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Structural

Dynamics

10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 1


Spring-Mass system subjected
to a time dependent load.

k
F(t)
m

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Free-body diagram of the mass.

T = kx F(t) ma mx
m
= m

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Ft k x m x

m x k x Ft

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Solution of D.E. is sum
of homogeneous and
particular solutions:
Homogeneou s :

F t 0

m x k x 0
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Let :
k
2

m
Then :
x x 0
2

2 is the natural circular frequency

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2


is the period (measured in seconds)

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Displacement due to simple harmonic motion.


xm

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One Dimensional
Bar Element

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Step 1 - Select Element Type

d 1 x 1 2 d 2 x
x
f1ex t f 2ex t
L
E - modulus of elasticity
A - cross-sectional area
- mass density

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Step 2 - Select a
Displacement Function
u a1 a 2 x
u N1d1x N 2d 2 x
x
N1 1
L
x
N2
L
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Step 3 - Define
Strain/Displacement and
Stress/Strain Relationships

x B d
u
x

B 1 1
L L

d1x
d
d 2 x
D x DBd
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Step 4 - Derive Element
Stiffness and Mass Matrices
and Equations

With time dependent loading

f1x f 2 x

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Newtons Second Law


f ma
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NODAL EQUILIBRIUM
EQUATIONS

d1x 2
f f1x m1
e

t
1x 2

d 2 x 2
f e
f 2 x m 2
t
2x 2

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m1 and m2 are obtained by
lumping the total mass of the
bar equally at the two nodes

AL
m1
2
AL
m2
2
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Lumped Mass Model

d 1 x 1 2 d 2 x
m1 x m2
f1ex t f 2ex t
L

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Equilibrium in Matrix Form
d1x
f1ex f1x m1
0 t 2
e
f 2 x f 2 x 0 m 2 d 2 x
t
2

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Equilibrium in Matrix Form


f t k d m d
e

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Defining Terms
1 1
k
AE
L 1 1
Element Stiffness Matrix

AL 1 0
m
2 0 1
Element Lumped Mass Matrix

d Nodal Displacements
d
d
2
Nodal Accelerations
t2

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Consistent Mass Matrix


X u
e

fb N X dV T

fb N T

u dV
V

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Consistent Mass Matrix

u Nd
u N d


u N d


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Consistent Mass Matrix

fb N N d dV
T


V

fb m d

m N N dV T

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Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element
m N N dV
T

1 x
L x x
m x 1
dV
V L L
L
L 1
x
L x x
m A x 1
dx
0 L L
L
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Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element

L 1
x x 1 x x
L L
1
L L dx
m A

0 1
x x
x x

L L L L
A L 2 1
m
6 1 2

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STEP 5 - Assemble the Global
Equations and Apply B.C.s

Ft K d Md

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Ft K d Md

Now must solve coupled set


of ODEs instead of set of
linear algebraic equations!

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Consistent Mass Matrix

m N N dV T

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Beam Element

y , v

1 , m 1
1 x 2 2 , m 2

L
f1y , d 1y f 2y , d 2y

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Shape Functions

N1
L3
1
2x 3 3x 2 L L3

N2
1 3
L3
x L 2x 2 L2 xL3

N3
1
L3
2x 3 3x 2 L

N4
1 3
L3
x L x 2 L2

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Shape Functions
1.000
N1 N3
0.500
N2
L
0.000
0 N4

-0.500

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Consistent Mass Matrix
m N N dVT

156 22L 54 13L


22L 2 2
3L
m
m 4L 13L
420 54 13L 156 22L
2
13L 3L 22L 4L
2

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Lumped Mass Matrix

1 0 0 0
L 2

0 0 0
m 0
m 210
0 1 0

2
0 L
2
0 0
210

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Lumped Mass Matrix

2nd and 4th terms account for rotary inertia.


= 0 if this is ignored.
= 17.5 if mass moment of inertia of bar
spinning about one end is selected
2
m L

I 2 2
3
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Consistent Mass Matrix - CST
Q 0
m
0 Q
2 1 1 u1
Q 1 2 1 u 2
m
12
1 1 2 u 3

For each degree of freedom

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Consistent Mass Matrix - CST
2 0 1 0 1 0
0 2 0 1 0
1

At 1 0
m
0 2 0 1

12 0 1 0 2 0 1
1 0 1 0 2 0

0 1 0 1 0 2
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Lumped Mass Matrix - CST

Q 0
m
0 Q
1 0 0 u 1
m
Q 0 0 1 u 2
3
0 0 1 u 3

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Lumped Mass Matrix - CST
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0

At 0 0
m
0 1 0 0

3 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1
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Consistent Mass Matrix - Quad

Q 0
m 0 Q

4 2 1 2
2 4 2 1
Q m
36 1 2 4 2

2 1 2 4
m At

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Consistent Mass Matrix - Quad
4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0
0
4 0 2 0 1 0 2

2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0

m
m 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1
36 1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0

0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2
2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0

0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4

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Hybrid Methods

Attempts have been made to combine


consistent and lumped mass approaches
to achieve some of the benefits of each!

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HRZ Lumping
1. Hinton, Rock, and Zienkiewicz
2. Compute the diagonal terms of consistent
mass matrix.
3. Compute total mass of element, m
4. Compute s by adding diagonal coefficients
associated with translational D-O-F that are
in same direction.
5. Scale all diagonal coefficients by multiplying
by m/s

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HRZ - Bar Element
A L 2 1
m
6 1 2
m AL
AL
s 4
6
m 3

s 2
A L 3 0
m
6 0 3
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HRZ - Beam Element
156 22L 54 13L
22L 2
2
m m
4L 13L 3L
420 54 13L 156 22L
2
13L 3L 22L 4L
2

m AL
AL
s 312
420
m 420
s 312

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HRZ - Beam Element

420
312 156 0 0 0 39
420
0 4 L2 0 0 L2

m m 312 m
420 420 78 39
0 0 156 0
312


2
420 2
L
0 0 0 4L
312

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HRZ Quadratic Serendipity

3 1
76 36

16 8
76 36
3x3 2x2
Gauss Rule Gauss Rule

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HRZ Quadratic Lagrangian

1 1
36 36

4 16 16 4
36 36 36 36
3x3 2x2
Gauss Rule Gauss Rule

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% error in natural frequencies of a thick
simply-supported plate.
Half of the plate modeled with 8-noded
24 d-o-f elements
Mode Type of Mass Matrix
m n Consistent (%) HRz Lumping (%) Ad Hoc Lumping (%)
1 1 0.11 0.32 0.32
2 1 0.4 0.45 0.45
2 2 0.35 2.75 4.12
3 1 5.18 0.05 5.75
3 2 4.68 2.96 10.15
3 3 13.78 5.18 19.42
4 2 16.88 1.53 31.7

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Optimal Lumping
Only translational d-o-f
Based on consistent mass matrix
Use appropriate quadrature rule
Chose integration points to coincide
with nodal locations
[m] will be diagonal

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Let p be the highest order complete
polynomial in shape function N
let m be the highest order derivative
in strain energy (m = 1 elasticity, m
= 2 bending)
Chose quadrature rule with degree of
precision 2(p-m)

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Three noded bar element
p=2
m=1
2(p-m) = 2
Three point quadrature rule.
Newton -Cotes has points at the nodes.
(Simpson Rule)
b
1 4 ba 1
a f (x)dx b a 6 f a 6 f 2 6 f b
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1
m ij A N i N jdx N i N j J d
1

L
J
2
1
m ij A 1 1 N i 1N j 1 N i 0N j 0 N i 1N j 1
L 4 1
2 6 6 6
i j m ij 0

1 0 0 1 3 2
AL
m 0 1 0
6
0 0 4
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Serendipity

1

12

1
3

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Lagrangian

1
36

4 1
9 9

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Mass Matrices
Product [m]{a} must yield the correct total force on
an element (F = ma) when {a} represents a rigid-
body translational acceleration.
Consistent mass matrices, [m] and [M] are positive
definite.
Lumped mass matrix is positive semi-definite when
zero terms appear on main diagonal.
Lumped mass matrix is indefinite when negative
terms appear on main diagonal.

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Mass Matrices
Special treatment may be needed to
handle the last two cases.

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Best Type ?

1. Consistent matrices usually


more accurate for flexural
problems.
2. Consistent matrices give upper
bounds on natural frequencies.

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Best Type ?
1. Lumped matrices usually give natural
frequencies less than exact values.
2. Simpler to form.
3. Occupy less storage.
4. Require less computational effort.
5. Usually more important in time-history than
in vibration problems.

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Damping
1. Structural damping is not viscous.
2. Due to mechanisms such as hysteresis and
slip in connections.
3. Mechanisms not well understood.
4. Awkward to incorporate into structural
dynamic equations.
5. Makes equations computationally difficult.
6. Effects usually approximated by viscous
damping.

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Types of Damping Models
Phenomenological Damping Methods
(models actual dissipative mechanisms)
Elastic-Plastic Hysteresis Loss
Structural Joint Friction
Material Micro-cracking
Spectral Damping Methods
Introduce Viscous Damping
Relies on Fraction of Critical Damping

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Critical Damping

Fraction of Critical Damping


1 Critical Damping

Critical Damping marks the transition between


oscillatory and non- oscillatory response of a
structure

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Critical Damping Ratio

0.5% 5% Steel Piping


2% 15% Bolted or riveted steel structures
2% 15% Reinforced or Prestresses Concrete

Actual value may depend on stress level.

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Rayleigh or Proportional
Damping

Damping matrix is a linear combination of


stiffness and mass matrices:

C K M
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Rayleigh or Proportional
Damping
[C] is orthogonal damping matrix.
Modes may be uncoupled by eigenvectors
associated with undamped problem.

1

2

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If critical damping ratio is known
at two frequencies then:
1

2
2 2 1 1
2

2 1
2 2

1 2 2 1
2 1 2
2
2 2
1
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Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes
Undamped, Unforced Response

D D sin t
D D cos t
D D sin t
2

D amplitudes of nodal d - o - f
circular frequency

f ( Hz )
2
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Results in generalized eigenproblem

K M D 0
2

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Trivial Solution:

K M 0
D 0

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Nontrivial Solution:

K M 0
D 0

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i Roots of Characteristic
Polynomial (eigenvalues)
D i Associated Eigenvectors

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i Natural Frequencies
D i Normal Modes

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Natural Frequencies
[K] and [M] n x n then there are n eigenvalues
and n eigenvectors
[K] and [M] positive definite then eigenvalues are
all positive
Mii = 0 infinite eigenvalue
Mii < 0 negative eigenvalue - imaginary frequency
Use condensation to remove ith equation if Mii = 0

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Rayleigh Quotient


D K D
T

D MD
T

K symmetric
M positive definite
D th
approximat ion to i eigenvector
approximat ion to i eigenvalueth

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Rayleigh Quotient

v K v
T

min max
v M v
T

min smallest eigenvalue


max l arg est eigenvalue

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Modal Methods
When [K], [C], [M] are known and time
independent the problem is linear.

M D C D K D R
ext

D 0 , D 0 given as initial conditions

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Modal Methods
Assume orthogonal damping, such as
Rayleigh Damping. Modes can be uncoupled:

D M D 0
T
i j

D K D 0
T
i j

D C D 0
T
i j

ij
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D M D 1
T
i i

D K D
T
i i
2
i

D C D 2
T
i i i i

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Eigenvectors are linearly independent

matrix of eigenvectors
(mode shapes)
D Z
Z modal amplitudes

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Substitute into:

M D C D K D R
ext

D 0 , D 0 given

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M Z C Z K Z R
ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

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Mode Displacement Method

2

I Z Z Z p

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Mode Displacement Method
Pre-multiply by []T

T
M Z C Z
T

K Z R
T T ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

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Mode Displacement Method

M I
T

C
T

K
T 2

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Mode Displacement Method

2

I Z Z Z p

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Modes Uncouple:

I Z Z Z Z
2

Z 2 Z 2 Z p i 1, n
i i i i i i

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Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0
M Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T T

I Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

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Reduce size of problem:

m n eq
m
D i Z i
i 1

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Error Estimate:

R M D C D K D
ext

e( t )
R ext

For an accurate analysis :


e ( t ) 1%

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In many structural dynamics
problems, more modes
participate in the quasi-static
response than in the dynamic
response. For a small m value,
the mode displacement method
may have difficulty in predicting
the quasi-static response.
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Mode Acceleration method
Method

2

I Z Z Z p

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Modal transformation only on
inertial and damping terms

M Z C Z K D R
ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

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K D R ext M Z
CZ

D K R K M Z
1 ext CZ
1

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M I
T

M T

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D K R K
1 ext 1
Z C Z
T

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K
T 2

K I
T 2 1

K I
2 1 T T

K
2 1 1 T

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D K R K
1 ext 1 T
Z K CZ
1

D K R Z K CZ
1 ext 2 1 1

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D K R K Z K 1CZ
1 ext 1 T

D K R Z K CZ
1 ext 2 1 1 T T

D K R Z Z
1 ext 2 1 2 1

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D K R
1 ext 2 1
Z Z
1 2 i
D K R
m
1 ext
i 2 Z i Z i
i 1 i i

First term on RHS represents quasi-static


response, the second term represents
corrections for inertia and viscous effects.
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Solve for Z terms as before:

Z 2 Z 2 Z p i 1, n
i i i i i i

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Mass Condensation
Reduces number of d-o-f.
Reduces expense of computing
eigenvalues.
Detrimental to accuracy.
Not used with optimal lumping.

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Guyan Reduction

K mm K ms M mm M ms D m 0

KT
ms K ss M Tms M ss D s 0

m - master degree of freedom


s - slave degree of freedom

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Guyan Reduction
m - master degree of freedom
s - slave degree of freedom

Basic Assumption:
For lowest frequency modes the inertial
forces on slave d-o-f are less important
than elastic forces transmitted by master
d-o-f. Thus we ignore all mass except Mmm

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Guyan Reduction

K mm K ms M mm 0 D m 0

KT
ms K ss 0 0 D s 0
D K K D
s ss
1
ms
T
m

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Guyan Reduction

D m
T D m
D s
I
T 1 T
K ss K ms

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Guyan Reduction

K r M r D m 0
K r T K T
T

M r T M T
T

Both [Kr] and [Mr] are generally full.


[Mr] contains both mass and stiffness terms
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Guyan Reduction

C r T C T
T

R r T R
ext T ext

M r D m C r D m K r D m R r
ext

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Compute Slaves

D
s i
K ss i M ss
1
K T
ms iM T
ms D m i

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Choosing Master D-O-F
Choose d-o-f where inertia is most important
These are characterized by large mass to
stiffness ratios.
Each d-o-f that has a time varying applied
load should be chosen.
Master d-o-f should not be clustered.
Process can be automated

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Process for Choosing Master D-O-F

Scan diagonal coefficients of [K] and [M].


Choose d-o-f for which Kii/Mii is largest.
This becomes first slave.
Condense [K] and [M] by one order.
Repeat process using condensed matrices till
a user specified number of d-o-f remain.
These are Master d-o-f chosen in near
optimal way.

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Number of Master D-O-F
Choose cut-off frequency c
Take this to be about three times the highest
frequency of interest.
Terminate selection of master d-o-f when Kii/Mii
< c2
Can combine manual and automatic selection (i.e.
Choose each d-o-f that has a time varying applied
load and then automatically select others.)
Number of Master d-o-f may be 10% - 20% of
total d-o-f.
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