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# Structural

Dynamics

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 1

Spring-Mass system subjected

k
F(t)
m

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 2

Free-body diagram of the mass.

T = kx F(t) ma mx
m
= m

Ft k x m x

m x k x Ft

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 4

Solution of D.E. is sum
of homogeneous and
particular solutions:
Homogeneou s :

F t 0

m x k x 0
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Let :
k
2

m
Then :
x x 0
2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 6

2

is the period (measured in seconds)

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 7

Displacement due to simple harmonic motion.

xm

One Dimensional
Bar Element

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 9

Step 1 - Select Element Type

d 1 x 1 2 d 2 x
x
f1ex t f 2ex t
L
E - modulus of elasticity
A - cross-sectional area
- mass density

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 10

Step 2 - Select a
Displacement Function
u a1 a 2 x
u N1d1x N 2d 2 x
x
N1 1
L
x
N2
L
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Step 3 - Define
Strain/Displacement and
Stress/Strain Relationships

x B d
u
x

B 1 1
L L

d1x
d
d 2 x
D x DBd
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Step 4 - Derive Element
Stiffness and Mass Matrices
and Equations

f1x f 2 x

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 13

Newtons Second Law

f ma
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NODAL EQUILIBRIUM
EQUATIONS

d1x 2
f f1x m1
e

t
1x 2

d 2 x 2
f e
f 2 x m 2
t
2x 2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 15

m1 and m2 are obtained by
lumping the total mass of the
bar equally at the two nodes

AL
m1
2
AL
m2
2
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Lumped Mass Model

d 1 x 1 2 d 2 x
m1 x m2
f1ex t f 2ex t
L

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 17

Equilibrium in Matrix Form
d1x
f1ex f1x m1
0 t 2
e
f 2 x f 2 x 0 m 2 d 2 x
t
2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 18

Equilibrium in Matrix Form

f t k d m d
e

10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 19
Defining Terms
1 1
k
AE
L 1 1
Element Stiffness Matrix

AL 1 0
m
2 0 1
Element Lumped Mass Matrix

d Nodal Displacements
d
d
2
Nodal Accelerations
t2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 20

Consistent Mass Matrix

X u
e

fb N X dV T

fb N T

u dV
V

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 21

Consistent Mass Matrix

u Nd
u N d

u N d

10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 22
Consistent Mass Matrix

fb N N d dV
T

V

fb m d

m N N dV T

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 23

Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element
m N N dV
T

1 x
L x x
m x 1
dV
V L L
L
L 1
x
L x x
m A x 1
dx
0 L L
L
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 24
Consistent Mass Matrix
Bar Element

L 1
x x 1 x x
L L
1
L L dx
m A

0 1
x x
x x

L L L L
A L 2 1
m
6 1 2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 25

STEP 5 - Assemble the Global
Equations and Apply B.C.s

Ft K d Md

Ft K d Md

## Now must solve coupled set

of ODEs instead of set of
linear algebraic equations!

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 27

Consistent Mass Matrix

m N N dV T

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 28

Beam Element

y , v

1 , m 1
1 x 2 2 , m 2

L
f1y , d 1y f 2y , d 2y

Shape Functions

N1
L3
1
2x 3 3x 2 L L3

N2
1 3
L3
x L 2x 2 L2 xL3

N3
1
L3
2x 3 3x 2 L

N4
1 3
L3
x L x 2 L2

Shape Functions
1.000
N1 N3
0.500
N2
L
0.000
0 N4

-0.500

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 31

Consistent Mass Matrix
m N N dVT

## 156 22L 54 13L

22L 2 2
3L
m
m 4L 13L
420 54 13L 156 22L
2
13L 3L 22L 4L
2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 32

Lumped Mass Matrix

1 0 0 0
L 2

0 0 0
m 0
m 210
0 1 0

2
0 L
2
0 0
210

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 33

Lumped Mass Matrix

## 2nd and 4th terms account for rotary inertia.

= 0 if this is ignored.
= 17.5 if mass moment of inertia of bar
spinning about one end is selected
2
m L

I 2 2
3
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 34
Consistent Mass Matrix - CST
Q 0
m
0 Q
2 1 1 u1
Q 1 2 1 u 2
m
12
1 1 2 u 3

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 35

Consistent Mass Matrix - CST
2 0 1 0 1 0
0 2 0 1 0
1

At 1 0
m
0 2 0 1

12 0 1 0 2 0 1
1 0 1 0 2 0

0 1 0 1 0 2
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Lumped Mass Matrix - CST

Q 0
m
0 Q
1 0 0 u 1
m
Q 0 0 1 u 2
3
0 0 1 u 3

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 37

Lumped Mass Matrix - CST
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0

At 0 0
m
0 1 0 0

3 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 38

Q 0
m 0 Q

4 2 1 2
2 4 2 1
Q m
36 1 2 4 2

2 1 2 4
m At

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 39

4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0
0
4 0 2 0 1 0 2

2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0

m
m 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1
36 1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0

0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2
2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0

0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4

Hybrid Methods

## Attempts have been made to combine

consistent and lumped mass approaches
to achieve some of the benefits of each!

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 41

HRZ Lumping
1. Hinton, Rock, and Zienkiewicz
2. Compute the diagonal terms of consistent
mass matrix.
3. Compute total mass of element, m
4. Compute s by adding diagonal coefficients
associated with translational D-O-F that are
in same direction.
5. Scale all diagonal coefficients by multiplying
by m/s

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 42

HRZ - Bar Element
A L 2 1
m
6 1 2
m AL
AL
s 4
6
m 3

s 2
A L 3 0
m
6 0 3
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 43
HRZ - Beam Element
156 22L 54 13L
22L 2
2
m m
4L 13L 3L
420 54 13L 156 22L
2
13L 3L 22L 4L
2

m AL
AL
s 312
420
m 420
s 312

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 44

HRZ - Beam Element

420
312 156 0 0 0 39
420
0 4 L2 0 0 L2

m m 312 m
420 420 78 39
0 0 156 0
312

2
420 2
L
0 0 0 4L
312

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 45

3 1
76 36

16 8
76 36
3x3 2x2
Gauss Rule Gauss Rule

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 46

1 1
36 36

4 16 16 4
36 36 36 36
3x3 2x2
Gauss Rule Gauss Rule

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 47

% error in natural frequencies of a thick
simply-supported plate.
Half of the plate modeled with 8-noded
24 d-o-f elements
Mode Type of Mass Matrix
m n Consistent (%) HRz Lumping (%) Ad Hoc Lumping (%)
1 1 0.11 0.32 0.32
2 1 0.4 0.45 0.45
2 2 0.35 2.75 4.12
3 1 5.18 0.05 5.75
3 2 4.68 2.96 10.15
3 3 13.78 5.18 19.42
4 2 16.88 1.53 31.7

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 48

Optimal Lumping
Only translational d-o-f
Based on consistent mass matrix
Chose integration points to coincide
with nodal locations
[m] will be diagonal

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 49

Let p be the highest order complete
polynomial in shape function N
let m be the highest order derivative
in strain energy (m = 1 elasticity, m
= 2 bending)
Chose quadrature rule with degree of
precision 2(p-m)

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 50

Three noded bar element
p=2
m=1
2(p-m) = 2
Newton -Cotes has points at the nodes.
(Simpson Rule)
b
1 4 ba 1
a f (x)dx b a 6 f a 6 f 2 6 f b
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 51
1
m ij A N i N jdx N i N j J d
1

L
J
2
1
m ij A 1 1 N i 1N j 1 N i 0N j 0 N i 1N j 1
L 4 1
2 6 6 6
i j m ij 0

1 0 0 1 3 2
AL
m 0 1 0
6
0 0 4
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 52
Serendipity

1

12

1
3

Lagrangian

1
36

4 1
9 9

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 54

Mass Matrices
Product [m]{a} must yield the correct total force on
an element (F = ma) when {a} represents a rigid-
body translational acceleration.
Consistent mass matrices, [m] and [M] are positive
definite.
Lumped mass matrix is positive semi-definite when
zero terms appear on main diagonal.
Lumped mass matrix is indefinite when negative
terms appear on main diagonal.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 55

Mass Matrices
Special treatment may be needed to
handle the last two cases.

Best Type ?

## 1. Consistent matrices usually

more accurate for flexural
problems.
2. Consistent matrices give upper
bounds on natural frequencies.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 57

Best Type ?
1. Lumped matrices usually give natural
frequencies less than exact values.
2. Simpler to form.
3. Occupy less storage.
4. Require less computational effort.
5. Usually more important in time-history than
in vibration problems.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 58

Damping
1. Structural damping is not viscous.
2. Due to mechanisms such as hysteresis and
slip in connections.
3. Mechanisms not well understood.
4. Awkward to incorporate into structural
dynamic equations.
5. Makes equations computationally difficult.
6. Effects usually approximated by viscous
damping.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 59

Types of Damping Models
Phenomenological Damping Methods
(models actual dissipative mechanisms)
Elastic-Plastic Hysteresis Loss
Structural Joint Friction
Material Micro-cracking
Spectral Damping Methods
Introduce Viscous Damping
Relies on Fraction of Critical Damping

Critical Damping

## Fraction of Critical Damping

1 Critical Damping

## Critical Damping marks the transition between

oscillatory and non- oscillatory response of a
structure

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 61

Critical Damping Ratio

## 0.5% 5% Steel Piping

2% 15% Bolted or riveted steel structures
2% 15% Reinforced or Prestresses Concrete

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 62

Rayleigh or Proportional
Damping

## Damping matrix is a linear combination of

stiffness and mass matrices:

C K M
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 63
Rayleigh or Proportional
Damping
[C] is orthogonal damping matrix.
Modes may be uncoupled by eigenvectors
associated with undamped problem.

1

2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 64

If critical damping ratio is known
at two frequencies then:
1

2
2 2 1 1
2

2 1
2 2

1 2 2 1
2 1 2
2
2 2
1
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 65
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes
Undamped, Unforced Response

D D sin t
D D cos t
D D sin t
2

D amplitudes of nodal d - o - f
circular frequency

f ( Hz )
2
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Results in generalized eigenproblem

K M D 0
2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 67

Trivial Solution:

K M 0
D 0

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 68

Nontrivial Solution:

K M 0
D 0

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 69

i Roots of Characteristic
Polynomial (eigenvalues)
D i Associated Eigenvectors

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 70

i Natural Frequencies
D i Normal Modes

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 71

Natural Frequencies
[K] and [M] n x n then there are n eigenvalues
and n eigenvectors
[K] and [M] positive definite then eigenvalues are
all positive
Mii = 0 infinite eigenvalue
Mii < 0 negative eigenvalue - imaginary frequency
Use condensation to remove ith equation if Mii = 0

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 72

Rayleigh Quotient

D K D
T

D MD
T

K symmetric
M positive definite
D th
approximat ion to i eigenvector
approximat ion to i eigenvalueth

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 73

Rayleigh Quotient

v K v
T

min max
v M v
T

## min smallest eigenvalue

max l arg est eigenvalue

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 74

Modal Methods
When [K], [C], [M] are known and time
independent the problem is linear.

M D C D K D R
ext

D 0 , D 0 given as initial conditions

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 75

Modal Methods
Assume orthogonal damping, such as
Rayleigh Damping. Modes can be uncoupled:

D M D 0
T
i j

D K D 0
T
i j

D C D 0
T
i j

ij
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D M D 1
T
i i

D K D
T
i i
2
i

D C D 2
T
i i i i

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 77

Eigenvectors are linearly independent

matrix of eigenvectors
(mode shapes)
D Z
Z modal amplitudes

Substitute into:

M D C D K D R
ext

D 0 , D 0 given

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 79

M Z C Z K Z R
ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 80

Mode Displacement Method

2

I Z Z Z p

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 81

Mode Displacement Method
Pre-multiply by []T

T
M Z C Z
T

K Z R
T T ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 82

Mode Displacement Method

M I
T

C
T

K
T 2

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 83

Mode Displacement Method

2

I Z Z Z p

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 84

Modes Uncouple:

I Z Z Z Z
2

Z 2 Z 2 Z p i 1, n
i i i i i i

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0
M Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T T

I Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

Z ( 0 ) M D 0
T

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 86

Reduce size of problem:

m n eq
m
D i Z i
i 1

Error Estimate:

R M D C D K D
ext

e( t )
R ext

e ( t ) 1%

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 88

In many structural dynamics
problems, more modes
participate in the quasi-static
response than in the dynamic
response. For a small m value,
the mode displacement method
may have difficulty in predicting
the quasi-static response.
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 89
Mode Acceleration method
Method

2

I Z Z Z p

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 90

Modal transformation only on
inertial and damping terms

M Z C Z K D R
ext

Z ( 0 ) D 0
Z ( 0 ) D 0 given

K D R ext M Z
CZ

D K R K M Z
1 ext CZ
1

M I
T

M T

D K R K
1 ext 1
Z C Z
T

K
T 2

K I
T 2 1

K I
2 1 T T

K
2 1 1 T

D K R K
1 ext 1 T
Z K CZ
1

D K R Z K CZ
1 ext 2 1 1

D K R K Z K 1CZ
1 ext 1 T

D K R Z K CZ
1 ext 2 1 1 T T

D K R Z Z
1 ext 2 1 2 1

D K R
1 ext 2 1
Z Z
1 2 i
D K R
m
1 ext
i 2 Z i Z i
i 1 i i

## First term on RHS represents quasi-static

response, the second term represents
corrections for inertia and viscous effects.
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 98
Solve for Z terms as before:

Z 2 Z 2 Z p i 1, n
i i i i i i

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 99

Mass Condensation
Reduces number of d-o-f.
Reduces expense of computing
eigenvalues.
Detrimental to accuracy.
Not used with optimal lumping.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 100

Guyan Reduction

K mm K ms M mm M ms D m 0

KT
ms K ss M Tms M ss D s 0

## m - master degree of freedom

s - slave degree of freedom

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 101

Guyan Reduction
m - master degree of freedom
s - slave degree of freedom

Basic Assumption:
For lowest frequency modes the inertial
forces on slave d-o-f are less important
than elastic forces transmitted by master
d-o-f. Thus we ignore all mass except Mmm

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 102

Guyan Reduction

K mm K ms M mm 0 D m 0

KT
ms K ss 0 0 D s 0
D K K D
s ss
1
ms
T
m

Guyan Reduction

D m
T D m
D s
I
T 1 T
K ss K ms

Guyan Reduction

K r M r D m 0
K r T K T
T

M r T M T
T

## Both [Kr] and [Mr] are generally full.

[Mr] contains both mass and stiffness terms
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 105
Guyan Reduction

C r T C T
T

R r T R
ext T ext

M r D m C r D m K r D m R r
ext

Compute Slaves

D
s i
K ss i M ss
1
K T
ms iM T
ms D m i

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 107

Choosing Master D-O-F
Choose d-o-f where inertia is most important
These are characterized by large mass to
stiffness ratios.
Each d-o-f that has a time varying applied
Master d-o-f should not be clustered.
Process can be automated

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 108

Process for Choosing Master D-O-F

## Scan diagonal coefficients of [K] and [M].

Choose d-o-f for which Kii/Mii is largest.
This becomes first slave.
Condense [K] and [M] by one order.
Repeat process using condensed matrices till
a user specified number of d-o-f remain.
These are Master d-o-f chosen in near
optimal way.

## 10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 109

Number of Master D-O-F
Choose cut-off frequency c
Take this to be about three times the highest
frequency of interest.
Terminate selection of master d-o-f when Kii/Mii
< c2
Can combine manual and automatic selection (i.e.
Choose each d-o-f that has a time varying applied
load and then automatically select others.)
Number of Master d-o-f may be 10% - 20% of
total d-o-f.
10/11/2017 Dynamic Analysis 110