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Metamorphic petrology

Chapter 14, 15, 16, 18

Metamorphic rock: aggregate of minerals;
composition and fabric reflect changes to new
states to adjust to changes in P, T and X and
Parent rock: protolith
Metamorphism: path from protolith to final rock.
Driving force: increasing P and T
Upper limit: dependent on composition; igneous and
metamorphic processes overlap in heterogeneous
Lower limit: distinction between metamorphism and
diagenetic changes or alteration is also blurred.

Kaolinite and smectite clay minerals formed during alteration of feldspars:

H2O addition
Rock made of clays or their equivalents: pelites
As T increases low-T clay minerals are replaced by less water-rich
variaties: illites (<100oC) at 300oC chlorite and sericite.
Sericite: white mica that can include muscovite, paragonite, pyrophyllite
and phengite. These harder less hydrous minerals tarnsfer a shale into a
aphanitic platy metamorphic rock: slate
Role of water
Water is agent of change
Dry rocks are more resistant to metamorphism.
Water stabilizes new phases and catalyzes reactions, enhancing diffusion rates
In open system in the presence of water hydration reactions:
Biotite+ H2O Chlorite + Rutile
Hornblende+ H2O Chlorite + Rutile
Clinopyrxene+ H2O Actinolite + Epidote
Olivine/opx+ H2O Serpentinite+ Fe-oxides
Plagioclase+ Ca +Fe + H2O epidote
Feldspars + H2O sericite + Si +K (high T)
Feldspars + H2O clay minerals + Si+Ca+Na
Two distinct processes:
1: Boundaries of existing crystals are modified, no new phases.
2: Solid state crystallization: new phases are created due to changing
metamorphic conditions.

Example of 1. Conversion of limestone to marble:

Granoblastic texture:isotropic agregate
of polygonal grains of roughly similar
Recrystallization contd
Growth of new phases

Prograde metamorphism of diabase

a. Metadiabase: Actinolite (with
chlorite and epidote inclusions)
replaces pyroxene, sphene,
labradorite replaced by albite,
epidote and mica
b. Greenstone: isotropic, original
texture disappeared.
c. Amphibolite: Granoblastic textur,
micas and most hydrous minerals
d. Granoblastic plagioclase pyroxene
granofels, complete dehydration
Recrystallization contd
Epitaxial growth: new rowth on substrate with similar
atomic structure (amphibole on pyroxene).

Limited nucleation: porphyroblastic rocks: large

euhedral-subhedral crystals: metamorphosed Al-rick
rocks, porphyroblast: garnet, staurolite, andalusite

Porphyroblast results in local metamorphic

Porphyroblasts with inclusions: poikiloblasts
Inclusions are relics of previous state provide insight
in metamorphic history
Tectonite fabric
Recrystallization under non-hydrostatic pressure.

At shallow levels: brittle behavior: rock flour, fault gauge will be cemented by
water percolation: cement a cataclastic fabric: sharp and angular grain shapes,
poly granular
Greater dept: ductile deformation, ductile flow. During ductile flow rock remanins
Results in foliation: linear fabric: schists

Strain ellipse:
deformation of
a sphere,
paralel to the
plane of
Often multiple
stage of
Tectonite fabric contd
Mylonite: grain reduction due to shear
often marks faults and shear zones.
Non hydrostatic stress makes grain
instable and results in dynamic
Increasing mylonitization
Greywacke to schist
Greywacke: sandstone 1. Protolith: clasts of Qtz, fsp
and Fe-Mg mineral in clay
2. Phyllite, foliated, relict clasts
of Qtz, grain size reduction
3. Growth of mineral under
non-hydrostatic pressure,
crystallization of new mineral
aligned in the stress field
4. Fine grained schist,
schistosity due to
metamorphic segregation in
felsic and mafic bands.
Developmant of granoblasts
Recognition of protoliths through:
1. Relict fabrics
2. Field relations
3. Bulk composition
a) Ultramafic: high T: olivine, pyroxene limited feldspar, no Qtz, low T:
serpentinite, chlorite, tremolite, magnetite; with CO2 magnesite and dolomite
b) Mafic, relatively high Mg, Fe and Ca (gabbro) actinolite, hornblende,
pyroxene, garnet, epidote, plagioclase, chlorite, pumpellyite
c) Felsic, qtzofeldspatic: felsic magmatic and feldspatic and lithic sandstones:
Qtz and fsp bearing, minor mafic minerals. Distinction beweetn protoliths
will be difficult
d) Pelitic: shale-mudstone protolith, Al tich silicates: Al2SiO5 polymorphs,
cordierite, staurolite, garnet. Qtz, mica(absent at high T)
e) Calcareous:limestones and dolestones: in absence of qtz calcite and
dolomite are stable over large P-T range
f) Calc-silicate: impure carbonate protoliths: significant amount of clay and Qtz
in addition to carbonate. Carbonates of Fe, Ca and Mg (Mn), Ca-rich
silicates: grossular-andradite, vesovianite, epidote group, diopside
hedenbergite, wollastonite and tremolite
g) Ferrugineous: banded iron formations and marine cherts: meta minerals qtz,
hematite, magnetite, Fe-chlorite, siderite, ankerite
Types of metamorphism
Metamorphic terranes: large scale field relations allows distinction from adjacent
rock masses.

Regional metamorphism: orogen

Burial metamorphism: little or no
Contact metamorphism: steep thermal
gradients: metamorphic aureole
Contact metamorphism

Granodiorite intrusion in slate

If a hydrothermal system
develops: skarn formation,
silicate rich fluids percolate
through rock. Formation of
reaction zones.

Semi hornfels
Metamorphic grades and zones
Grade: corresponds to equilibration T, independent of P
Distinguished by mineral assembledge
Lower grade has more hydrous minerals
Prograde metamorphism: increasing T
Retrograde metamorphism: metamorphism after maximum T has been reached
Water enhances metamorphic reaction rates: therefore retrograde
metamorphism less extensive

Metamorphic zones:
Distinctive fabric
Distinctive mineral assemblage (often indicator mineral)
Barovian zones in pelites

Mappable line often

recognized through an
index mineral: isograd
Metamorphic facies
Facies: suite of mineral assemblages, repeatedly found in terranes of all
ages and possesses a regular variation between mineral composition and
bulk chemical composition

1. Analcite+ Qtzalbite+H2O
2. 2 Laws+ 5 glautrem+10 alb+ 2 chlo
3. 6trem+50alb+9chlo25 glau+6zoi+7Qtz+14H2O
4. 25pump+2chlo+29Qtz7trem+43zoi+67H2O
5. 4chlo+18zoi+21qtz5Al-amph+26An+20H2O
6. hblcpx+opx+Ca-plag+H2O
Facies and assemblages
P-T-t paths
Metamorphic fabrics
Anisotropic fabrics:
Penetrative i.e. throughout the rock: tectonite
Most common anisotropic fabric: foliation: S-surface. Multiple foliations indicated
as S1, S2 etc.
Foliations often indicated by alignment of minerals: long axis paralel to the
Tectonite with one or more foliations: S-tectonite
L-tectonite: only lineated (line)
Most common foliation: compositional layering and
preferred orientation
Aligned platy grains (like mica and chlorites in phyllites
and schists) called lepidoblastic texture and can show
slaty cleavage

Hornfels with slaty cleavage

Metamorphic fabrics contd
Further developed foliations: formation of laminae or lenses of contrasting texture
and/or composition.
Individual domains are called microlithons
Cleavage is called spaced cleavage.
Two categories of spaced cleavage:
1. Crenulated cleavage: cuts across pre-existing S-surfaces
2. Disjunctive cleavage: occurs in rocks lacking foliation: seams of minerals

Disjunctive cleavage
Crenulated foliation
1. Mineral lineation: nematoblastic:
aligned acicular, columnar and
prismatic grains of amphibole,
sillimanite and kyanite
2. Stretching lineation: streaked
appearance of foliation, elongated
agregates of minerals
3. Boudins: segments of once intact
layer that has been pulled
apart:sausage links. Boudins are
less deformed than their
surroundings Nematoblastic hornbvlende-
4. Intersection of two oblique foliations plagioclase-epidote schist

Lineated and weakly foliated feldspar-quartz-biotite gneiss

Metamorphic textures
Augen: ovoidal crystals, typically of feldspar
Cataclastic: isotropic rock of angular rock and mineral
fragments with through going cracks
Corona: mantle surrounding a mineral grain, reaction
Decussate: aggregate of interpenetrating grains
Epitaxial: oriented overgrowth on substrate
Flaser: texture of mylonites where large crystals
(porphyroclasts) survived ductile deformation and are in
fine grained matrix
Lepidoblastic: Platy minerals with preferred orientation
imparting schistosity and cleavage
Megacrystic: large crystals in fine matrix
Nematoblastic: acicular or columnar grains imparting
Poikiloblastic: Porphyroblasts containing inclusions
Porphyroblastic: large subhedral to euhedral grains
porphyroblasts in fine grained matrix
Metamorphic textures contd
Strain shadow; cone shaped domains adjacent to rigid object, filled with mineral
Symplectite: intimita, vermicular intergroowth of two mineralsthat nucleated and
grew together. Can occur as corona. If very fine grained called kelyphytic rim

Pressure shadow
Classification and description
Several bases:
1. Fabric
2. Protolith
3. Mineralogical names, like marble, serpentinite
4. Geological setting: nature of metamorphism
5. Grade
6. Chemical composition

Strongly Weakly Non-foliated
foliated foliated
Slate Gneiss Greenstone
Phyllite Migmatite Amphibolite
Schist Mylonite Eclogite
Metasomatic rock types
Skarn: calc-silicate rock produced by replacement of carbonate rock
Jasperoid: Like skarn, but fluid more silic-rich
Greisen: metasomatized granite (often due to hydrothermal solutions
Fenite: syenite produced by alkali metasomatism, Na-K rick solution desilicate
the protolith
Rodingite: Infiltration of Ca-bearing solutions
Spilite: metasomatized basalt due to hydrothermal processes
Graphical representation of assemblages
The phase rule applies
Representation in graph: only two dimensions
Rock has far more components:
Reduce the number of components to the three most relevant
1. Ignore components that occur in one phase: Ti; Titanite or ilmenite
2. Ignore component that only occurs as pure phase: Qtz-SiO2, hematite Fe2O3.
3. Ignore those dictated by external conditions : H2O CO2.
4. Restrict the range of compositions considered
5. Combine those with widespread substitution: Fe, Mn and Mg
6. Project composition from a phae common in all facies
Composition diagrams
No solid solution

Three components: h, k and l

At equilibrium P and T, number of stable phases

cannot exceed three.
Tielines connect phases that are stable together
Composition within any of the five sub-triangles:
triangle depicts the phases stable for that
composition, P and T

Solid solution
Tielines indicate the two phase compositions in
equilibrium with each other.
Because of solid solution the extent of the 2 phase
fields is enlarged
In the two phase field specification of one
component fraction and P and T defines the system
Compatibility diagrams
Diagrams to depicts compositional relationships in metamorphic rocks
ACF diagram:
F=FeO+MgO+MnO: anthophyllie, cummingtonite, hyperstene, olivine
1. Molar proportions of oxides
2. A=Al2O3+Fe2O3-Na2O-K2O Al in excess of that needed for alk fsp
3. C=CaO-3.3P2O5-CO2: Ca in excess of what is needed for apatite and calcite
4. F=FeO+MgO+MnO-TiO2-Fe2O3: excess over what is needed to make ilmenite
and magnetite

AKF diagrams (for potassic minerals)

1. A=Al2O3+Fe2O3-(Na2O+K2O+CaO) eliminates plag
2. K=K2O
3. F=FeO+MgO+MnO
Compatibility diagrams contd
AFM projection:
Projection from either Kfsp or muscovite on AFM
SiO2 is always present, H2O is always present
Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, Na2O and TiO2 are present
In small enough quantities that they occur in one
Remaining: Al2O3, FeO, MgO, K2O
1. A=Al2O3-3K2O: KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 (musc),
from Kfsp: A=Al2O3-K2O
2. F=FeO (FeO-TiO2)
3. M=MgO

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