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B Linear Programming

PowerPoint presentation to accompany


Heizer and Render
Operations Management, 10e
Principles of Operations Management, 8e

PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall B-1


Outline
Requirements of a Linear Programming Problem
Formulating Linear Programming Problems
Shader Electronics Example
Graphical Solution to a Linear Programming Problem
Graphical Representation of Constraints
Iso-Profit Line Solution Method
Corner-Point Solution Method
Solving Minimization Problems
Linear Programming Applications
Production-Mix Example
Diet Problem Example

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Learning Objectives
1. Formulate linear programming models,
including an objective function and
constraints
2. Graphically solve an LP problem with the
iso-profit line method
3. Graphically solve an LP problem with the
corner-point method
4. Construct and solve a minimization
problem

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Why Use Linear Programming?

A mathematical technique to help


plan and make decisions relative to
the trade-offs necessary to allocate
resources
Will find the minimum or maximum
value of the objective
Guarantees the optimal solution to
the model formulated

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LP Applications
1. Scheduling school buses to minimize
total distance traveled
2. Allocating police patrol units to high
crime areas in order to minimize
response time to 911 calls
3. Scheduling tellers at banks so that
needs are met during each hour of the
day while minimizing the total cost of
labor

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LP Applications
4. Selecting the product mix in a factory
to make best use of machine- and
labor-hours available while maximizing
the firms profit
5. Picking blends of raw materials in feed
mills to produce finished feed
combinations at minimum costs
6. Determining the distribution system
that will minimize total shipping cost

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Requirements of an
LP Problem
1. LP problems seek to maximize or
minimize some quantity
2. The presence of restrictions, or
constraints
3. There must be alternative courses of
action to choose from
4. The objective and constraints in linear
programming problems must be
expressed in terms of linear equations
or inequalities
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Formulating LP Problems
The product-mix problem at Shader Electronics
Two products
1. Shader x-pod, a portable music
player
2. Shader BlueBerry, an internet-
connected color telephone
Determine the mix of products that will
produce the maximum profit

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Formulating LP Problems
Hours Required
to Produce 1 Unit
x-pods BlueBerrys Available Hours
Department (X1) (X2) This Week
Electronic 4 3 240
Assembly 2 1 100
Profit per unit $7 $5
Table B.1
Decision Variables:
X1 = number of x-pods to be produced
X2 = number of BlueBerrys to be produced
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Formulating LP Problems
Objective Function:
Maximize Profit = $7X1 + $5X2

There are three types of constraints


Upper limits where the amount used is
the amount of a resource
Lower limits where the amount used is
the amount of the resource
Equalities where the amount used is =
the amount of the resource
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Formulating LP Problems
First Constraint:
Electronic is Electronic
time used time available
4X1 + 3X2 240 (hours of electronic time)

Second Constraint:
Assembly is Assembly
time used time available
2X1 + 1X2 100 (hours of assembly time)

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Graphical Solution
Can be used when there are two
decision variables
1. Plot the constraint equations at their
limits by converting each equation
to an equality
2. Identify the feasible solution space
3. Create an iso-profit line based on
the objective function
4. Move this line outwards until the
optimal point is identified
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Graphical Solution
X2
100

Number of BlueBerrys

80
Assembly (Constraint B)

60

40
Electronics (Constraint A)
20Feasible

region

| | | | | | | | | | | X1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure B.3 Number of x-pods
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Graphical Solution
X
Iso-Profit Line Solution Method
2

100

Choose a possible
value for the
Number of BlueBerrys

objective function
80
Assembly (Constraint B)

60 $210 = 7X1 + 5X2

Solve for the


40 axis intercepts of the function

and plot the line Electronics (Constraint A)


20Feasible

X =
region
2 42 X1 = 30
| | | | | | | | | | | X1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure B.3 Number of x-pods
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Graphical Solution
X2
100

Number of BlueBerrys

80

60

$210 = $7X1 + $5X2
(0, 42)
40

20 (30, 0)

| | | | | | | | | | | X1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure B.4 Number of x-pods
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Graphical Solution
X2
100

$350 = $7X1 + $5X2
Number of BlueBerrys

80
$280 = $7X1 + $5X2
60

$210 = $7X1 + $5X2
40

20 $420 = $7X1 + $5X2

| | | | | | | | | | | X1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure B.5 Number of x-pods
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Graphical Solution
X2
100

Maximum profit line
Number of BlueBerrys

80

60

Optimal solution point
40
(X1 = 30, X2 = 40)

20 $410 = $7X1 + $5X2

| | | | | | | | | | | X1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Figure B.6 Number of x-pods
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Corner-Point Method
X2
100

2
Number of BlueBerrys

80

60

40
3

20

| | | | | | | | | | | X1
1
0 20 40 60 80 100
4
Figure B.7 Number of x-pods
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Corner-Point Method
The optimal value will always be at a
corner point
Find the objective function value at each
corner point and choose the one with the
highest profit

Point 1 : (X1 = 0, X2 = 0) Profit $7(0) + $5(0) = $0


Point 2 : (X1 = 0, X2 = 80) Profit $7(0) + $5(80) = $400
Point 4 : (X1 = 50, X2 = 0) Profit $7(50) + $5(0) = $350

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Corner-Point Method
The optimal value will always be at a
Solvepoint
corner for the intersection of two constraints

Find the4Xobjective
1 + 3X2 240 (electronics time)
function value at each
2X1 + 1X
corner point 2 100
and (assembly
choose time)with the
the one
highest profit
4X + 3X = 240 4X + 3(40) = 240
1 2 1

- 4X1 - 2X2 = -200 4X +1 120 = 240


Point 1 : (X1 = 0, X2 = 0) Profit $7(0) + $5(0) = $0
Point 2 :
+ 1X =
(X1 = 0, X22 = 80)
40 X = 30
Profit $7(0) + $5(80)
1 = $400
Point 4 : (X1 = 50, X2 = 0) Profit $7(50) + $5(0) = $350

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Corner-Point Method
The optimal value will always be at a
corner point
Find the objective function value at each
corner point and choose the one with the
highest profit

Point 1 : (X1 = 0, X2 = 0) Profit $7(0) + $5(0) = $0


Point 2 : (X1 = 0, X2 = 80) Profit $7(0) + $5(80) = $400
Point 4 : (X1 = 50, X2 = 0) Profit $7(50) + $5(0) = $350
Point 3 : (X1 = 30, X2 = 40) Profit $7(30) + $5(40) = $410

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Solving Minimization
Problems
Formulated and solved in much the
same way as maximization problems
In the graphical approach an iso-cost
line is used
The objective is to move the iso-cost line
inwards until it reaches the lowest cost
corner point

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Minimization Example
X1 = number of tons of black-and-white picture
chemical produced
X2 = number of tons of color picture chemical
produced
Minimize total cost = 2,500X1 + 3,000X2

X1 30 tons of black-and-white chemical


X2 20 tons of color chemical
X1 + X2 60 tons total
X1, X2 $0 nonnegativity requirements

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Minimization Example
Table B.9 X2
60
X1 + X2 = 60
50

40 Feasible
region
30

b
20

10
a
X1 = 30
X2 = 20

| | | | | | |
X1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

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Minimization Example

Total cost at a = 2,500X1 + 3,000X2


= 2,500 (40) + 3,000(20)
= $160,000

Total cost at b = 2,500X1 + 3,000X2


= 2,500 (30) + 3,000(30)
= $165,000

Lowest total cost is at point a

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LP Applications
Production-Mix Example
Department
Product Wiring Drilling Assembly Inspection Unit Profit
XJ201 .5 3 2 .5 $ 9
XM897 1.5 1 4 1.0 $12
TR29 1.5 2 1 .5 $15
BR788 1.0 3 2 .5 $11

Capacity Minimum
Department (in hours) Product Production Level
Wiring 1,500 XJ201 150
Drilling 2,350 XM897 100
Assembly 2,600 TR29 300
Inspection 1,200 BR788 400

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LP Applications
X1 = number of units of XJ201 produced
X2 = number of units of XM897 produced
X3 = number of units of TR29 produced
X4 = number of units of BR788 produced
Maximize profit = 9X1 + 12X2 + 15X3 + 11X4

subject to .5X1 + 1.5X2 + 1.5X3 + 1X4 1,500 hours of wiring


3X1 + 1X2 + 2X3 + 3X4 2,350 hours of drilling
2X1 + 4X2 + 1X3 + 2X4 2,600 hours of assembly
.5X1 + 1X2 + .5X3 + .5X4 1,200 hours of inspection
X1 150 units of XJ201
X2 100 units of XM897
X3 300 units of TR29
X4 400 units of BR788
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LP Applications
Diet Problem Example
Feed
Product Stock X Stock Y Stock Z
A 3 oz 2 oz 4 oz
B 2 oz 3 oz 1 oz
C 1 oz 0 oz 2 oz
D 6 oz 8 oz 4 oz

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LP Applications
X1 = number of pounds of stock X purchased per cow each month
X2 = number of pounds of stock Y purchased per cow each month
X3 = number of pounds of stock Z purchased per cow each month

Minimize cost = .02X1 + .04X2 + .025X3

Ingredient A requirement: 3X1 + 2X2 + 4X3 64


Ingredient B requirement: 2X1 + 3X2 + 1X3 80
Ingredient C requirement: 1X1 + 0X2 + 2X3 16
Ingredient D requirement: 6X1 + 8X2 + 4X3 128
Stock Z limitation: X3 80
X1, X2, X3 0
Cheapest solution is to purchase 40 pounds of grain X
at a cost of $0.80 per cow
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In-Class Problems from the
Lecture Guide Practice Problems
Problem 1:
Chads Pottery Barn has enough clay to make 24 small vases or 6
large vases. He has only enough of a special glazing compound to
glaze 16 of the small vases or 8 of the large vases. Let X1 = the
number of small vases and X2 = the number of large vases.

The smaller vases sell for $3 each, and the larger vases would bring
$9 each.
(a) Formulate the problem
(b) Solve the problem graphically

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In-Class Problems from the
Lecture Guide Practice Problems

Problem 2:
A fabric firm has received an order for cloth specified to contain at
least 45 pounds of cotton and 25 pounds of silk. The cloth can be
woven out of any suitable mix of two yarns A and B. They contain the
proportions of cotton and silk (by weight) as shown in the following
table:

Cotton Silk
A 30% 50%
B 60% 10%

Material A costs $3 per pound, and B costs $2 per pound. What


quantities (pounds) of A and B yarns should be used to minimize the
cost of this order?
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