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Nonverbal Communication

Communication
without words;
communication by
means of space,
gestures, facial
expressions, touching,
vocal variation, and
silence for example
(DeVito)
Importance of Nonverbal
Communication
It is estimated that NVC most often conveys a
larger share of social information(65% or more)
while verbal communication plays a less salient
role(35% or less). So much information is
communicated nonverbally that frequently the
verbal aspect is negligible.
The Proceedings of The 1993 International
Symposium on LTM, Beijing-Hohhot, Oct.4 -
13,1993
Importance of Nonverbal
Communication
Communication of
information is essential to
support the infrastructure
of society. This basic need
has not changed since the
first picture signs were
incised on clay tablets in
the Near Middle East
some 6,000 years ago in
order to record business
transactions
Rosemary Sassoon
Signs, Symbols and
Icons 1997
What are the different types of
Nonverbal Communication?
Types of Nonverbal
Communication
Body Gestures and
Facial Expressions
(Jeremy Wilson)
Touch (Sarah Kearns)
Sound (Michael
Jenkins)
Space (Laura Chady)
Body & Facial
Kinesics
The study of the communicative dimensions
of facial and bodily movements

- Includes: body movement (body language),


gestures, facial expression, eye contact,
posture, and speaking volume
Body Gestures
Emblems
Illustrators
Affect
Displays
Regulators
Adaptors
Emblems
Emblems are limited by
both time and culture.
Posture
1) Slumped posture = low spirits

2) Erect posture = high spirits, energy


and confidence

3) Lean forward = open and interested

4) Lean away = defensive or


disinterested

5) Crossed arms = defensive

6) Uncrossed arms = willingness to


listen
7) Hands on hips=impatient
Facial Communication
Facial Management
Facial Feedback
Facial Expressions and
Culture
Facial Management
Techniques
Intensifying to exaggerate a feeling

Deintensifying to underplay a feeling

Neutralizing to hide a feeling

Masking to replace or substitute the


expression of one emotion or another
Body and facial communication
are important in interpersonal
communication!

It is especially important to pay


close attention to accepted
nonverbals in other cultures!
Sources
Warfield, A. (2001) Do you speak body language?.
Training and Development, 55(4), 60.
Devito, J. A. (2001). The Interpersonal
Communication Book. Hunter College of the City
University of New York: Longham.
Swenson, J. & Casmir, F.L. (1998). The impact of
culture-sameness, gender, foreign travel, and
academic background on the ability to interpret
the facial expression of emotions in others.
Communication Quarterly, 46(2), 214-217.
Nonverbal Messages: Touch and
Eye Communication

Presented by Sarah Kearns


Occulesics
Study of the way eyes
are used during a
communication
exchange
3 Characteristics of Eye
Messages:
Duration

Direction

Quality
Functions of Eye Contact
1) Monitor Feedback
2) Secure the Attention and Interest of
Audience
3) Regulate or Control conversation
4) Signal Nature of Relationship
5) Compensate for Increased Physical
Distance
Eye Avoidance
Civil Inattention

Signal lack of interest

Unpleasant Stimuli

Heighten Other Senses


Culture and Occulesics
Singh, McKay, and Singh (1998)
Holistic cultures vs. Western culture
Status and Confrontational
Power and Occulesics
Aguinis, Simonsen, and Pierce (1998)
Power is the ability to influence
Visual Dominance is (+)-related to
credibility power
Visual Dominance
The use of your eyes
to maintain a superior
or dominant position
(Devito 2001)
Credibility Power
The objectively determined truthfulness,
follow-through, and accuracy of a power
source (Aguinis et. Al 1998)
Pupil Dilation
Attractiveness

Interested

Emotionally Aroused
HAPTICS
The study of touch as
a means of nonverbal
communication

Most primitive form


of communication
Functions of Touch:
1) Positive Emotions

2) Playfulness

3) Control

4) Ritualistic

5) Task Related
Touch Avoidance
Communication
Apprehension

Self Disclosure

Gender Variation
Gender Differences and Touch
Mothers vs. Fathers

Same sex vs. Opposite Sex


Cultural Differences and
Touch
Contact Culture
Noncontact Culture
Haptics and Cooperation
Kurzban (2001)
Group Context
Social Dilemmas
Closeness
Touch increases compliance or cooperation
Conclusions
Both eye contact and touching have a
variety of functions and meanings

Both are subject to gender variability

Both are subject to cultural variability


PARALANGUAGE
Paralanguage cues
are used for
forming
impressions, for
identifying
emotional states,
and for making
judgments of
credibility,
intelligence, and
objectivity.
Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension
of speech. It refers to the way you say something,
rather than what you say.

By stressing
different words in
a sentence, you
can change the Now that looks good on you.
meaning completely Could you move any slower?
without doing That was some meal.
anything to the
Is this the face that
structure of it.
launched a thousand ships?
Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak.
Levels of agreeableness, intelligence
and objectivity.
111wpm least amount of
agreeableness, objectivity and least
intelligent
140wpm average intelligence,
agreeableness and objectivity.
191wpm subjects agreed most with
fastest speech; viewed as most
intelligent and objective, even when Comprehension levels
the subjects knew the person was in speeches at 201wpm
trying to sell them something. were at about 95%,
dropping only
slightly to 90% when
upped to 282wpm
Silence
The Functions of Silence

Time To Think: Time to formulate responses.

Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment)


Response to Personal Anxiety: Remaining silent around
strangers.

Prevent Communication: A defense mechanism against


saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment.

Communicate Emotional Responses: Pouting, Anger,


Annoyance, Long Stares into anothers eyes; love.

Achieve Specific Effects: Strategically placing pauses


after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness.

Nothing To Say: Sometimes you just dont have anything


to say.
Non-verbal Communication

Space and Territory

Every cubic inch of space is a miracle. --Walt Whitman


(Leaves of Grass, "Miracles")
Proxemics
Proxemics is the study of spatial communication
and how we use it (Devito)
Termed coined by founder, Edward Hall, in
1968 in his book The Silent Language
Halls research concluded that there are four
distances we utilize in everyday interpersonal
communication and these are culturally defined
There are also five dimensions used to assign the
importance of space in status
Distances
Intimate Distance-actual
touching to 6-18 inches
Personal Distance-18 inches
to 4 feet
This includes the hidden
dimension or your
personal bubble
Social Distance- 4 to 12 feet
Public Distance-12-25 feet
Definitions by Devito
Dimensions of Space (Athos)
More is better than less
Assign importance or status based on
how much space a person has
Private is better than public
It is better not to have to share space
We desire to exclude people to mark
boundaries of our space
Closing doors is an important signal that
a conversation is both intimate and
important
Dimensions of Space (con.)
Higher is better than lower
Imagery is often in terms of up and down
Houses that are on higher land are often more
expensive
Near is better than far
It is more valued to have a office near the boss
It is also more valued to be at a position near
the host at a dinner party
In is better than out
Home field advantage in sports teams
Territory

Territory is the possessive reaction to a particular area


or objects (Devito)
Primary territorybelongs to you
Boundary markers
Secondary territorynot belonging to you, but
associated with you
Central markers
Public territoriesareas like parks that belong to all
people
PARALANGUAGE
Paralanguage cues are
used for forming
impressions, for
identifying emotional
states, and for making
judgments of
credibility,
intelligence, and
objectivity.
Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension
of speech. It refers to the way you say something,
rather than what you say.

By stressing
different words in
a sentence, you
can change the Now that looks good on you.
meaning completely Could you move any slower?
without doing That was some meal.
anything to the
Is this the face that
structure of it.
launched a thousand ships?
Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak.
Levels of agreeableness,
intelligence and objectivity.
111wpm least amount of
agreeableness, objectivity and
least intelligent
140wpm average intelligence,
agreeableness and objectivity.
191wpm subjects agreed most
with fastest speech; viewed as Comprehension levels
most intelligent and objective, in speeches at 201wpm
even when the subjects knew the were at about 95%,
person was trying to sell them dropping only
something. (DeVito 2001) slightly to 90% when
upped to 282wpm
Silence
Your Silence communicates
just as intensely as
anything you
verbalize.(Jaworski 1993)
The Functions of Silence
Time To Think: Time to formulate responses.

Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment)


Response to Personal Anxiety: Remaining silent around
strangers.

Prevent Communication: A defense mechanism against


saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment.

Communicate Emotional Responses: Pouting, Anger,


Annoyance, Long Stares into anothers eyes; love.

Achieve Specific Effects: Strategically placing pauses


after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness.

Nothing To Say: Sometimes you just dont have anything


Theories
Protection theorypeople establish a buffer zone
around themselves as protection against unwanted
touching or attack, if threatened they want more
space around them (Devito)
Equilibrium theorygreater the intimacy, the
closer the distance and vice versa (Devito)
Expectancy violation theorypeople expect
others to maintain certain distances, when these
are violated the actions are questioned (Devito)
Sources

Athos, A.G., Gabarro, J.J. (1978). Interpersonal Behavior.


New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Bakker, C.B., Bakker, M.K. (1973). No Trespassing!
Explorations in Human Territoriality. San
Fransciso: Chandler and Sharp Publishers Inc.
Devito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication
Book. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Jimenz, A.C. (2003, March). On space as a capacity.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(1),
137-154.
http://www.members.aol.com/doder1/proxemi1.htm
DeSantis, A. (2001). Communications 101, (2nd
Edition).Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.

DeVito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication


Book, (9th Edition). New York: Longman.

Jaworski,A. (1993). The Power of Silence: Social and


Pragmatic Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.