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Presented By:

Nasir Rasheed Qureshi ES NOC TXN

Page1
Foreword
With the development of telecommunication, the

requirements of the transmission capacity and service

categories are becoming bigger and bigger, under this

background, WDM technology emerged.


How to increase network capacity

DWDM

Economical &
TDM Mature & Quick

SDM STM-64 STM- N x (STM-64)


256
Add fiber &
equipment Cost &
Complication
Time & cost
Solution of capacity expansion

Page3
What's DWDM

Gas Station

Free Way

Patrol Car

Page4
DWDM Concept
Different signals with specific wavelength are
multiplexed into a fiber for transmission.

1 1 2 n

SDH signal

IP package 2
ATM cells

n

Page5
System Structure
OTU O O OTU
M A
OTU / / OTU
OLA
O O
A D
OTU OTU
OSC OSC OSC

The overall structure of the WDM system of N-path wavelengths:


Optical Transponder Unit (OTU)
Optical Multiplexer Unit / Optical De-multiplexer Unit (OMU/ODU)
Optical Amplifier (OA)
Supervisory Channel (OSC/ESC)

Page6
System Structure
Main functions for OTU is to convert the wavelength between
client signals and DWDM side ITU-T standard signals
(G.691/694).
XCS provides flexible cross-connection between the OUT cards,
which is the highlights of OSN8800 compared to traditional WDM
equipments.
Main functions for OM is to multiplex the individual channels into
main path, OD realizes the reverse conversion.
OA is used to compensate the line loss or component insertion loss
to realize long distance transmission.
There are two methods for the management, difference is that ESC
depends on OTU cards and OSC depends on the SC1/2 cards.
System Structure
DWDM supports Point-to-point, Chain, Ring and Mesh
networks.

Point to Point Network

Point-to-point network is the basic application. It is


used for end-to-end service transmission. The other
network modes are based on point-to-point mode which
is the most basic network.
Chain Network

Chain network with OADM(s) is the suitable


topology when it is required to add/drop some
wavelengths while passing others on.
Ring Network
Ring:
Because of its excellent survivability, Ring network is a
dominant working mode in DWDM network planning.
Types of Ring Network

Ring with Chain

Tangent Ring

Intersecting Ring
Mesh Network
Mesh Network:
MESH networks have no node bottleneck and ensure unblocked
services by alternative routes during equipment failure. In a MESH
network, more than one route is available between two nodes so that
the service transmission is highly reliable. As a result, the MESH
topology is a mainstream mode for intelligent optical networks. The
MESH topology is flexible with good expandability.
Transmission Modes
Single fiber unidirectional transmission

MUX DMUX

M
O 4 0 O
T 0 4 T
U M U

Page13
Transmission Modes
Single fiber bidirectional transmission

MUX/DMUX DMUX/MUX

M
O 4 0 O
T 0 4 T
U M U

Page14
Application Modes
Open System

MUX DMUX

M
O 4 0 O
T 0 4 T
U M U

Client Client

Page15
Application Modes
Integrated System

MUX DMUX

M
4 0
0 4
M

Client Client

Page16
Advantages of WDM
Ultra high capacity

Data transparency transmission

Long haul transmission

Compatible with existing optical fibers

High performance-to-cost ratio

High networking flexibility, economy and reliability

Smooth expansion

Page17
SDH Vs DWDM
SDH DWDM
TDM in electric domain FDM in optics domain

Backbone Long haul & MAN

Protocol oriented Transparent


Brief Introduction to CWDM
CWDMCoarse Wavelength Division Multiplex)
Difference between CWDM and DWDM:
Carrier channel spacing of CWDM is wide;
CWDM modulate laser adopts the uncooled laser.
The CWDM currently used generally works from 1260nm band to
1620nm, the spacing is 20nm, and can multiplex 16 wavelength
channels.
The CWDM greatly reduces the system cost while providing certain
amount of wavelength and transmission distance within 100 kilometers
CWDM Vs DWDM
DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex

CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex

ITU-T G.694.1
Extended C band 192chs, 25GHz spacing
C band 160chs Extended
32chs
196.05THz 192.125THz 192.05THz 191.275THz

Page20
Structure of Optical Fiber
Consists of a cylindrical glass core, a glass cladding and a
plastic wear-resisting coating.

Refraction
n2 Cladding

Reflection n1 Core

Coating

Page21
DWDM Transmission Media
Optical Fiber Structures
The kernel of optical fiber used in communication systems
consists of a cylindrical glass core and a glass cladding. The
outermost layer is a plastic wear-resisting coating. The
whole fiber is cylindrical.

C
o
at
i
ng C
l
ad
d
in
gCo
r
e

2n
n 1
Attenuation
dB/km

Multi-mode
5
O E S C L U
4 band

3
OH-
850~900nm

nm
900 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

Page23
DWDM Transmission Media
Types of Optical Fiber
Since the single-mode optical fiber has advantages of
low internal attenuation, large bandwidth, easy upgrade
and capacity expansion and low cost, it is internationally
agreed that DWDM systems will only utilize single
mode fiber as transmission media.
At present, ITU-T has defined four types of single mode
optical fiber with different design in Recommendations
G.652, G.653, G.654 and G.655.
DWDM Transmission Media
Types of Optical Fiber

G.652:
G.652 fiber is currently a single mode fiber for
extensive use, called 1310nm property optimal single
mode fiber and also called dispersion unshifted fiber.
According to the refractive index cross section of the
core, it can also be divided into two categories: matched
cladding fiber and depressed cladding fiber. They have
similar properties. The former is simple in
manufacturing but has relatively larger macrobend loss
and microbend loss while the later has larger connection
loss.
DWDM Transmission Media
Types of Optical Fiber

G.653:
G.653 fiber is called dispersion shifted fiber or 1550nm
property optimal fiber.
By designing the refractive index cross section, the zero
dispersion point of this kind of fiber is shifted to the
1550nm window to match the minimum attenuation
window. This makes it possible to implement ultra high
speed and ultra long distance optical transmission.
DWDM Transmission Media
Types of Optical Fiber

G.654:
G.654 fiber is cut-off wavelength shifted single mode
fiber. This kind of fiber is mainly designed to reduce the
attenuation at 1550nm.
Its zero dispersion point is still near 1310nm. The
dispersion at 1550nm is relatively high, up to
18ps/(nm.km). So single longitudinal mode laser must
be used to eliminate the affect of the dispersion.
G.654 fiber is mainly used for submarine optical fiber
communication with very long regenerator section
distance.
DWDM Transmission Media
Types of Optical Fiber
G.655:
G.655 fiber, a nonzero dispersion shifted single mode
optical fiber, is similar to G.653 fiber and preserves
certain dispersion near 1550nm to avoid four-wave
mixing phenomenon in DWDM transmission. It is
suitable for DWDM system applications.
Except for the above-mentioned four types of
standardized fiber, a large effective area fiber suitable
for higher capacity and longer distance has emerged. Its
zero dispersion point is near 1510mm and its effective
area is up to 72 square mm. Therefore, it can effectively
overcome the nonlinear affects and is especially suitable
for DWDM system applications based on 10Gbit/s.
What is Dispersion?
Dispersion is the spreading or broadening of light pulses as they
propagate through the fiber.
Too much dispersion gives rise to bit-errors at the receiver (i.e., the
inability to distinguish a 0 from a 1).
Dispersion is Caused by Differential Delay
What is differential delay?
Signal is made of two or more components
Each component travels at different speeds
Different components arrive at different times
Difference in arrival time at receiver is the differential delay

Dispersion is a fundamental limiting factor in transmission links:


Limit data rate on long fibers
Limit length on high data rate fibers

Common system design rule:


To minimize the effects of dispersion (i.e., keep bit-errors to an acceptable
level), limit total differential delay to 10% of bit rate
Types of Dispersion
Intermodal Dispersion
In multimode fiber, is caused by the different
Multimode fiber (Step Index)
path lengths of the different modes. Different
lengths result in different arrival times

Chromatic Dispersion
Caused by non-zero spectral width of light SMF
source (i.e., more than one wavelength of 1
light). Different wavelengths travel at
2
different speeds.
SMF
Polarization Mode Dispersion
Caused by orthogonal polarization modes
traveling at different speeds.
Chromatic Dispersion
Pulse Spreading due to the fact that different wavelengths
of light travel at different speeds.
Since source is not mono-chromatic (a single wavelength),
each wavelength component travels at a slightly different
speed.
Understanding Specifications
Chromatic Dispersion (D) specified in ps/nm*km
differential delay (in ps)
per wavelength spread (in nm) of the source width (laser line
width)
per length of route (in km)
D > 0: indicates that slightly longer wavelengths travel faster
D = 0: indicates that slight changes in wavelength do not
affect propagation speed
Common specs include:
zero dispersion point
zero dispersion slope
G.652:widely used, need
dispersion compensation for
G.653: Zero dispersion
high rate transmission
at 1550nm window.

Dispersion
coefficient

17ps/nm.km G.655


1310nm
1550nm

G.655: Little dispersion


to avoid FWM.

Page34
Fiber Types

Attenuation Chromatic Dispersion


(dB/ km) (ps/ nm* km)
Fiber Type 1310 nm 1550 nm 1310 nm 1550 nm
9/ 125 Conventional (SMF-28) 0.35 0.25 0 17
9/ 125 Dispersion Shifted 0.35 0.25 -15 0
9/ 125 WDM Optimized 0.35 0.25 -12 3

Conventional fiber (SMF) known as Unshifted (G.652)

Dispersion Shifted fiber has zero dispersion point shifted to 1550 nm (G.653)

WDM Optimized fiber is known as Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber

(NZDSF) (G.655)
Dispersion Compensation
The pulse will be broadened because of Positive dispersion
coefficient at 1550nm window.
DCF has negative dispersion coefficient and can counteract
positive dispersion in transmission.

Dispersion
Coefficient G.652

wavelength
Normal DSF
DCF: Dispersion
Compensation Fiber

Page36
DWDM System Key Technologies

Optical Source Optical Multiplexer


and Demultiplexer

Key Tech. in
DWDM

Optical Amplifier Supervisory


Technologies

Page37
Requirements of Optical Source

1 Larger dispersion tolerance value

2 Standard and stable wavelength

Page38
Direct modulator

Page39
Electro-Absorption (EA) external modulator

Page40
Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) external modulator

Page41
Comparison of Modulators

Types Direct Modulator EA Modulator M-Z Modulator

Max. dispersion >12800


1200~4000 7200~12800
toleration (ps/nm)

Cost moderate expensive very expensive

Wavelength Stability good Better best

Equipment CWDM DWDM DWDM

Page42
Optical Amplifiers

EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

RFA Raman Fiber Amplifier

OA

Page43
E3 excited state
Deca
1550nm y E2 meta-stable state
signal light
Stimulated radiation

1550nm
signal light
980nm
pump light
E1 ground state

Er3+ energy level diagram

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Page44
Structure of EDFA

Signal input ISO Coupler ISO Signal Output


TAP TAP
EDF

Pumping laser

PD PD

ISO: Isolator
PD: Photon Detector

Page45
Features of EDFA
Advantages Disadvantages

Consistent with the low Fixed gain range


attenuation window Gain un-flatness
High energy conversion
Optical surge
efficiency
problem
High gain with little cross-
talk

Good gain stability

Page46
Automatic Gain Control
1 ~
n

1~ Gain
n EDFA
Pin Pout

Gain no
change!

Gain = Pout / Pin is invariable


Input Power: Pin coupler EDF Output Power: Pout
splitter pump splitter
PIN PIN
DSP

Page47
Raman Fiber Amplifier
Stimulated Raman Scattering
Pump Gain

30nm
13THz
Gain
Pump1 Pump2 Pump3

30nm
70~100nm

Page48
Features of Raman
Advantages Disadvantages

Flexible gain wavelength High pump power,


low efficiency and high
Simple structure
cost;
Nonlinear effect can be
Components & fiber
reduced;
undertake the high
Low noise
power;

Page49
Application of OA

OTU M D OTU
M O O O M
U M
4 A A A 4U
X
0 0X
OTU OTU

Booster amplifier Line Amplifier Pre-amplifier

Page50
Types of OA
According to its application:
BA: Booster amplifier, mainly used in the
transmit end. For the hardware description, you will
see OBU card.
LA: Line amplifier, mainly used in the amplifier
station, could be recognized as BA+PA. For the
hardware description, you will see OAU card.
PA: Pre-amplifier, mainly used in the receive
end. For the hardware description, you will see
OPU card.
Amplifying Unit
Optical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer

TFF Thin Film Filter

AWG Arrayed Waveguide Grating



1 2 n 1
2
1 1 2 n
2
n
n
Multiplexer Demultiplexer

Page53
Thin Film Filter

1- 4 filter
1

Self-focusing lens
1

3
filter
2

4
Glass

Page54
Arrayed Waveguide Grating

Arrayed of waveguides 1n

1
1,2 n n
Arrayed of fibers

Page55
Optical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
Supervisory Technologies

OSC Optical Supervisory Channel Technology

ESC Electrical Supervisory Channel


Technology

Page57
Optical Supervisory Channel
Requirements:
Operating wavelength should be different from the pumping wavelength of
OA. Pumping wavelength of OA: 980nm or 1480nm.
Operating wavelength should not take 1310nm window. So 1510nm is used.
Available when OA fails; all signal lost, requires the supervisory signal
continue to transmit alarms and other indications.
Suitable for long distance transmission. The receive sensitivity of the OSC
unit is very good, up to -48dBm.

OSC OSC
F F 0
S OTU1 I I OTU1 S
C OTU2 M 4
OTU2 C
4 U U C
C OTU3 M OTU3
OTU4 0 OTU4

Page58
Electrical Supervisory Channel
Features:
Simple structure & cost saving
Redundancy supported
Improve power budget
Reduce system complexity

0
S OTU1 OTU1 S
C OTU2 M 4
OTU2 C
C OTU3 4 M OTU3 C
OTU4 0 OTU4

Page59
Distribution of Optical Wavelength Areas
A fiber has two long wavelength and low loss windows, 1310nm window
and 1550nm window. But the commonly used working wavelength range for
the erbium-doped optical amplifier is 192.1-196.1THz.Therefore the
working wavelength area for wavelength division multiplexing system is
192.1-196.1THz.
Nominal central frequency refers to the central wavelength corresponding to
each channel in DWDM systems. Channel frequency allowed in G.692 is
based on frequency and spacing series of reference frequency 193.1THz and
minimum spacing 100GHz , 50GHz or 25GHz.

Page60
Optical Power Calculation

Common Indices
Insertion Loss (M40, D40, MR2, DCM)

Specification of OA (OAU, OBU,OPU)

Specification of OTU
Insertion Loss

Type DCM(G.652)

FIU <1dB
M40 <8dB
D40 <8dB
20kmDCM <4dB
40kmDCM <5dB
60kmDCM <7dB
80kmDCM <8dB
100kmDCM <9dB
120kmDCM <10dB
Specification of OTU

Receiver Overload Power


OTU Types Mean Launch Power (dBm)
Sensitivity (dBm) (dBm)

DWDM Side
-16 -2 -1~-3
LSX
Client Side
-14.4 -2 -1~-3
Power Calculation of OSC

Typical Launch Power of SC2/SC1/TC1/TC2: -2~-4dBm

IL of FIU (from RM to OUT or from IN to TM): 1dB

Receiving PowerLaunch Power Loss of Fiber 2*IL of FIU


Basic Concept
Basic Concept
mW and dBm are the absolute value for optical power;
1mW=0dBm
2mW=3dBm
0.5mW=-3dBm
0.1mW=-10dBm
dB is the relative value for optical power. When we describe the
values of gain and attenuation, it is used.
Optical Power Calculation Formula

Note: The formula is based on the condition the optical power of each single
wavelength
is same, that means flat.
P total means total wavelength power . P1/P2 means single wavelength
power.
Optical Power Calculation Formula (OSC)

The OSC card is with high sensitivity which is reach up to -48dBm, so it is unnecessary
to make the power calculation for OSC.
If the distance between stations is too long, power budget is not enough, ESC will be
considerable.
OTN
OTNOptical Transport Network
An Optical Transport Network (OTN) is composed of a set of
Optical Network Elements connected by optical fiber links,
able to provide functionality of transport, multiplexing, routing,
management, supervision and survivability of client signals,
according to the requirements given in Rec. G.872

Page72
Features of OTN
Compared with SDH and SONET
Ultra capacity with high accuracy, Terabit/second per fiber via
DWDM lines
Service transparency for client signals
Asynchronous mapping, powerful FEC function, predigest
network design and reduce the cost
Compared with traditional WDM
Enhanced OAM & networking functionality for all services
Dynamically electrical/optical layer grooming

Page73
OTN network layers and interface structure
OPUk: Optical channel Payload Unit-k IP/MPLS ATM Ethernet STM-N
ODUk: Optical channel Data Unit-k
OTUk: completely standardized
OPUk
Optical channel Transport Unit-k
OTUkV: functionally standardized ODUkODUkP, ODUkT
Optical channel Transport Unit-k OTUk OTUkV OTUk OTUkV
OCh: Optical Channel with full
OCh OChr
functionality
OChr: Optical Channel with reduced
OMSn
OPSn
functionality OTSn
OMS: Optical Multiplex Section
OTM-n.m OTM-0.m
OTS: Optical Transmission Section
OTM-nr.m
OPS: Optical Physical Section
OTM: Optical Transport Module

Page74
OTM-n.m Containment Relationships
Clinet signal
n
OPUk OH OPUk payload

OTM-n.m
ODU OH OPUk
k
OTUk[V OH ODUk FEC 2
] 1
OCh OChOH OCh payload
OSC
OCCo
OCCo

OCCo

OCG-n.m OCCp OCCp OCCp


Non-associated OH

OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)


comms OH

OMU-n.m OMSn OH OOS

OTM-n.m OTSn OH

n represents the maximum number of wavelengths that can be supported at the lowest bit rate supported
on the wavelength, m=1,2,3,12,23,123
OTS_OH, OMS_OH, OCh_OH and COMMS OH information fields are contained within the OOS
OSCOptical Supervisory Channel used to transmit OOS
Page75
OTM-nr.m Containment Relationships
Client signal
16
OPUk OH OPUk payload

OTM-16r.m
ODUk OH OPUk
2
OTUk[V] OH ODUk FEC 1

OChr OCh payload

OCG-nr.m OCCp OCCp OCCp

OTM-nr.m

Fixed channel spacing, irrespective of signal level


1<n16, m=1,2,3,12,23,123
Without optical supervisory channel

Page76
OTM-0.m Containment Relationships
Client signal

OTM-0.m
OPUk OH OPUk payload

ODUk OH OPUk

OTUk[V] OH ODUk FEC

OChr OCh paylaod

OTM-0.m OPS0

The OTM 0.m supports a non coloured optical channel on a single optical span with 3R
regeneration at each end.
m=1,2,3
Without optical supervisory channel

Page77
OTM multiplexing and mapping structure

OTM-0.m

i
OCCr 1 OChr
1
1 i+j+k n
j 1
OTM-nr.m OCG-nr.m OCCr OChr Client signal
k 1 1 1
OTU3[V] ODU3 OPU3
1 1 16
OCCr OChr ODTUG3
1 4
Client signal
1 1
OTU2[V] ODU2 OPU2

Client signal
1 1
1 ODTUG2
OCC OCh
i 4 1
1 i+j+k n OTU1[V] 1 ODU1 OPU1
j 1 1
OTM-n.m OCG-n.m OCC OCh
k
1 1
OCC OCh
1
1
Multiplexing
OSC OOS OTS, OMS, OCh, COMMS
Mapping

Page78
OTUk types and capacity
OTUk rates 255/(239-k) STM-N bit rate

OTU type OTU nominal bit rate OTU bit rate tolerance

OTU1 255/238 2 488 320 kbit/s

OTU2 255/237 9 953 280 kbit/s 20 ppm

OTU3 255/236 39 813 120 kbit/s

NOTE The nominal OTUk rates are approximately:

2 666 057.143 kbit/s (OTU1),

10 709 225.316 kbit/s (OTU2) and

43 018 413.559 kbit/s (OTU3).

Page79
ODUk types and capacity
ODUk rates 239/(239-k) STM-N bit rate

ODU type ODU nominal bit rate ODU bit rate tolerance

ODU1 239/238 2 488 320 kbit/s

ODU2 239/237 9 953 280 kbit/s 20 ppm

ODU3 239/236 39 813 120 kbit/s

NOTE The nominal ODUk rates are approximately:

2 498 775.126 kbit/s (ODU1),

10 037 273.924 kbit/s (ODU2) and

40 319 218.983 kbit/s (ODU3).

Page80
OPUk types and capacity
OPUk rates 238/(239-k) STM-N bit rate

OPU type OPU Payload nominal bit rate OPU bit rate tolerance

OPU1 2 488 320 kbit/s

OPU2 238/237 9 953 280 kbit/s 20 ppm

OPU3 238/236 39 813 120 kbit/s

OPU1-Xv X * 2 488 320 kbit/s

OPU2-Xv X * 238/237 * 9 953 280 kbit/s 20 ppm

OPU3-Xv X * 238/236 * 39 813 120 kbit/s

NOTE The nominal OPUk Payload rates are approximately: 2 488 320.000 kbit/s (OPU1
Payload), 9 995 276.962 kbit/s (OPU2 Payload) and 40 150 519.322 kbit/s (OPU3 Payload). The
nominal OPUk-Xv Payload rates are approximately: X 2 488 320.000 kbit/s (OPU1-Xv Payload),
X 9 995 276.962 kbit/s (OPU2-Xv Payload) and X 40 150 519.322 kbit/s (OPU3-Xv Payload).

Page81
ODUkTDM
Low rate ODUk signals are multiplexed into high rate ODUk
signals using time division multiplexing :
Up to 4 ODU1 signals are multiplexed into an ODU2 using
time division multiplexing
A mixture of j (j 4) ODU2 and 16-4j ODU1 signals can be
multiplexed into an ODU3 using time division multiplexing.

Page82
ODU1 into ODU2 multiplexing method
ODU1floats in of the OPU2 payload area.
An ODU1 frame will cross multiple ODU2 frame boundaries.

Alignm

OPU1 OH
ODU1 Client layer signal
ODU1OH (e.g., STM-16, ATM, GFP)

x4

OPU1 OH
OPU2 OH

OPU1 OH
OPU1 OH
Alignm Client Layer Signal

OPU1 OH
ODU1 OH Client Layer
(e.g. Signal
STM-16)
ODU2 ODU1 OH Client
Client
Layer
(e.g.
layer
Signal
STM-16)
signal
ODU2 OH ODU1 OH (e.g. STM-16)
ODU1 OH (e.g., STM-16, ATM, GFP)

OTU2
Alignm
OPU1 OH

OH
OPU1 OH
OPU2 OH

OPU1 OH

Client Layer Signal


OTU2 Alignm OTU2
OPU1 OH

ODU1 OH Client Layer


(e.g. Signal
STM-16)
ODU1 OH OPU2Client
Payload
Client Layer
(e.g.
layer
Signal
STM-16)
signal FEC
ODU2 OH ODU1 OH
ODU1 OH
(e.g. STM-16)
(e.g., STM-16, ATM, GFP)

Page83
OOS OOS functions
subject to
standardization, bit
FDI-O rate & format not
n standardized
Non-Associated

TTI FDI-P 3
2
overhead

1
BDI-O BDI-O FDI-O

BDI-P BDI-P FDI-P


OMSn
OTSn

OCh
PMI PMI OCI

General Management Communications

TTI: Trail Trace Identifier


PMI: Payload Missing Indication
OCI: Open Connection Indication
BDI-O: Backward Defect Indication Overhead
BDI-P: Backward Defect Indication Payload
FDI-O: Forward Defect Indication Overhead
FDI-P: Forward Defect Indication Payload Page84
OTN frame formats (k=1,2,3)

4080
3824
3825
14
15
16
17
1

8
7

OTUk
1 Alignm Client signal

OPUk OH
OH
2 mapped in
OPU OTUK
OPUkk payload
payload
3 ODUk FEC
OH
4

Client signal
OPUk - Optical Channel Payload Unit k:
1 2.5G
ODUk Optical Channel Data Unit
2 10G
OTUk Optical Channel Transport Unit
3 40G
Alignment

Page85
OTN Electrical Overhead Overview
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

ODUk OH Alignment OH
TCMACT: Tandem Connection Monitoring FAS: Frame Alignment Signal
Activation/deactivation control channel MFAS: Multi Frame Alignment Signal
TCMi: Tandem Connection Monitoring i OPUk OH
FTFL:Fault Type & Fault Location reporting
PSI: Payload Structure Identifier
channel
JC: Justification Control
PM: Path Monitoring
NJO: negative justification opportunity
EXP: Experimental
GCC1/2: General Communication Channel 1/2 OTUk OH
APS/PCC:Automatic Protection Switching SM: Section Monitoring
coordination channel/Protection Communication GCC0:General Communication Channel0
Control channel RES: Reserved for future international
standardisation
Page86
Frame Alignment Signal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

byte 1 byte 2 byte 3 byte 4 byte 5 byte 6


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
OA1 OA1 OA1 OA2 OA2 OA2

FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)


A six byte OTUk-FAS signal is defined in row 1, columns 1 to 6 of the OTUk
overhead.

OA1 is 0xF6(1111 0110 ) OA2 is 0x28(0010 1000)

Page87
Multi frame alignment signal
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

MFAS OH Byte MFAS(Multi Frame Alignment Signal)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 defined in row 1, column 7
.
.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The value of the MFAS byte will be incremented each OTUk/ODUk
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 frame and provides as such a 256 frame multi frame.
MFAS sequence

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
..
1 0 0 Individual OTUk/ODUk overhead signals may use this central multi
..
frame to lock their 2-frame, 4 frame, 8-frame, 16-frame, 32-frame,
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 etc., multi frames to the principal frame.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
..

Page88
OTUk section monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3 TTI (Trail Trace Identifier)


TTI BIP-8
a one-byte overhead is defined to transport the 64 byte TTI
signal
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
The 64-byte TTI signal shall be aligned with the OTUk multi
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES


15 frame and transmitted four times per multi frame.
16
TTI structure
DAPI
31
32
16 bytes SAPI:Source Access Point Identifier
16 bytes DAPI:Destination Access Point Identifier
Operator
specific 32 bytes operator specific

63

Page89
OTUk section monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

BEI/BIAE(Backward Error Indication/ Backward


1 2 3

TTI BIP-8
Incoming Alignment Error)
A four-bit BEI and BIAE signal is defined.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 This signal is used to convey in the upstream direction the
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES count of interleaved-bit blocks and incoming alignment


15
16 error (IAE) condition.
31
DAPI During an IAE condition the code "1011" is inserted into
32 the BEI/BIAE field and the error count is ignored.
Otherwise the error count (0-8) is inserted into the
Operator
specific BEI/BIAE field.

63 Page90
OTUk section monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3 BDI (Backward Defect Indication)


TTI BIP-8
A single-bit backward defect indication (BDI) signal is
defined to convey the signal fail status detected in a
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES section termination sink function in the upstream


15
16 direction.
DAPI
31 BDI is set to "1" to indicate an OTUk backward defect
32
indication; otherwise, it is set to "0"
Operator
specific

63
Page91
OTUk section monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

IAE (Incoming Alignment Error)


1 2 3

TTI BIP-8
A single-bit incoming alignment error (IAE) signal is
defined to allow the S-CMEP ingress point to inform its
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 peer S-CMEP egress point that an alignment error in the
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES


15
incoming signal has been detected.
16
IAE is set to "1" to indicate a frame alignment error,
DAPI
31
32
otherwise it is set to "0".
RES (Reserved)
Operator
specific
Two bits are reserved (RES) for future international
63 standardization. They are set to "00".

Page92
OTUk GCC0 and RES overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

GCC0 (General Communication Channel)


Two bytes are allocated in the OTUk overhead to support a general communications
channel between OTUk termination points
A clear channel which are located in row 1, columns 11 and 12
RES (Reserved)
Two bytes of OTUk overhead are reserved for future international standardization
located in row 1, columns 13 and 14
set to all ZEROs

Page93
ODUk path monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3 TTI / BIP-8 / BEI / BDI


TTI BIP-8
For path monitoring, this overheads function are
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 the same as OTUk SM signal, except BEI signal
BDI

SAPI BEI STAT


15 which doesnt support BIAE function.
16
DAPI in row 3, columns 10 to 12
31
32

Operator
specific

63
Page94
ODUk path monitoring overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3 STAT (Status)
TTI BIP-8
For path monitoring, three bits are defined as status
bits
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDI

SAPI BEI STAT


They indicate the presence of a maintenance signal
15 Bit 6 7 8 status
16
DAPI 000 Reserved for future international standardization
31 001 Normal path signal
32
010 Reserved for future international standardization
011 Reserved for future international standardization
Operator
specific 100 Reserved for future international standardization
101 Maintenance signal: ODUk - LCK
63 110 Maintenance signal: ODUk - OCI
111 Maintenance signal: ODUk - AIS
Page95
ODUk TCM overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3 TTIi / BIP-8i / BEIi/BIAEi / BDIi


TTIi BIP-8i
For each tandem connection monitoring field,
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 this overheads function are the same as OTUk
BDIi

SAPI BEIi/BIAEi STATi


15 SM signal
16
DAPI Six fields of ODUk TCM overhead are defined in
31
32 row 2, columns 5 to 13 and row 3, columns 1 to 9
of the ODUk overhead
Operator
specific

63 Page96
ODUk TCM overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO
STAT (Status)
1 2 3 For each tandem connection monitoring field, three bits
TTIi BIP-8i are defined as status bits.
They indicate the presence of a maintenance signal, if
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 there is an incoming alignment error at the source TC-
BDIi

SAPI BEIi/BIAEi STATi CMEP, or if there is no source TC-CMEP active.


15
16 Bit 6 7 8 status
DAPI 000 No source TC
31 001 In use without IAE
32 010 In use without IAE
Reserved for future international
Operator 011
standardization
specific
Reserved for future international
100
standardization
63 101 Maintenance signal: ODUk -LCK
110 Maintenance signal: ODUk -OCI
Page97
111 Maintenance signal: ODUk -AIS
Nested and Cascaded ODUk monitored connections
TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6
TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5
TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4
TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3
TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2
TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1

A1 B1 C1 C2 B2 B3 B4 A2

C1 - C2

B1 - B2 B3 - B4

A1 - A2

TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCMi TCM OH field in use

Page98
Overlapping ODUk monitored connections
TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6
TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5
TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4
TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3
TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2
TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1

A1 B1 C1 B2 C2 A2

C1 - C2

B1 - B2

A1 - A2

TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCMi TCM OH field in use

Page99
ODUk TCM ACT coordination protocol
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

TCM ACT (TCM Activation/Deactivation)

A one-byte TCM activation/deactivation field is located in row 2,


column 4.

Its definition is for further study.

Page100
ODUk GCC1/GCC2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

GCC1 / GCC2 (General Communication Channel)


Two fields of two bytes are allocated in the ODUk overhead to support two general
communications channels between any two network elements with access to the
ODUk frame structure (i.e., at 3R regeneration points).

The bytes for GCC1 are located in row 4, columns 1 and 2, and the bytes for GCC2
are located in bytes row 4, columns 3 and 4 of the ODUk overhead.

Page101
ODUk APS/PCC channel
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

APS/PCC (Automatic Protection Switching/Protection Communication


Control)
A four-byte ODUk-APS/PCC signal is defined in row 4, columns 5 to 8 of the ODUk
overhead.

For linear protection schemes, the bit assignments for these bytes and the bit oriented
protocol are given in ITU-T Rec. G.873.1. Bit assignment and byte oriented protocol for
ring protection schemes are for further study.

Up to eight levels of nested APS/PCC signals may be present in this field.


Page102
ODUk FTFL channel
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

FTFL Fault Type & Fault Location)


One byte is allocated in the ODUk overhead to transport a 256-byte fault type and
fault location (FTFL) message.
The byte is located in row 2, column 14 of the ODUk overhead.
The 256-byte FTFL message consists of two 128-byte fields. The forward field is
allocated to bytes 0 through 127 of the FTFL message. The backward field is allocated
to bytes 128 through 255 of the FTFL message .

Page103
ODUk experimental and reserved overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO
EXP (Experimental)
Two bytes are allocated in the ODUk overhead for experimental use.
located in row 3, columns 13 and 14 of the ODUk overhead
There is no requirement to forward the EXP overhead beyond the (sub)network.

RES
Nine bytes are reserved in the ODUk overhead for future international standardization
located in row 2, columns 1 to 3 and row 4, columns 9 to 14 of the ODUk overhead
set to all ZEROs

Page104
OPUk payload structure identifier
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

PSI (Payload Structure Identifier)


0 PT
1
One byte is allocated in the OPUk overhead to
transport a 256-byte payload structure
Mapping identifier (PSI) signal
& concatenation
aligned with the ODUk multiframe.
specific
PSI[0] contains a one-byte payload type.
255 PSI[1] to PSI[255] are mapping and
concatenation specific.
Page105
Payload type code points
MSB 1 2 3 4 LSB 1 2 3 4 Hex code Interpretation
0000 0001 01 Experimental mapping
0000 0010 02 Asynchronous CBR mapping
0000 0011 03 Bit synchronous CBR mapping
0000 0100 04 ATM mapping
0000 0101 05 GFP mapping
0000 0110 06 Virtual Concatenated signal
0001 0000 10 Bit stream with octet timing mapping
0001 0001 11 Bit stream without octet timing mapping
0010 0000 20 ODU multiplex structure
0101 0101 55 Not available
0110 0110 66 Not available
1000 xxxx 80-8F Reserved codes for proprietary use
1111 1101 FD NULL test signal mapping
1111 1110 FE PRBS test signal mapping
1111 1111 FF Not available

Page106
OPUk mapping specific overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

JC / NJO / RES (justification control / negative justification


opportunity / reserved)
Seven bytes are reserved in the OPUk overhead for mapping and concatenation
specific overhead
These bytes are located in rows 1 to 3, columns 15 and 16 and column 16 row 4.
255 bytes in the PSI are reserved for mapping and concatenation specific purposes

Page107
NTC DWDM/SDH Network Diagram
Wavelength Capacity

In NTC OSN6800 is installed which supports maximum 40-


wavelength. But a huge hardware and planning is required to
meet this. Each wavelength supports 10 Gb/s of data rate.
Wavelength Allocation
Central Central Central Central
Wavelength (nm) Frequency Wavelength (nm) Frequency
(THz) (THz)
1529.55 196.0 1537.4 195.0
1530.33 195.9 1538.19 194.9
1531.12 195.8 1538.98 194.8
1531.9 195.7 1539.77 194.7
1532.68 195.6 1540.56 194.6
1533.47 195.5 1541.35 194.5
1534.25 195.4 1542.14 194.4
1535.04 195.3 1542.94 194.3
1535.82 195.2 1543.73 194.2
1536.61 195.1 1544.53 194.1
Wavelength Allocation

Central Central Central Central


Wavelength Frequency Wavelength Frequency
(nm) (THz) (nm) (THz)
1545.32 194.0 1553.33 193.0
1546.12 193.9 1554.13 192.9
1546.92 193.8 1554.94 192.8
1547.72 193.7 1555.75 192.7
1548.51 193.6 1556.55 192.6
1549.32 193.5 1557.36 192.5
1550.12 193.4 1558.17 192.4
1550.92 193.3 1558.98 192.3
1551.72 193.2 1559.79 192.2
1552.52 193.1 1560.61 192.1
NTC Long Haul Media Configuration

Physical Ring Logical Ring Frequency Wavelength Protection Type


Ring 1 Ring 1 192.1 THz 1560.61 SNCP
Ring 1 Ring 2 192.2 THz 1559.79 MSP
Ring 2 Ring 3 192.3 THz 1558.98 MSP
Ring 2 Ring 4 192.4 THz 1558.17 MSP
Ring 3 Ring 5 192.1 THz 1560.61 MSP
Ring 3 Ring 6 192.2 THz 1559.79 MSP
Used / Spare Media
Physical Logical Ring Maximum Used Spare
Ring Capacity Capacity Capacity

Ring 1 Ring 1 64xVC4s 44xVC4s 20xVC4s

Ring 1 Ring 2 32xVC4s 18xVC4s 14xVC4s

Ring 2 Ring 3 32xVC4s 12xVC4s 20xVC4s

Ring 2 Ring 4 32xVC4s 5xVC4s 27xVC4s

Ring 3 Ring 5 32xVC4s 11xVC4s 21xVC4s

Ring 3 Ring 6 32xVC4s 4xVC4s 28xVC4s


Loaded Services
Physical Ring VC12s/E1s VC3/E3s VC4s
Ring 1 1 815 76 7
Ring 1 2 0 8 17
Ring 2 1 237 13 1
Ring 2 2 0 9 14
Ring 3 1 296 14 1
Ring 3 2 0 2 14
Spur 90 8 0
Total 1355 122 18
Any further query?

Page115
Thankyou
Presented By:
Nasir Rasheed Qureshi
ES NOC TXN NTC Hqs.

Page116