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Introduction to Nursing

Welcome to the world of research

Nursing Research
Why is a course in research methods part
of this nursing program???

What are your gut feelings about taking

this class??? Are you
full of dread?
What do I believe???

One study says to do one thing;

another study says that I should do the opposite!

What am I to do?
Read the study?

Do you simply How do you

accept the know which
findings because studies are
they are credible?
Critical thinking!!
Critical thinking
Critical thinking has been defined as reasonable
reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what
to believe or do (Ennis in Bensley 1998, p. 5).
Critical thinking skills can assist you in making
sound judgments in a variety of situations.
In this technological era we are constantly
bombarded with information and evidence
through the media, internet and socially.
It is important that you are able to critically analyse
this evidence and do not just accept it.
Critical thinking
Critical thinking involves analysing an argument and
deciding whether you agree with the authors
The linked statements that support the conclusion may
also be called premises and the strength of the
argument ultimately depends on these premises.
The premises may be true and the conclusion maybe
true, but if they do not link they do not constitute an
For example:
Antarctica is cold (premise 1)
Trees are green (premise 2)
Therefore the world is round.
A deductive argument moves from general to
specific and if the premises are true, the conclusion
must also be true or valid.
For example:
All dogs are mammals
Fido is a dog
therefore Fido is a mammal.
Inductive arguments differ in that they go from
specific premises or evidence to a general
conclusion, which is strong or weak rather than valid
or invalid.
For example:
When the boss is at work her office door is open
Her office door is open
therefore it is likely the boss is at work.
The strength of the conclusion is based on the
quality and quantity of the evidence
Why get excited
about research?
The essence of all How can?
research originates in
curiosity - a desire to find Why is?
out how and why things
What is the best
way to?

What causes?

What are the

effects of?
I wonder...
Importance of Nursing Research

Nurses ask questions aimed at gaining new knowledge to

improve patient care

What is the best way of undertaking this procedure?

What would be the outcome for the patient if we

introduced new practice?

Research-based (evidence based) nursing = integrating

nursing research findings into clinical decision making
Importance of Nursing Research

Accountability for care-related decisions; research expands

nursing practice

Remember! Many traditional practice have not been

evaluated properly, may be based on ritual, task
oriented routines

Reinforce identity of nursing as a profession knowing/

understanding patients health care experience
History of Nursing Research

Began with Nightingale and Crimean

War- mid 1800s
Early 1900s problems in nursing:
education, staffing issues
1960s Practice oriented research; first
nursing research journals
1983 - ANA Center for Research for
History of Nursing Research

1986 - National Center for

Nursing Research (NIH);
awards/grants to support
nursing research & training

1993 Re-designated at NIH as

the National Institute of
Nursing Research (NINR)
Scientific Method
2 Unique Characteristics:

Objectivity distance
research from personal
beliefs, values, attitudes

Empirical Data
documenting objective
data through direct
observation = reality
Scientific Method

Select/define a problem
Formulate research
Collect data
Analyze data
Report results
Nursing Research
Application of scientific
method to areas of interest to

Primarily involves studying

people People do not
behave consistently as do
objects/chemicals in a
Continuum of

Consumers of research read and evaluate

Participate in the research process, utilize findings

Conduct research