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DON MARIANO MARCOS MEMORIAL STATE

UNIVERSITY SOUTH LA UNION CAMPUS


COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT

Nathanael Alexis Milanes


MYCORRHIZAE
Interactions between Fungi and
plant Roots
Mutualistic Relationship both
benefits
CHO Fungi
P, Zu , N , H2O - Plant
FUNGAL CHARACTERISTICS
Consists of fine, thread-like
filaments called hyphae
Most hyphae are 2-10 m
Mycelium hyphal mass
SEPTATE VS NONSEPATE HYPHAE
Septate hyphae w/ cross
walls
Non-septate hyphae no
cross walls
TYPES OF MYCORRHIZAE
Ectomycorrhizae
Hyphae of fungus do not penetrate
cells of plant root
Endomycorrhizae
Hyphae of fungus penetrate cells of
plant root
ECTOMYCORRHIZAE
Grow into the cortex of the root,
making the root much thicker,
shorter, and more branched
Do not form root hairs
Trees of the pine, spruce, oak,
walnut, birch, willow, and
eucalyptus families.
Parenchyma of root cortex is
surrounded by hyphae Hartig
net
Contains a fungal sheath
TYPE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE
Ectendomycorrhiza
Same characteristics as
ectomycorrhizas
Show extensive intracellular
penetration of the fungal hyphae
into living cells of the host root.
ENDOMYCORRHIZAE
Much more common
90% of plant species
Hyphae extend inward by digesting
small patches of the root cell wall
To the unaided eye, endomycorrhizae
look like normal roots with root hairs.
TYPES OF ENDOMYCORRHIZAE
Arbutoid mycorrhizae
Monotropoid mycorrhizae
Ericoid mycorrhizae
Orchid mycorrhizae
Arbuscular mycorrhizae
ARBUTOID MYCORRHIZAE
Look like ectomycorrhizae
But are technically endomycorrhizae
Because the outer cortical cells and
hyphae fill the cells
Arbutus, Arctostaphylose,
Pyrola
MONOTROPOID MYCORRHIZAE
Plants without chlorophyll
Plant depends on its mycorrhizal
fungus
Share a fungus with a nearby tree
Monotropa - Indian Pipe
ERICOID MYCORRHIZAE
Lateral hair roots
Hyphae penetrate the single layer
of cortical cells
Secrete proteinases
ORCHID MYCORRHIZAE
May obtain amino acids and
vitamins
Obligately dependent
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE
Dense knot-like invaginations
arbuscles
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae
lipid
filled terminal swelling of
hyphae
70% of the soils microbial
biomass
Fossils are as old as first land
plants 460 M. Y. A.
Arbuscules- nutrient exchange
Cannot be grown in axenic culture
VAM VS. AM

vesiclesare absent in two of the seven


genera containing these fungi
AMF INOCULUM
EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR
MYCORRHIZAE
Take up inorganic nutrients from
soil
Produce proteinases
Increase drought tolerance
Increase resistance to root
pathogens
REFERENCES
https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http://jan.ucc.nau.e
du/gwk/Bio4262006/Lecture10Feb15,2006.ppt
https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http://www.esf.edu/
melnhe/news/HB%20Meeting%202012_files/4-FRANKLIN-
hbpresent2012.ppsx