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lecture 1

Antenna

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EC 544

Prof. Darwish Abdel Aziz

LECTURE 1

INTRODUCTION

Usually the radiation pattern of a single element is

relatively wide, and each element provides low values of

directivity.

with very directive characteristics (very high gains) to meet

the demands of long distance communication.

increasing the electrical size of the antenna

without necessarily increasing the size of the individual

elements, is to form

an assembly of radiating elements in an electrical

and geometrical configuration.

INTRODUCTION (continue)

This new antenna, formed by multi-elements, is referred

to as an array.

(wires, aperture, etc.).

addition of the fields radiated by the individual

elements.

fields from the elements of the array interfere

constructively (add) in the desired directions and

interfere destructively (cancel each other) in the

remaining space.

INTRODUCTION (continue)

In an array of identical elements, there are five

controls that can be used to shape the overall pattern of

the array. These are:

(Linear, Circular, Rectangular, Spherical, etc.).

(d).

.

TWO ELEMENT ARRAY

The antenna under investigation is assumed to be an array

of two isotropic point antennas ( which is hypothetical

antenna that radiates equally in space and it is used as a

reference antenna) positioned along the z axis.

TWO ELEMENT ARRAY (continue)

TOTAL FIELD OF TWO ISOTROPIC ELEMENTS

ARRAY

The total field radiated by the two isotropic elements,

assuming no coupling between the elements and with

identical amplitude of excitations , is equal to

the sum of the two fields and it is given by

TOTAL FIELD OF TWO ISOTROPIC ELEMENTS

ARRAY (continue)

It can be seen that, the total field of the array is equal to the

product of the field of a single element positioned at the origin

and a factor which is widely referred to as array factor.

Thus for the two-element array of constant amplitude, the array

factor is given by:

ARRAY FACTOR FOR TWO IDENTICAL

ELEMENTS AARAY

PATTERN MULTIPLICATION FOR IDENTICAL

ELEMENTS

PATTERN MULTIPLICATION FOR IDENTICAL

ELEMENTS (continue)

Each array has its own array factor. The array factor in

general is a function of the number of elements, their

geometrical arrangement, their relative magnitudes and

phases of excitation, and their spacing.

directional characteristics of the radiating elements

themselves, it can be formulated by replacing the actual

elements with isotropic (point) sources.

the multiplication rule

N ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM

ARRAY

N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: UNIFORM

AMPLITUDE AND SPACING

The antenna under investigation is an array of N

elements that have identical amplitudes

but each succeeding element has a progressive phase lead

current excitation relative to the proceeding one.

elements to be isotropic point sources. The array factor can be

determined as:

N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: UNIFORM

AMPLITUDE AND SPACING

ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT

LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT

LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT

LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

array, the array factor will be:

approximated by:

ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT

LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

The array factor can be normalized by dividing the array factor by

its maximum value. The maximum value is determined by

equating its denominator to zero, where,

NULLS OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT LINEAR

UNIFORM ARRAY

To find the nulls of the array, the array factor (its numerator) is set to

zero. That is

For n = N, 2N,, the (AF)n attains its maximum values because it reduces to a sin(0)/0

form. The values of n determine the order of the nulls (first, second, etc.). Since the

argument of the arccosine cannot exceed unity, so the number of nulls that can exist

is a function of the element separation d and the progressive phase excitation .

MAXIMA (PRINCIPLE) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

denominator of the array factor is set to zero. That is

of m determine the order of the maxima (first, second, etc.). Since the

argument of the arccosine cannot exceed unity, so the number of maxima

that can exist is a function of the element separation d and the progressive

phase excitation .

MAXIMA (PRINCIPLE) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

HALF POWER POINT (3-dB) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

The half power points (3 dB points) for the array factor occurs when

The half power beam width (HPBW) can be determined once the angles of the first

maximum (m) and the half-power point (h) are determined. For a symmetrical

pattern

HPBW = 2| m - h |

THE GRAPH OF SIN (X) / X FUNCTION OF THE ARRAY FACTOR

FOR N ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

There are secondary maxima (maximum of minor lobes) which occur approximately

when the numerator AF attains its maximum value . That is,

THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

The maximum of the first minor lobe occurs when

Thus the maximum of the first minor lobe of AF is -13.46 dB down from the

maximum at main lobe.

THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N

ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

from the maximum at main lobe.

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