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# Flujo Estacionario y no

## Estacionario Hacia Pozos

Thanks to Dr. Daene C. McKinney, The University of Texas at Austin
Flujo estacionario a un pozo en un acufero
Q

Q = Aq Ground surface
Pre-pumping
= (2p rb)K Pumping
dr Drawdown curve well
Observation
wells
dh Q
r = Confining Layer
dr 2pT
h0 r1 hw
h = h1 atr = r1 b h2
h1

h = h2 atr = r2 Confined
aquifer
r2 Q

Bedrock
Q r 2rw
h2 = h1 + ln( 2 )
2pT r1
Theim Equation
In terms of head (we can write it in terms of drawdown also)
Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## Ejemplo - Ecuacin Theim

Q
Q = 400 m3/hr Ground surface
b = 40 m.
Dos pozos de observacin, Pumping
well
1. r1 = 25 m; h1 = 85.3 m
2. r2 = 75 m; h2 = 89.6 m
Confining Layer
h0 r1 hw
b h
2 h1
Confine r2 Q
d
Q r aquifer
h2 = h1 + ln( 2 )
2pT r1
Bedrock
2rw

Q r2 400 m 3 /hr 75 m
T= ln = ln = 16.3 m /hr
2
2p ( h2 - h1 ) r1 2p ( 89.6 m - 85.3m) 25 m
Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## Flujo radial estacionario en un acufero

Q r
h = h0 + ln
2p T R

Drawdown
s = h0 - h
Q r
= h0 - h0 + ln
2p T R

Q R
s= ln
2p T r

Theim Equation In terms of drawdown (we can write it in terms of head also)
Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## Ejemplo Ecuacin Theim

Q
Ground surface
1-m diameter well
Q = 113 m3/hr Drawdown Pumping
well
b = 30 m
h0= 40 m
Confining Layer
Two observation wells,
h0 r1 hw
1. r1 = 15 m; h1 = 38.2 m b h
2 h1
2. r2 = 50 m; h2 = 39.5 m Confine Q
r2
Find: Head and drawdown in the d
aquifer
well Bedrock
2rw
Q R
s( r ) = ln
2pT r

Q r2 113m 3 /hr 50 m
T= ln = ln = 16.66 m /hr
2
2p ( s1 - s2 ) r1 2p (1.8 m - 0.5 m) 15 m

## Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Steady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## Ejemplo Ecuacin Theim

Q
Ground surface

Drawdown
@ well
Q r
h2 = h1 + ln( 2 )
Confining Layer
2pT r1
h0 r1 hw
b h
2 h1
Confine r2 Q
d
aquifer
Bedrock
2rw

## Q rw 113m 3 /hr 0.5 m

hw = h2 + ln( ) = 39.5 m + ln( ) = 34.5 m
2pT r2 2p *16.66 m /hr 50 m
2

## Adapted from Todd and Mays, Groundwater Hydrology

Flujo estacionario a un pozo en un acufero no
dh
Q = Aq = (2prh)K
dr Q
Ground surface
2
dh Pre-pumping
= prK Water level
dr Water Table
Pumping
well

( )= Q
Observation
2
dh wells

r
dr pK h0 r1 hw
h

h = h0 atr = R 2 h1
Unconfined r2 Q
aquifer
Q R
h02 - h 2 = ln
pK r
Bedrock
2rw

Q r
h 2
(r) = h02 + ln
pK R
Unconfined aquifer
Flujo estacionario a un pozo en un acufero no
Q r
2
(r) = h02 +
Q
h ln
pK R
Ground surface
Prepumping
Water level
Pumping
Water Table well
2 observation wells: Observation
wells
h1 m @ r1 m
h2 m @ r2 m
h0 r1 hw
h
2 h1

Q r2
Unconfined r2 Q
aquifer
h2 = h1 +
2 2
ln
pK r1 Bedrock
2rw

r2
Q
K= ln
(
p h2 - h1 r1
2 2
)
Steady Flow to a Well in an Unconfined Aquifer

## Ejemplo Dos pozos de observacin en un acufero

Q

Given: Prepumping
Ground surface

Water level
Q = 300 m3/hr Pumping
Water Table well
Unconfined aquifer Observation
wells
2 observation wells,
r1 = 50 m, h = 40 m h0 r1 hw
r2 = 100 m, h = 43 m h
2 h1
Unconfined r2 Q
aquifer

Find: K Bedrock
2rw

## Q r2 300 m 3 /hr / 3600 s /hr 100 m -5

K= = = m /sec
( )
ln ln 7.3x10
2 2
[
p h2 - h1 r1 p (43m) - (40 m)
2 2 50 m ]
Flujo no estacionario a un pozo en acufero
Two-Dimensional continuity equation
homogeneous, isotropic aquifer of infinite extent
Radial coordinates 1 h 1 2 h S h
(r ) + =
Radial symmetry (no variation with q) r r r r q 2 T t
Boltzman transformation of variables
1 s S s
(r ) =
Q r r r T t
Ground surface

Pumping u = r 2 S 4Tt
well

Q
s( u) = W ( u)
Confining Layer 4 pT
h0 r
b
h(r) e -h
Confined Q W ( u) = dh
u h
aquifer

Bedrock
Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer
Flujo no estacionario a un pozo en acufero
Continuity 2 h 1 h S h
+ =
2 r r T t
r Q
Ground surface

Drawdown
Pumping
well
s(r,t) = h0 - h( r,t )
Theis equation Confining Layer

h0 r
Q b
s ( u) = W ( u) h(r)

4 pT Confined
aquifer
Q

## Well function Bedrock

e -h r 2S
W ( u) = dh u=
u h 4Tt
Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## U vs W(u) 1/u vs W(u)

e
W u d r2S
u
u 4Tt
Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

Q
Ground surface

## Q = 1500 m3/day Pumping

well
T = 600 m2/day
S = 4 x 10-4
Confining Layer

r1
Find: Drawdown 1 km b
h1
from well after 1 year Confined Q
aquifer

Bedrock

## r 2 S (1000 m)2 (4x10-4 )

u= = = 4.6x10-4
4Tt 4(600m 2 /d)(365 d)
Funcin del Pozo
u = 4.6x10-4 W(u) = 7.12
Unsteady Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer

## Ejemplo Ecuacin Theis

Q = 1500 m3/day Q

## T = 600 m2/day Ground surface

S = 4 x 10-4 Pumping
well

Find: Drawdown 1 km
from well after 1 Confining Layer
year
r1
b
h1
Confined Q

u = 4.6x10-4
aquifer

## W(u) = 7.12 Bedrock

Q 1500 m 3 /d
s= W (u) = * 7.12 = 1.42 m
4 pT 4 p (600 m /d)
2
Prueba de Bombeo en Acuferos
Analisis prueba de bombeo Mtodo
Q
Q
= * W ( u)
Ground surface
s
4 pT
Q Pumpin
s= W (u) g well
4 pT
constants Confining Layer

r2S
u b
r1

4Tt h1
r2 4T Confin Q
= * u ed

S
aquifer
t Bedrock

## Q/4pT and 4T/S are constant

Relationship between
s and r2/t is similar to the relationship between
W(u) and u
So if we make 2 plots: W(u) vs u, and s vs r2/t
We can estimate the constants T, and S
Pump Test Analysis Theis Method

Q

## Original water level = 20 m above Pumping

mean sea level (amsl) well

Q = 1000 m3/hr
Confining Layer
Observation well = 1000 m from
h0 = 20 m
pumping well b h1

aquifer
r1 = 1000 m

Bedrock

## Bear, J., Hydraulics of Groundwater, Problem 11-4, pp 539-540, McGraw-Hill, 1979.

Pump Test Analysis Theis Method

Mtodo Theis
Water level, Drawdown,
Time h(1000) s(1000)
min m m
0 20.00 0.00
3 19.92 0.08
4 19.85 0.15
5 19.78 0.22
6 19.70 0.30
7 19.64 0.36
8 19.57 0.43
10 19.45 0.55

60 18.00 2.00
70 17.87 2.13

100 17.50 2.50

1000 15.25 4.75

4000 13.80 6.20
Pump Test Analysis Theis Method

Mtodo Theis
r2/t s u W(u)
Time r2/t s u W(u)
s
(min) (m2/min) (m) s vs r2/t
0 0.00 1.0E-04 8.63
3 333333 0.08 2.0E-04 7.94
4 250000 0.15 3.0E-04 7.53
5 200000 0.22 4.0E-04 7.25
6 166667 0.30 5.0E-04 7.02 r2/t
7 142857 0.36 6.0E-04 6.84
8 125000 0.43 7.0E-04 6.69
10 100000 0.55 8.0E-04 6.55

3000 333 5.85 8.0E-01 0.31
4000 250 6.20 9.0E-01 0.26
W(u) W(u) vs u

u
Pump Test Analysis Theis Method
Mtodo Theis
r 2/t
10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
10 10

1 1

W(u)
Match Point
s

W(u) = 1, u = 0.10
s = 1, r2/t = 20000
0.1 0.1

0.01 0.01
0.0001 0.0010 0.0100 0.1000 1.0000 10.0000

u
Pump Test Analysis Theis Method

Mtodo Theis
Match Point
W(u) = 1, u = 0.10
s = 1, r2/t = 20000

## Q Wmp 1000 m 3 /hr 1

T= = = 79.58 m 2 /hr (= 1910 m 2 /d)
4 p smp 4p 1 m

ump 0.1 -5
S = 4T 2 = 4(79.58 m /hr)
2
= 2.65x10
r 20000 m 2 /min* 60 min/hr
t mp
Prueba de Bombeo en Acuferos
Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Aproximacin Jacob
Q r 2S
Drawdown, s s ( u) = W ( u) u=
4 pT 4Tt
e -h u2
Well Function, W(u) W ( u) = dh -0.5772 - ln(u) + u - +
u h 2!

## Series approximation W (u) -0.5772 - ln(u) for small u < 0.01

of W(u)
Q r 2 S
s(r,t) -0.5772 - ln
Approximation of s 4 pT 4Tt
Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Aproximacin Jacob
2.3Q 2.25Tt
s= log( 2 )
4 pT r S

2.3Q 2.25Tt
0= log( 2 0 )
4 pT r S
2.25Tt 0
1=
r 2S

2.25Tt 0
S=
r2
t0
Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Aproximacin Jacob
1 LOG CYCLE
t2 10 *t1
log = log =1
t1 t1

s2
Ds

s1
1 LOG CYCLE

t1 t2
2.25Tt 0
S=
r2
t0
Pump Test Analysis Jacob Method

Aproximacin Jacob
t0 = 8 min

s2 = 5 m
s1 = 2.6 m s2
Ds = 2.4 m Ds

s1

t1 t2

t0

S= 2
=
r (1000 m)2
= 2.29x10 -5