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MODUL 5

DISTILASI MULTI KOMPONEN


Distillation unit usually processes a mixture that contents more than 2 components multicomponent

equilibrium diagram can not be drawed


needs n-1 coloumn to separate n components

Fig.21. Distillation coloumn for 3 components


Methods for multicomponents :
-Thiele & Geddes (Shiras-Underwood-Fenske-R, Thiele-Geddes, nF, Lewis-matheson, n)
(STL) Treyball
- ShortCut (Fenske-Nm, Underwood-Rm, Gilliland-n / FUG) Mc.Cabe
- ShortCut (Fenske-Nm , Underwood-Rm, Kirkbride-nF)
- Rigorous
- software (Hysis. Chemcad)

In this lucture: Shortcut (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland)

-Specification of process:
- T, P, composition and flowrate of feed
- P system
- Feed tray optimum that results tray minimum
- heat loss = 0

-Variables that can be determined:


- Number of total tray
- R (Rm, R)
- composition of products
Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Methogd (FUG)

Determination of Key Component


Key Components = border components
Light Key (LK) is a component in residu in which component
lighter than this component can be neglected
Heavy Key (HK) is a component in distillate in which
component heavier than this component can be
neglected
Assumption used to determine of These Key Components
must be checked by :
Fenske Eq. (FUG method)
Shiras distribution eq. (STL method)
Fenske
eq.
UNDERWOOD Eq.

GILLILAND
Correlation
example
Shiras-Underwood-Fenske-R, Thiele-Geddes, nF, Lewis-matheson (STL)
1. Determinitation of Key Component
These Key Components must be checked by Shiras distribution eq.

2. Minimum Reflux ratio (Rm)


Underwood eq:
3. Determination of Nm (Fenske eq.)

4. Determination of products compositions at Rm and at R total ( Fenske eq)

5. Determination of product compositions at required R

6. Feed Tray
7. Determination of number of theoritical tray ( Lewis-Matheson eq)

Enriching section:

Stripping section :
Example (9.3 Treyball)
Campuran dengan komposisi dibawah ini didistilasi kontinyu agar mendapatkan
produk atas dengan jumlah 98% C3H8 dari feed dan hanya 1% C5H12 dari feed.
Suhu feed 82oC, tekanan 150 psia dan Rasio reflux=0,8

Feed

Dari Perrys didapat P untuk tiap2 suhu, sehingga m=P/PT didapat :

30oC 60oC 90oC 120oC


C1 16.1 19.3 21.8 24.0
C2 3.45 4.90 6.25 8.15
C3 1.10 2.00 2.90 4.00
C4 0.35 0.70 1.16 1.78
C5 0.085 0.26 0.50 0.84
C6 0.03 0.13 0.239 0.448
1. Menentukan q=LF/F
Trial untuk GF/F=0.333 LF/GF = 0.667/0.333 = 2

Dari tabel diatas, y1 q=LF/F=0.67


Tentukan (trial): LightKey (lk) = C3
HeavyKey(hk) = C5
2. Menentukan Rm.
Trial : T rata2 kolom (Enriching&Stripping) = 80oC, relatif volatility masing2 komponen:
Check asumsi lk dan hk

Pers (9.164):
Untuk C1 :
C2 = 2.744
C6 = -0.0892
yD.D>ZF.F untuk C1 dan C2 serta yD.D <0 untuk C6.. lk&hk OK
lk = C3 ..komponen <C3 tidak ada di residu
hk = C5..komponen >C5 tidak ada di distilat

Hitung komposisi C4 :
Dengan pers (9.165):
Harga yang memenuhi persamaan adalah antara C3-C4 dan C4-C5
= 1.4177 dan 4.47760

Untuk = 4.47760, pers (1.166) ,menjadi :

Dan bersama-sama = 1.4177, diselesaikan dan menghasilkan : yC4DD=0.1306


dan D(Rm+1) = 0.6099
Check Asumsi suhu rata2 kolom

Asumsi T bagian atas kolom (= dew point dari distillate) = 46oC :

mhk = mC5 = 0.1863.bila dilihat pada data T=46.6oC, asumsi T distilat = 46OK

Asumsi T bottom = 113oC


mhk-=mC5=1/1.3102=0.763
Dari data m=0.763T=114oC
Asumsi T bottom=113OK

D(Rm+1)=0.3806(Rm+1)=0.6099
Rm=0.58 mol reflux/mol distilat
3&4. Menentukan Nm dan komposisi produk pada Rm dan Total Reflux

Jumlah Tray minimum termasuk reboiler = 5


yC4DD = 0.1255 ketika Rm
5. Menentukan komposisi produk ketika R=0.8
6 dan 7. Menentukan Jumlah Tray Teoritis dan lokasi feed

Pers (9.175) dipakai untuk menentukan feed tray :

(xlk/xhk)intersection = 0.15-0.3870(1-0.67)/1.8 = 0.264


0.3 0.0079(1-0.67)/1.8

Bagian enriching : D=0.38; L=RD = 0.8(0.38) = 0.3040; G=L+D=0.304+0.38 = 0.684


L/G=0.445 D/G=0.555

Dengan persamaan (9.177) didapat :


C1 yn+1 = 0.445xn + 0.555(0.0789) = 0.455xn + 0.0438
C2 yn+1 = 0.455xn + 0.1022
C3 yn+1 = 0.455xn + 0.2148
C4 yn+1 = 0.455xn + 0.1898
C5 yn+1 = 0.455xn + 0.0044
Asumsi T rata2 di tray no.1 = 57oC

mC5 = 0.2562 T1=58.7oC.asumsi T1 ok,


tetapi xlk/xhk=0.1698/0.0933 Tray no.1 bukan feed tray

Lanjutkan untuk tray seterusnya, untuk tray no.5 dan 6 didapat :

Sehingga tray no.6 adalah feedtray


Untuk bagian stripping : L=L+qF=0.304+0.67(1)=0.9740
G=L-W=0.974-0.62=0.354
G/L=0.364; W/L=0.636
Dengan persamaan 9.178, didapat
C3 xm = 0.364ym+1 + 0.636(0.00484) = 0.364ym+1 + 0.00308
C4 xm = = 0.364ym+1 + 0.02052
C5 xm = = 0.364ym+1 + 0.3046
C6 xm = = 0.364ym+1 + 0.1231

Dengan asumsi T pada


tray paling bawah Np = 110oC

Berarti Np-8 adalah feed tray

Np 8 = 6
Jumlah Tray = 14
Metode Shortcut (Fenske-Underwood-Kirkbride)

Fenske : determination of number of tray minimum and optimum


Underwood : for minimum reflux
Kirkbride : for feed tray
Geddes : component distribution
Minimum Reflux Persamaan Underwood
Assigment 5

1.Reading assignment.....
Example 22.3 Mc.Cabe
Example 9.13 treyball
2. Caculate number tray needed for your mixture in the previous
assigment using FUG and Hysis.
(components in the mixture must be different for each student)