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WE HAVE TO
REMEMBER«««««««««..

No job is so important and No


service is so urgent ² that we
cannot take time to perform our
work safelyï
safelyï
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a) Use of powerful explosives


b) Use of radioactive sources
c) Fatigue due to long working hours
d) Lifting heavy tools
e) Possibility of slips & falls

 
 
  

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A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.

A shaped charge is a concave metal hemisphere or cone (known as a liner) backed by a high
explosive, all in a steel or aluminum casing. When the high explosive is detonated, the metal
liner is compressed and squeezed forward, forming a jet whose tip may travel as fast as 10
kilometers per second.

Shaped charge is based on military weapons technology and uses metal liner to maximize
penetration.

A Perforating charges consists of a primer, outer case, high explosive and conical metal liner
connected to a detonating cord.

A detonator excites the detonating cord, which, in turn, initiates the primer and detonates
the main explosive.

The liner collapses to form a high-velocity jet of fluidized metal particles that is propelled
along the charge axis

This high-energy jet consists of a faster tip that travels at about 10 km/sec.

The jet penetrates casing, cement and formation. Perforating jets erode until all energy is
expended at the end of a perforation tunnel.
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r Explosives used in Well Logging are some times referred
to as ´oilwell explosivesµ.
r Examples of oilwell explosives are :
² Lead Azide (PbN)
It is used as the primary initiator in most explosives
² RDX
Chemically it is Cyclotrimethylene Trinitriamine. Used widely.
² HMX
Its chemical name is ´Cyclotetramethylene Tetranitramineµ.
HMX is used in high temp environment
² Low explosives or Flammable Solids
Used in Power Charges, ignitersï
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r An explosive is a device that generates
and releases very high energy in very
short time.

r Depending on reaction rate, explosives


are classified as

1) Low Explosives.

2) High Explosives
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² They generate gas, intense heat and dazzling flame.
² Their reaction rate is slow.
² They must be confined if they are to do useful work.
² They are sensitive to heat and are initiated by flame, spark or
other heat sources.
² Examples
Examples-- black powder, gun powder.

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² They have a very high reaction rate & pressure.
² They detonate, rather than burn.
² They are initiated by heat or impact.
² The reaction speed is of the order of 10 Km/s.
² Examples
Examples-- Lead azide, RDX, HMX

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Depending on their sensitivity and stability, high explosives
are classified as

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Primary high explosives are very sensitive to heat, friction, spark,
shock & electric current.

Example ² Detonators

 
  
Secondary high explosives are relatively insensitive to initiation.
They require a high intensity shock wave (usually provided by a
primary high) to detonate.

Examples ² Detonating cords, shaped charges.


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Oilwell explosives are highly hazardous

High explosives used in logging operations are very


sensitive to other external causes like impacts,
fire, stray currents at rig (due to welding set
operation, improper ground), thundering &
lightning, RF signals etc

It is the primary responsibility of everyone at well-


well-
site to follow all safety rules during a hazardous
operation like Perforation
 
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r ALWAYS follow all laws and regulations applicable to explosive materials.

r NEVER abandon any explosive material.

r NEVER allow any source of fire or flame within 100 feet (31 m) of priming area
or within 50 feet (16 m) of a magazine or vehicle containing explosive materials.

r NEVER expose explosive materials to flame, excessive heat, sparks, friction or


impact.

r NEVER fight fires when explosive materials are involved. Remove all personnel to
a safe location immediately and guard area against intruders.

r NEVER allow unauthorized persons near explosive materials.

r ALWAYS keep explosives locked up.


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r ALWAYS keep matches, lighters, open flames and other


sources of ignition at least 50 feet (16 m) away from
parked vehicles loaded with any explosive materials.

r ALWAYS load and unload explosive materials carefully in


day light hours only.

r NEVER ship explosive materials in any packaging except


their original packaging.

r NEVER park vehicles containing explosives in congested


areas or close to people.

r NEVER leave a vehicle containing explosive materials


unattended.
  


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r Ensure that all radio transmitters and


other sources of electromagnetic
radiation at site are switched off
r No Welding operation at site
r Put logging cable in SAFE position
r Keep the AC generator and all power
connections switched off till the gun is
50 m in the well
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r Men not involved should keep distance.


r Only experienced and competent person installs
the detonating Fuse
r Keep the line-
line-of-
of-fire clear off all personnel
r Keep the detonator in the safety tube
r Connect the detonator electrically to the gun
r Remove detonator from safety tube and connect
to the gun
r Lower the gun in the well
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r Several important measurements are carried out
using Nuclear or Radioactive principles
principles..

r Most common types of Nuclear measurements are


Natural Gamma Ray measurement, Density
measurement and Porosity measurement.
measurement.

r All Nuclear measurements are based on the


principles of radiations by radioactive elements
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Radiations are high energy particles or electromagnetic


waves emitted by some unstable elements called
isotopes (or radioactive elements)

Artificially induced isotopes are also available. Examples


are Cesium-137, Americium-241, Cobalt-57 etc.

Some radioactive elements occur naturally in the earth


formations. Examples are Potassium, Thorium, Uranium
etc.
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Examples of some å 8 F5 


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radiations are Alpha


(Ĵ), Beta(ǀ), Gamma   64 70 
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r Somatic Effect : Affects the exposed


individual

r Genetic Effects: Affects the


descendants of the exposed individual
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Effects of ionizing radiation, whereby the probability of their occurrence, but
not their severity is a function of the dose without the existence of a threshold
value.

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Non-stochastic effects, are those in which the severity of the effect varies
Non-
with the dose and for which a threshold value existsï
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A) Prevent Detrimental non-


non-stochastic
effects
B) Limit the probability of stochastic
effects to levels deemed to be
acceptable
C) Ensure that the practices involving
radiation exposure is justified
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The maximum permissible dose


(MPD) for an individual is that dose
accumulated over a long period of
time or resulting from a single
exposure, which in the light of the
present knowledge carries a
negligible probability of severe
somatic or genetic injuries.

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Radio-active sources are used in well logging
Radio-
operations. The basic requirements of
radiation safety are

1) Time

2) Distance

3) Shielding
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r Personnel Monitoring Badges:
Film Badge: Film badge consisting of a personnel
monitoring film (PM film) kept in a cassette containing
a set of filters with film.

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TLD (Thermoluminescent Dosimeter) Badges consist of
three TLD Discs embedded in a metallic framework and
enclosed in a multi-
multi-filter cassette. The TLD badge can be
used to monitor beta, gamma and X- X-radiationsï
radiationsï

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r ELL LOGGING OPERATIONS 6SE
RADIOACTIVE SO6RCES THAT EMIT HIGH
ENERGY GAMMA AND NE6TRON RADIATIONS.

r ALL N6CLEAR RADIATIONS ARE VERY


HARMF6L TO THE H6MAN BODY

=      "| r EFFORTS M6ST BE MADE


> TO CONTROL EXPOS6RE ON THE HANDLING
PERSONS
> TO PREVENT 6NDESIRED PERSONS GETTING
EXPOSED

r F6NDAMENTAL R6LES FOR CONTROL OF


EXPOS6RE ARE TIME, DISTANCE &
SHIELDING

r EXPOS6RE LEVEL OF HANDLING PERSONS


M6ST BE MONITORED
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 It is the primary responsibility of everyone at


the well-
well-site to follow all safety rules during a
well logging operation

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