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Ch 7.1: Telecommunications & Networking

Networking & Communication Trends

Telephone Networks

Computer Network

Single Digital Network

Broadband Internet Access

Telecommunications & Networking

What is a Computer Network?

What is a network?
Consists of 2 or more connected computers

How computer networks connect and works?
Telecommunications & Networking

Computer Network Components

Server and client computers

Connection medium

Network operating system (NOS)

Hubs, switches, routers

Telecommunications & Networking
Telecommunications & Networking
Telecommunications & Networking
Key Digital Networking
Client/server computing:
Distributed computing model in
which some of the processing
power is located within small,
inexpensive client computers and
resides literally on desktops,
laptops, or handled devices
Clients are linked to one another
through a network that is
controlled by a network server
Internet is the largest
implementation of client/server
Telecommunications & Networking
Key Digital Networking
Packet switching: Slicing digital
messages into parcels, sending the
packets along different communication
paths as they become available, and
then reassembling the packets once
they arrive at their destinations
More efficient use of communications
capacity of a network
Packets are transmitted over various
communications channels using
routers, each packet travelling
Telecommunications & Networking
Key technologies
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Dominant model for achieving connectivity among different
Helps scientists transmit data among different types of computers
over long distances
Provides a universally agreed-on method for breaking up digital
messages into packets, routing them to the proper address, and then
reassembling them into coherent messages
Protocol: set of rules and procedures governing transmission of
information between 2 points in a network
Uses a suite of protocols main is TCP
TCP establishes connection between computers
IP is responsible for delivery of packets and included the
disassembling and reassembling of packets during transmission
Telecommunications & Networking

Key technologies
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Enables client application programs to access the other layers
and defined the protocols that applications use to exchange data.

Provides the application layer with communication and

packet services.

Responsible for addressing, routing, and packaging data

packets called IP datagrams.

Responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from

the network medium.
Telecommunications & Networking

More information on TCP/IP layers:
Communications Networks
Signals: Digital vs. Analog
Ways to communication a message in a network
Analog signal represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a
communications medium and has most often been used for voice communication
Common are telephones handset, the speaker on computers, earphone
Digital signal is a discrete, binary waveform, rather a continuous waveform

Communicate information as strings of 2 discrete states, 1 bits and 0 bits, which are
represented as on-off electrical pulses
Require a modem to convert these digital signals into analog signals that can be sent
over telephone lines, or wireless media that use analog signals
Modem: modulator-demodulator

Cables modems connect your computer to the internet using a cable network
DSL modems connect your computer to the internet using a telephone companys
landline network
Without modems, computers could not communicate with one another using analog
Communications Networks

Types of networks:
Communications Networks
Physical transmission media and speed
Bps = bits per second
Transmission Medium Speed
Twisted pair wire 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps

Coaxial Cable Up to 1 Gbps

Fibre optic cable 500 Kbps to 6+ Tbps

Wireless transmission media Up to 600+ Mbps
The Global Internet
What is the Internet?
Worlds largest implementation of client/server computing and
internetworking, linking millions of individual networks all over the
Began in early 1970s as a US Department of Defense network to link
scientists and university professors around the world

Ways to connect
Internet Service Provider (ISP): commercial organization with a
permanent connection to the internet that sells temporary connections to
retail subscribers
Largely replaced by broadband connections

Designated domain
The Global Internet
Types of connections

Dial-up: allows connectivity to the internet through a standard telephone line


Digital subscriber line (DSL): technologies operate over existing telephone lines to carry
voice, data, and video at transmission rates ranging from 385 Kbps to 40 Mbps

Cable internet connections: provided by cable television vendors use digital cable coaxial lines

to deliver high-speed internet access to homes and businesses

Satellite: used when DSL and cable services are available

T1/T3: international telephone standards for digital communication; leased, dedicated lines
suitable for businesses or government agencies requiring high speed guaranteed service levels

T1 lines: offer guaranteed delivery at 1.54 Mbps

T3 lines: 45 Mbps
The Global Internet
Internet addressing and Architecture
Internet Protocol (IP) address: Every device connected to the Internet must have a unique
address number called an IP address

IP address is a 32-bit number represented by four strings of numbers ranging from 0 to 255
such as

Domain Name: English-like name that corresponds to the unique IP address for each
computer connected to the Internet

Domain Name System (DNS): converts domain names to IP addresses

Allows expression such as to stand for numeric IP location by maintaining a

DB containing IP addresses mapped to their corresponding domain names

To access a computer on the internet, users need only specify its domain name
The Global Internet

Domain Name System (DNS)

The Global Internet
Internet architecture and governance
Trunk lines are owned by long distance telephone companies (network service
providers) or by national governments
Local connection line are owned by regional or national telephone and cable
television companies that connect retail user in homes and businesses to the internet
Organizations pay for its own networks and its own local internet connection
Individual internet users pay ISPs for using their service
No one owns the internet, and it has no formal management
Governance board Internet Architecture Board (IAB), which helps define the
overall structure of the internet; internet corporation for assigned names and
numbers (ICANN) and WWW Consortium (W3C)
Influence government agencies, network owners, ISPs and software developers
with the goal of keeping the internet operating as efficiently as possible
Internet must conform to the laws of the sovereign nation-states in which it operates,
as well as the technical infrastructures that exist within the nation-states
The Global Internet
The Future Internet

Internet was not originally designed to handle the transmission of massive quantities of data and
billions of users
World is about to run out of available IP addresses using the old addressing convention

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6):

New IP addressing system using 128-bit addresses (2^128)
Not compatible with the existing internet addressing system, the transition to the new standards will
take years
Research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that provides an infrastructure for
supporting high-bandwidth Internet applications

Canadian equivalent of Internet2
Interconnecting regional networks, universities, and schools to promote an innovation culture
through advanced applications
The Global Internet
Internet services and communication tools
The Global Internet

Client/Server computing on the Internet

The Global Internet
Communication tools
Voice over IP (VoIP): Digital voice communication using IP, packet
switching, avoids the tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone
Can reduce communication and network management costs by 20-30%

Its flexible

Providers: Cable providers; Google, Skype

The Global Internet
Communication tools
Unified communications
Communications systems that integrates voice, data, e-mail, conferencing into a single
experience where users can seamlessly switch back and forth between different
communication modes

Virtual Private Networks (VPN)

Secure, encrypted, private network run over public networks to take advantage of the
economies of scale and management facilities of larger networks, such as the Internet
Provides security at a lower cost than the same capabilities offered by traditional non-
internet providers
Provides a network infrastructure for combining voice and data networks
Tunneling internet, packets of data are encrypted and wrapped inside IP packets
The Global Internet
The Web
Most popular internet service
A part of the internet but not the internet itself
Web site: collection of web pages linked to a home page
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Communications standard used for transferring Web pages
First set of letters at the start of every web address

Uniform resource locators (URLs)

Addresses of Web pages
Tells the browser software exactly where to look for the information

Web servers
Software for locating and managing Web pages
Server application run on dedicated computers, they can all reside on a single computer in smaller organizations
Most common web server is Apache HTTP Server, which controls 65% of the market
Microsoft internet information services (IIS) is second -15% of shares
Searching for information on the web
No one knowns for sure how many webpages there really are
The Global Internet

Search engine market share

The Global Internet
How Google works
The Global Internet
Mobile Search

Search Engine Marketing

Major source of Internet advertising revenue

Very effective (highest click through rate and the highest ROI)

Search engine optimization (SEO)

Adjusting Web site and traffic to improve rankings in search engine results with major search
engines when certain keywords and phrases are put in the search field

Saves consumers cognitive energy

Social Search

Effort to provide fewer, more relevant, trustworthy, search result based on a persons network of
social contacts

Social search web site would review your friends recommendations

Google +1, Facebook Like
The Global Internet
Semantic Search

Anticipating what users are looking for rather than simply returning millions of links

Goal is to build a search engine that could really understand human language and

Intelligent agent shopping bots

Shopping bots: use intelligent agent software for searching the Internet for
shopping information
The Global Internet
Web 2.0

Second-generation interactive Internet-based services

Fueled the creation of social networks and other online communities where people can interact with one another in
the manner of their choosing

Blogs: web log; a personal web site that contains a series of chronological entries by its author, and links to related web

May include a blogroll (a collection of links to other blogs) and trackbacks (list of entries in other blogs that refer
to a post on the first blog)

do not allow visitors to change the original posted material

Microblogging: used in twitter, that features short posts of 140 characters or less

Variations on templates provided by the blogging service or software

Blogosphere: totality of blog-related web sites

Really simple syndication or Rich Site Summary: pulls specified content from web sites and feeds it
automatically to users computers

Wikis: visitors can add, delete or modify content on the site; means quick in Hawaiian; have many business uses

Wikipedia is the largest wiki

Social Networking: enable users to build communities of friends and professional colleagues
The Global Internet

Web 3.0
All digital information can be woven
together into a single meaningful experience
Semantic web
The Wireless Revolution
Smartphones- the fastest growing category of wireless
Internet access

Cellular Systems
3G networks
4G (Long Term Evolution - LTE) networks
Greater speed than 3G
Provide enough capacity for watching high def. video on smartphones
Less well-developed high-speed network standard
Uses Wifi standards but with an extended range of 30 miles
The Wireless Revolution
Wireless computer networks and Internet access
Popular name for the 802.15 wireless networking standard,
Useful for creating small personal area networks (PANs)
The Wireless Revolution
Wi-Fi & Wireless internet access
802.11 set standards for wireless LANs
High-speed wireless internet service most popular use today for Wi-Fi
Hotspots: consist of one or more access points providing wireless Internet
access in a public place
Wifis security features makes wireless networks open to intruders
Susceptibility to interference from nearby systems operating in same
WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
Wireless access range up to 50 KM and transmission speed up to 75 mbps
Antennas are powerful enough to beam high-speed internet connection to
rooftop antennas of homes and businesses that are miles away
The Wireless Revolution

RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
The Wireless Revolution
WSN: Wireless Sensor Networks
Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnected wireless
devices embedded into physical environment to provide
measurements of many points over large spaces
Used to monitor building security, detect hazardous substances in
air, monitor environmental changes, traffic, or military activity
Devices have built-in
processing, storage, and
radio frequency
sensors and antennas