Plans and Dairy Development
First to Fourth Five Year Plan
Fifth to Eigth Five Year Plan
Ninth to Eleventh Five Year Plan
3. Efforts through specific programmes
Gausalas
Gosadans
Key Village Scheme
Operation Flood I
Operation Flood II
Operation Flood III
Strategy Adopted and Interventions in OF
Lessons Learnt through of Implementation

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INTRODUCTION
Cattle rearing is one among the first steps of civilization.

Several efforts were made by governmental and non-governmental


organisations for the development of dairy sector.

These efforts are being dealt under three sections namely,

Gausala / Gosadan,

Five year plans and dairy development and

Dairy development through specific programmes.

Gausala / Gosadan is covered in this lesson.

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FIVE YEAR PLANS AND DAIRY DEVELOPMENT
The thrust being given to dairy development under different five year plans are
grouped and presented under three sections as given below

First to fourth five year plan period

Fifth to eigth five year plan period

Nineth to Eleventh five year plan period

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FIRST TO FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN (1950-55) :

All the activities of rural life were initiated through community development
programmes.

With regard to animal husbandry the goal was to increase milk production and
supply to urban areas and improving the quality of indigenous breeds so as to
provide draught power.

Official cattle breeding policy was laid down emphasizing the development of
dual-purpose breeds. Buffaloes were included in key village scheme (KVS).
Gosadan were set up for surplus cattle.

The plan recommended for setting up public milk supply schemes with
provision to set up milk board for each urban area.

SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN (1955-60) :

Pedigree bull rearing farms and for pregnancy testing in KVS areas.

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FIRST TO FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN (1960-65) :

It encouraged cross breeding with exotic breeds setting up of fodder banks,


feed computing factories using agriculture wastes and byproducts,
manufacture of any dairy machines and equipment in private sector within the
country.

The urban milk board and milk plants have been abandoned.

FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1969-74) :

The fourth plan enlisted selective breeding programme and emphasized


crossbreeding with exotic breeds.

Second important innovation made was the international linkage of the


development strategies through dairy commodity aid under the World Food
Programme.

All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) for improvement of production


potential of buffaloes and also Operation Flood Project (OFP) was introduced.
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FIFTH TO EIGTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
FIFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1974 79) :

The plan envisaged aggressive breeding for increasing milk production and
proposed import of foreign semen doses, bulls and heifers of exotic breeds and
increase in the number of exotic cattle breeding farms.

Large-scale integrated dairy development projects were proposed and were


later funded by the World Bank.

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1980 85) :

The population of cow and buffaloes by replacing non descript local stock by
high yielding cows of indigenous breeds, crossbred cows , improved buffaloes.

SEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1986 90) :

This plan proposed to bring almost 50 percent of the cows under crossbreeding
programme and set a target of 5.6 percent annual growth in milk production.

Embryo transfer technology and Operation Flood II projects were introduced.


Importance was attached to fodder development.
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FIFTH TO EIGTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
EIGHTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1992 97) :

The realities of the post - GATT world were reflected in this plan. Importance
was given for effective animal health management to reduce the economic loss
and to enlarge export of livestock products.

The Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) measures have been introduced in the
new World Trade Agreement (WTA).

Milk production reached 84.6 million tonnes (mt) in 2001-2002. The per capita
availability of milk increased from 112 gm per day in 1973 74 to about 226
gm per day.

Establishing new milk processing capacity under Milk and Milk Products Order
(MMPO) has been removed. An Integrated Dairy Development Programme in
Non-Operation Flood area, Hilly and Backward areas was launched during the
8th Plan.

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NINTH TO ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
NINTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1999 2001) :

The broad frame-work of the cattle and buffalo breeding policy envisaged
selective breeding of indigenous breeds in their breeding tracts and use of such
improved breeds for upgrading of the non-descript stock.

Investment in the dairy sector in the Ninth Plan decreased significantly


compared to the Eighth Plan.

The Government policy in the dairy sector has been to give preference to the
establishment of milk processing plants linking rural milk producers to urban
consumers through a network of cooperatives.

Restrictions on establishing new milk processing capacity under Milk and Milk
Products Order (MMPO) have been removed.

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NINTH TO ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN
TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2002 2007) :

The major thrust during the 10th Five Year Plan is on the following critical areas

Rapid genetic upgradation of cattle and buffaloes and improvement in the


delivery mechanism of breeding inputs and services to farmers.

Extension of dairy development activities in non-operation flood, hilly and


backward areas, including clean milk production.

Promotion of fodder crops and fodder trees to improve animal nutrition.

Provision of adequate animal health services with special emphasis on creation


of disease free zones and control of foot and mouth disease.

Improvement of small ruminants and pack animals

Development of backyard poultry in rural areas.

Provision of credit facility to farmers for viable activities.

Development of reliable database and management information system.

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EFFORTS THROUGH SPECIFIC PROGRAMMES
Several programmes were implemented by the Central Government from time to
time for dairy development in India.

Important among them viz.,

Key Village Scheme,

Intensive Cattle Development Project,

Operation Flood Programme etc.

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GAUSALAS
1. Recognizing the potential of Gaushalas (about 10000) which were engaged in
rehabilitation of disowned cattle, the government of India in 1952 set up the
Central Council of Govsamvardana (CCG). Some of these gaushalas are
providing quality indigenous / cross breds / heifers / bulls at many places like
Nasik, Urli, Kanchan, Amirtsar, Indore and Ahmednagar.

2. One gaushala at Bombay has completed a century of devoted work in 1986 and
has established two institutes

One for research and

Another for fodder research and grassland development.

3. The Sabarmathi Ashram gaushala founded in 1915 by Mahatma Gandhi near


Ahmedabad is now being managed by NDDB and has a training centre for AI
service including embryo transfer.

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GAUSALAS
OBJECTIVES :

To preserve the Indian cows and progeny and to breed and upgrade them for
supplying plenty of unadulterated milk and milk products to the people and
distribute the best female calves to the villagers.

Prepare best pedigree Indian Bulls and supply to villagers for breeding and
upgrading village cows.

Production of best healthy bullocks for draught work and preserve male calves
for distribution to agriculturists.

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GAUSALAS
HISTORY :

The Gaushala movement is synonymous with the protection of cows and cattle
wealth of our country.

According to Vedic concepts, cows were considered sacrosanct and constituted


material and spiritual assets of the people of the country..

The Rishies (Ascetics) maintained Asharam Gaushalas, with hundreds of milking


cows, which helped them to offer hospitality to visitors.

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GAUSALAS
It was in 1946 that the Animal Husbandry wing of the ICAR recognised the
potentiality of the valuable work done by gausalas & pinjarapoles and
recommended a plan to encourage them to be the fountainheads of milk and
draught power in the country. They formulated a plan to constitute state-wise
federations of Gausalas & Pinjarapoles.

A report published by the Central Council of Gosamvardhan, New Delhi under


the heading Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles in India informs that, during the First
Five Year Plan, there were nearly 3,000 Gaushalas and Pinjarapoles spread over
the whole country. These institutions maintained over six lakh cattle at an
annual cost of Rs. 7 crores.

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GOSADANS
The Government of India appointed a Cattle Preservation and Development
Committee on November 19th, 1947 under the chairmanship of Sardar Datar
Singh, Vice President of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

The Committee recommended establishment of Gosadans where


uneconomic cattle could be housed cheaply and allowed to die naturally.

In pursuance of this recommendation a scheme for establishment of 160


Gosadans in the country was included in the first Five Year Plan with an outlay
of Rs. 97.15 lakhs with the idea to segregate the old, unproductive and useless
cattle from the good ones.

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GOSADANS
The segregated cattle are housed in proper shelters or shed and maintained on
natural pastures and hay. The scheme was launched to solve the problem of
degraded cattle.

One Gosadan was designed to house 2000 cattle in a land of about 4000 acres.
It was estimated that a Gosadan, capable of housing 2000 cattle, would require
Rs. 50,000 as non-recurring, and Rs. 20,000 as recurring expenditure per
annum.

The scheme could not achieve the projected targets. Only 17 Gosadans could
be started during the plan period. Established in the States of Bihar, UP, Pepsu,
Coorg, Bhopal, Kutch, Vindhya Pradesh, Tripura and Saurashtra, these Gosadans
could have only 5293 cattle against the capacity of 34,000.

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OPERATION FLOOD (OF)
This is a major dairy project, which provides income to the rural poor. The
strategy for organized dairy development in India was actually conceived in the
late 1960s, within a few years after the National Dairy Development Board
(NDDB) was founded in 1965.

It rested on the Operation Flood programme, which was conceived by the


NDDB and endorsed by the government.

Operation Flood is a unique approach to dairy development. During the 1970s,


dairy commodity surpluses were building up in Europe, and Dr. Verghese Kurien,
the founding chairman of NDDB, saw in those surpluses both a threat and an
opportunity.

The threat was massive exports of low-cost dairy products to India, which
would have tolled the death-knell for India's staggering dairy industry.

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OPERATION FLOOD (OF)
Designed basically as a marketing project, Operation Flood recognized the
potential of the European surplus as an investment in the modernization of
India's dairy industry. With the assistance of the World Food Programme, food
aid - in the form of milk powder and butter oil - was obtained from the
countries of the European Economic Community (EEC) to finance the
programme.

It was the first time in the history of economic development that food aid was
seen as an important investment resource..

Operation Flood is a programme designed to develop dairying by replicating


the Anand Model for dairy development, which has stood the test of time for
almost half a century.

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OPERATION FLOOD I (1970-81)
1. The first phase of Operation Flood was launched in 1970 following an
agreement with the World Food Programme, which undertook to provide as aid
126000 tonnes of skim milk powder and 42000 tonnes of butter oil to finance
the programme.

2. The programme involved organizing dairy cooperatives at the village level,


creating the physical and institutional infrastructure for milk procurement,
processing, marketing and production enhancement services at the union level
and establishing dairies in India's major metropolitan centres.

3. The main thrust was to set up dairy cooperatives in India's best milk sheds,
linking them with the four main cities of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras,
in which a commanding share of the milk market was to be captured.

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OPERATION FLOOD II (1981-85)
This programme aimed at achieving financial viability of the milk unions / state
federations by adopting the salient institutional characteristics of the Anand
pattern cooperatives.

The Operation Flood II was funded by World Bank credit loan, food aid by EEC
and NDDBs own resources.

The second phase of the programme was implemented between 1981 and
1985. Designed to build on the foundation laid in the first phase, it integrated
the Indian Dairy Association-assisted dairy development projects being
implemented in some Indian states into the overall programme.

About US$150 million was provided by the World Bank, with the balance of
project financing obtained in the form of commodity assistance from the EEC.

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OPERATION FLOOD III (1985-90)
The third phase of Operation Flood aims at ensuring that the cooperative
institutions become self-sustaining.

With an investment of US$360 million from the World Bank, commodity and
cash assistance from the EEC and NDDB's own internal resources, the
programme envisages substantial expansion of the dairy processing and
marketing facilities, an extended milk procurement infrastructure, increased
outreach of productionenhancement activities, and professionalization of
management in the dairy institutions.

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STRATEGY ADOPTED AND INTERVENTIONS IN OFP
STRATEGIES ADOPTED :

Operation flood was designed on some simple assumptions viz.

Dairying is complementary to agriculture and provides supplementary income.

Production by million of farmers who are living far-off from the market.

Market and price incentives are essential to increase production.

INTERVENTIONS BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS :

Strategic intervention :

We received food aid from the UN and European Economic Community (EEC).
Food assistance may be used to meet short-term food shortages that occur due
to natural calamities or it may be used to generate employment under the food
for work programme or for generating resources.

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STRATEGY ADOPTED AND INTERVENTIONS IN OFP
Institutional intervention :

In replicating the Anand pattern, Operation flood attempted to promote a


grassroot level democracy with the participation of producer members
irrespective of the size of landholding or social stratification.

These co-operatives must operate viably to ensure payment of remunerative


prices to the members and special focus on professional management.

Technological intervention :

Operation Flood provided adequate price incentives to encourage farmers to


make major input purchase decisions.

Technology is also made use of in testing the milk, transporting and its
processing.

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LESSONS LEARNT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION
The network of cooperative institutions created through the Operation Flood
programme comprises 70000 dairy cooperative societies in 170 milksheds,
encompassing 8.4 million milk-producer families.

Average milk procurement by these cooperatives has reached some 12.3


million kg per day, of which 8.2 million litres are marketed as liquid milk, while
the remaining is converted into products such as milk powder, butter, cheese,
ghee and a wide range of traditional milk products.

Milk-processing capacity of approximately 15.6 million litres per day, chilling


capacity of 6.5 million litres per day and milk powder production capacity of
726 tonnes per day have been established through the programme.

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LESSONS LEARNT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION

In Operation Flood, this has been made possible through the operation of
about 140 insulated rail milk tankers, each with a capacity of 40000 litres,
supplemented by another 25 rail tankers of 21000-litre capacity. Approximately
1000 other insulated road milk tankers operate throughout the country

The investment and achievements in modernizing the Indian dairy industry


have had a major impact on milk production. Annual production, which had
stagnated between 20 million and 22 million tonnes during the 1960s, has
steadily increased to around 59 million tonnes, an annual growth rate of about
7.8 percent.

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LESSONS LEARNT THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION
Per capita availability of milk, which had declined consistently during the two
decades between 1951 and 1970, dropping to 107 g at the start of Operation
Flood, is now 187 g per day, despite a substantial increase in population.

Commercial imports of dairy commodities were a regular feature in the 1950s


and 1960s, comprising 50 to 60 percent of the dairy industry's total
throughput. Today, imports of dairy commodities are restricted to those
donated by the EEC for implementing Operation Flood (Mielke, 1993) and their
percentage of the total dairy throughput is negligible.

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