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Medieval Christian Europe (3301450)

Lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages


Medieval Christian Europe (3301450)
Lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages

Learning Objectives
Summarize ways in which the Byzantine empire flourished after the decline of Rome.
Explain the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe.
Describe how Germanic tribes carved Europe into small kingdoms.
Explain how Charlemagne briefly reunited much of Western Europe and what
happened to his empire after his death.
Medieval Christian Europe (3301450)
Lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages

Key Terms
Constantinople.
Justinian,
Justinians Code.
autocrat,
Theodora.
medieval
Franks.
Clovis,
Charles Martel
battle of Tours
Charlemagne
Magyars,
Vikings.
The Byzantine Empire Thrives

In European history, the thousand-year span between the fall of the Roman empire and
the Renaissance beginnings of modern history is known as the Middle Ages. Perhaps best
remembered today for knights on horseback and towering Gothic cathedrals, this
medieval period began with the collapse of the western Roman empire.
The Byzantine Empire Thrives

Constantinople Grows
A Blending of Cultures
The Byzantine Empire Thrives

Major European and Asian trade routes met at Constantinople. Analyze Maps Summarize
Constantinople's protective advantages.
The Byzantine Empire Thrives

Constantinople, the wealthy Byzantine capital, rises behind strong walls to the great domes of the
church of Hagia Sophia and beyond in this mosaic from London's Westminster Cathedral.
The Age of Justinian

The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under the emperor Justinian, who ruled
from 527 to 565. Justinian was determined to revive ancient Rome by retaking lands that
had been overrun by invaders.
The Age of Justinian

Hagia Sophia
Justinians Code and Its Impact
Justinian Rules With Absolute Power
Economic and Military Power
The Empire Declines
The Age of Justinian

Hagia Sophia first served as a cathedral for more than 900 years, then as a mosque for nearly 500
years. A Turkish museum since 1935, it remains a magnificent presence.
The Age of Justinian

Justinian commissioned an important reform of ancient Rome's laws. Analyze Charts How did
Justinian's Code help rule the Byzantine empire? Why did the Code become so valuable later?
The Age of Justinian

The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size by 565. Analyze Maps Describe the Byzantine empire's
extent in 1020. Infer What does the empire's size in 565 suggest about Justinians rule?
Changes in Western Europe

In Europe, the centuries after the fall of Rome are called the Middle Ages, which lasted
from about 500 to 1350. The Middle Ages refers to the time between the ancient and
modern worlds. During this long stretch of time, Western Europe passed through two
distinct phases: the early Middle Ages, lasting from about 500 to 1050, and the late
Middle Ages, lasting from about 1050 to 1350.
Changes in Western Europe

A Shift to the North


A Time of Decline
Changes in Western Europe

Analyze Graphs When does Rome's greatest population drop in thousands occur? the greatest
percentage drop? Draw Conclusions What does the information in this graph tell you?
Germanic Kingdoms

The Germanic tribes that conquered parts of the Roman empire included the Goths,
Vandals, Saxons, and Franks. Their culture was very different from that of the Romans.
They were mostly farmers and herders, so they had no cities or written laws. Instead, they
lived in small communities governed by unwritten customs. Their kings were elected
leaders, chosen by tribal counsels. Warriors swore loyalty to the king in exchange for
weapons and a share in the plunder taken from defeated enemies. Between 400 and 700,
these Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms.
Germanic Kingdoms

The Kingdom of the Franks


Muslim Armies Advance Into Europe
Germanic Kingdoms

King Clovis of the Franks rallies his warriors during one of many battles he fought to build his kingdom.
His conversion to Christianity set an example for other Germanic rulers.
Charlemagne Builds an Empire

In 768, the grandson of Charles Martel became king of the Franks. He built an empire
reaching across what is now France, Germany, and part of Italy. The founder of this
empire became known as Charlemagne (SHAHR luh mayn), or Charles the Great.
Charlemagne Builds an Empire

Emperor of the Romans


Creating a Unified Christian Empire
Charlemagne Revives Latin Learning
Charlemagne's Legacy
Charlemagne Builds an Empire

In this medieval illustration, Pope Leo III crowns a kneeling Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans in
800 before an assembly of concerned churchmen. ExplainWhy did this event cause controversy?
Charlemagne Builds an Empire

Charlemagne built an empire his descendants could not hold together.Locate Charlemagne's empire in
814. Predict Consequences What might be one result of the division of his empire? Explain.
New Invasions Pound Europe

After Charlemagne died in 814, his son Louis I took the throne. Later, Louiss sons battled
for power. Finally, in 843, Charlemagnes grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which
split the empire into three regions. The empire was divided just at a time when these
lands were faced with new waves of invasions.
New Invasions Pound Europe

Three Sources of Attack


Viking Raids from the North
New Invasions Pound Europe

Analyze Maps Use the map to find total distances the invaders traveled and number of routes taken.
Rank the invaders from longest to shortest total distances traveled and most to least routes taken.
New Invasions Pound Europe

This is a modern replica of a Viking ship built around 820 and found buried in western Norway in 1903.
Thirty oarsmen, a lookout, and man at the tiller would have sailed that ship.
Quiz: The Byzantine Empire Thrives

What elements of Constantinople's location helped it flourish as the capital of the


Byzantine empire?

A. its location on a great river and surrounded by high mountains


B. its location on a strait between seas and on key trade routes
C. its location far from trade routes and close to threatening tribes
D. its location beside a huge lake and bordered by two vast deserts
Quiz: The Age of Justinian

How did Justinian's Code have an impact beyond the Byzantine empire?

A. It provided models for strong alliances between monarchs.


B. It organized ancient Roman laws for use within the empire.
C. It promoted trade among Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.
D. It later guided the development of present-day international law.
Quiz: Changes in Western Europe

How did the collapse of the western Roman empire affect Western Europe?

A. Western Europe's traders grew wealthy.


B. Western Europe supported classical learning.
C. Western Europe fell into disorder as invaders swept in.
D. Western Europe's people moved to cities.
Quiz: Germanic Kingdoms

How did the culture of the Germanic tribes differ from that of the Romans?

A. Germanic peoples were mostly traders, so they traveled throughout Europe.


B. Germanic peoples lived in small communities governed by unwritten customs.
C. Germanic kings were chosen by single combat between warriors.
D. Germanic peoples lived in great cities administered by a central government.
Quiz: Charlemagne Builds an Empire

Which was a major effect of Pope Leo III crowning Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans?

A. decline of Latin learning throughout Europe


B. future collaboration between popes and emperors
C. unification of the eastern and western Roman empire
D. revival of the ideal of a unified Christian community
Quiz: New Invasions Pound Europe

Which BEST summarizes the impact of the Vikings on Western Europe?

A. They burned and looted in Western Europe and disrupted Mediterranean trade routes.
B. They mixed with local populations in Western Europe, helping to unify Charlemagne's
empire.
C. They burned and looted, but also established trade routes and settled in Western
Europe.
D. They set up a colony in North America, but also disrupted trade routes to northern
Europe.

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