You are on page 1of 27

# Antenna Engineering

EC 544
Prof. Darwish Abdel Aziz
LECTURE 1

## UNIFORM LINEAR ARRAYS

INTRODUCTION
Usually the radiation pattern of a single element is
relatively wide, and each element provides low values of
directivity.

## In many applications it is necessary to design antennas

with very directive characteristics (very high gains) to meet
the demands of long distance communication.

## This can only be accomplished by

increasing the electrical size of the antenna

## Another way to enlarge the dimensions of the antenna,

without necessarily increasing the size of the individual
elements, is to form
an assembly of radiating elements in an electrical
and geometrical configuration.
INTRODUCTION (continue)
This new antenna, formed by multi-elements, is referred
to as an array.

## The individual elements of an array may be of any form

(wires, aperture, etc.).

## The total field of the array is determined by the vector

addition of the fields radiated by the individual
elements.

## To provide very directive patterns, it is necessary that the

fields from the elements of the array interfere
constructively (add) in the desired directions and
interfere destructively (cancel each other) in the
remaining space.
INTRODUCTION (continue)
In an array of identical elements, there are five
controls that can be used to shape the overall pattern of
the array. These are:

## The geometrical configuration of the overall array

(Linear, Circular, Rectangular, Spherical, etc.).

(d).

.

## The excitation phase of the individual elements .

TWO ELEMENT ARRAY
The antenna under investigation is assumed to be an array
of two isotropic point antennas ( which is hypothetical
antenna that radiates equally in space and it is used as a
reference antenna) positioned along the z axis.

## Two Isotropic elements array

TWO ELEMENT ARRAY (continue)

## Two Isotropic elements array (Far field observation)

TOTAL FIELD OF TWO ISOTROPIC ELEMENTS
ARRAY
The total field radiated by the two isotropic elements,
assuming no coupling between the elements and with
identical amplitude of excitations , is equal to
the sum of the two fields and it is given by
TOTAL FIELD OF TWO ISOTROPIC ELEMENTS
ARRAY (continue)

It can be seen that, the total field of the array is equal to the
product of the field of a single element positioned at the origin
and a factor which is widely referred to as array factor.
Thus for the two-element array of constant amplitude, the array
factor is given by:
ARRAY FACTOR FOR TWO IDENTICAL
ELEMENTS AARAY
PATTERN MULTIPLICATION FOR IDENTICAL
ELEMENTS
PATTERN MULTIPLICATION FOR IDENTICAL
ELEMENTS (continue)
Each array has its own array factor. The array factor in
general is a function of the number of elements, their
geometrical arrangement, their relative magnitudes and
phases of excitation, and their spacing.

## Since the array factor does not depend on the

directional characteristics of the radiating elements
themselves, it can be formulated by replacing the actual
elements with isotropic (point) sources.

## The total field of the actual array is then obtained using

the multiplication rule
N ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM
ARRAY
N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: UNIFORM
AMPLITUDE AND SPACING
The antenna under investigation is an array of N
elements that have identical amplitudes
but each succeeding element has a progressive phase lead
current excitation relative to the proceeding one.

## The array factor can be determined by considering the

elements to be isotropic point sources. The array factor can be
determined as:
N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: UNIFORM
AMPLITUDE AND SPACING
ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT
LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT
LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT
LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

## If the reference point is chosen to be the physical center of the

array, the array factor will be:

## For small values of , the expression of the AF can be

approximated by:
ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT
LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
The array factor can be normalized by dividing the array factor by
its maximum value. The maximum value is determined by
equating its denominator to zero, where,
NULLS OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N ELEMENT LINEAR
UNIFORM ARRAY
To find the nulls of the array, the array factor (its numerator) is set to
zero. That is

For n = N, 2N,, the (AF)n attains its maximum values because it reduces to a sin(0)/0
form. The values of n determine the order of the nulls (first, second, etc.). Since the
argument of the arccosine cannot exceed unity, so the number of nulls that can exist
is a function of the element separation d and the progressive phase excitation .
MAXIMA (PRINCIPLE) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

## To find the maxima of the array factor , the

denominator of the array factor is set to zero. That is

## m = 0 for main maximum and m = 1, 2, . For grating maxima. The values

of m determine the order of the maxima (first, second, etc.). Since the
argument of the arccosine cannot exceed unity, so the number of maxima
that can exist is a function of the element separation d and the progressive
phase excitation .
MAXIMA (PRINCIPLE) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

## Other Grating Maxima occur when m = 1, 2, , where

HALF POWER POINT (3-dB) OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
The half power points (3 dB points) for the array factor occurs when

The half power beam width (HPBW) can be determined once the angles of the first
maximum (m) and the half-power point (h) are determined. For a symmetrical
pattern

HPBW = 2| m - h |
THE GRAPH OF SIN (X) / X FUNCTION OF THE ARRAY FACTOR
FOR N ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

There are secondary maxima (maximum of minor lobes) which occur approximately
when the numerator AF attains its maximum value . That is,
THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY
The maximum of the first minor lobe occurs when

## At that point, the magnitude of AF reduces to

Thus the maximum of the first minor lobe of AF is -13.46 dB down from the
maximum at main lobe.
THE SECONDARY MAXIMA OF THE ARRAY FACTOR FOR N
ELEMENT LINEAR UNIFORM ARRAY

## Thus the maximum of the second minor lobe of AF is -41.239 dB down

from the maximum at main lobe.