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The Circulatory System

Chapter 40: The Circulatory System

40.1: Overview of the Circulatory System


40.2: Components of the Blood
40.3: Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
40.4: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System

Closed circulatory systems pump blood; open systems


pump hemolymph

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System

Animals with only a single layer (or two) of cells do not


need a circulatory system to deliver nutrients and remove
wastes

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.2 Components of the Blood

Red blood cells transport respiratory gases; white blood


cells fight infections; and platelets maintain blood volume
by forming clots

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.2 Components of the Blood

Hemoglobin (Fe) transports oxygen in blood; hemocyanin


(Cu) is used in the hemolymph of mollusks; hemerythrin
also uses iron

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.2 Components of the Blood

White blood cells can be subdivided into granulocytes


(neutrophils, etc.) and agranulocytes (lymphocytes, etc.)

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.2 Components of the Blood

Acellular platelets are formed from cells called


megakaryocytes

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels


The mammalian
circulatory system is
divided into three
circuitsthe
systemic circuit, the
pulmonary circuit,
and the coronary
circuit

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels

When the heart muscle relaxes (diastole), blood flows in;


when a chamber contracts (systole) blood leaves

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels

The electrical cycle of cardiomyocyte stimulation is


measured as an electrocardiogram (ECG)

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels


Arteries carry blood away
from the heart; veins collect
blood and carry it toward the
heart

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System

40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels

Because of their different functions, veins and arteries have


distinct differences in structure

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


The Circulatory System
40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure
Regulation
Capillaries connect the venous and arterial systems,
allowing for the exchange of nutrients and wastes

Copyright 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.