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Æ  

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Æow does the body rid itself of excess heat?
There are 4 means of heat removal
from the body:

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]echanisms for heat loss / transfer

Evaporation
Radiant Æeat

Convection

Conduction p
ô stable internal temperature requires
a balance between heat production and
heat loss, which the brain regulates by
initiating changes in muscles, blood
vessels and sweat gland function.

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Temperature Æomeostasis
Balance in heat gain and heat
loss

w
w w

Æeat Gain ww c 41 Æeat Loss

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"weating and evaporation are the major
mechanisms of heat removal
the direct transfer of heat from skin to the
surrounding air is diminished as ambient
temperature rises

ôt high temperature, evaporation is the major


mechanism for dissipation of heat, with
vigorous exertion , sweat loss can be as much
as 2.Liter /hour. This mechanism is also
limited as humidity increases

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There are four
disorders due to
heat:

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1.Æeat "yncope:
sudden unconsciousness:
can result from coetaneous vasodilatation
with consequent hypotension.

Treatment:
1. rest in cool place, recumbent position.
2. Inject fluid.

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2.Æeat Cramps:
Fluid and salt depletion as sweat losses can result in
muscular pain and spasm especially when these losses are
replaced with water alone.

Symptoms:
painful muscles contraction in arms and legs, fatigue, moist
and cool skin.

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reatment:

1. Patient must be moved to cool place near a


fan and spray the patient with water.
½. Provide with drinks contains electrolytes,
minerals and vitamins.

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w. Æeat Exhaustion :
is a medical emergency result from
prolonged heavy activity with inadequate
salt intake in hot environment.

"ymptoms:
dehydration, fever, headache, nausea,
vomiting, shallow breathing and moist
skin.

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Æeat Exhaustion (Cont) :

Treatment:

1. Patient location in shaded cool environment.


2. Elevate the feet
w. ôdequate fluid and salt replacement (1-2liters
over 2-4 hours).
4. ôctive cooling ( fans, ice packs ) is necessary.
. ôdministration of fluid intravenously sometimes
is necessary.

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4. Æeat "troke :
is life-threatening emergency resulting from
failure of the thermoregulatory mechanism.
"ymptoms: rectal temperature is 41degree
centigrade hypotension high fever, absence of
sweating, impaired consciousness

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Æeat "troke (Cont):
Treatment
1. The patient clothing should be remove.
2. Reducing the core temperature rapidly. One of the
best methods for cooling the body during a heat
emergency is to wrap the patient in cool wet sheets.
w. ôdequate fluid administration intravenously.
4. ôntipyretics (aspirin ,panadol ) have no effect in
environmentally induced hyperthermia and are
contraindicated.

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Prevention
Σo not get expose to sunlight and hot
environment for long time.

> £rink plenty of water

> Be aware of the early signs and symptoms of


heat disorders.

> ôthletic events should be organized and managed


with attention to thermoregulation.

> "alt and fluid consumption should be encouraged


in hot environment. p
Personal "afeguards
effect & symptoms
ÿ weight fluid loss time* (* timing may vary based on intensity of work and
loss heat/humidity)

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