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TURBIDITE SANDSTONES

DAY 2 INTRODUCTION continued


Petroskills OGCI, Tulsa, Oklahoma

DWT: Nice, France version


Dr Bryan T CRONIN
Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, U.K.
(MSc Petroleum Geology and MSc Hydrocarbon Enterprise)

Honorary Senior Lecturer, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, U.K.
(MSc Oil and Gas Engineering)

Academic Consultant bryan@deep-marine.com


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DAY 1.6
Turbidites: Sedimentary Systems
Models and ideas

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We will discuss HST; FSST, LST and TST

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From: Catuneanu, 2007. Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy, Elsevier
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Should be slumps/MTCs, really

From: Catuneanu, 2007. Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy, Elsevier


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New map showing seafloor
features offshore Mauritania
M58/1 trackchart

Mauritana

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Slump on Atlantic side of Loop Head peninsula (Torkeal)
Elliott, 2000
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Gull Island Formation Slumps, interbedded with channel and sheet packages
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DEBRIS FLOWS/
MTCs

Amazon Fan
- 700 km
downslope
- depths >4700 m
- av. gradient ~ 0.8
degrees

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Gulf of Mexico depth map: present day 10
Gulf of Mexico palaeogeography

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Gulf of Mexico
Lowstand
Shoreline

Note how the position


of sea level controls
sediment input to
the slope

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U/Th dates New Guinea corals U/Th dates Barbados corals

Benthic/planktic O18 curve (Pacific) Benthic O18 curve (Nor Sea)

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Structure map of OIS2 sequence boundary showing locations of lowstand
Incised valleys. Simms et al., 2007. (Dashed lines show approx. position of valleys).

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During FSST, sea level falls
thus base level falls, and
rivers cut through shelf and
bypass sediment to the shelf
edge and into deep water

Deltas shift towards shelf edge

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Seismic line across lowstand Calcasieu valley. Depth conversion based on a
velocity of 1500 ms-1 (Simms et al., 2007)

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Structure map of the OIS2 sequence boundary on the western Louisiana inner shelf
(Simms et al., 2007) 17
30m

Kilkee incised valley fill near Polldubh (Trusklieve), Clare basin,


Western Ireland
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Lowstand Systems Tract (LST)

Sea Level is low owing to eustasy. The LST starts after the sea level
lowering of the FSST: a forced regression

Rivers extend across the exposed continental shelf and incise to


reach the new, lowered base level. The river channel is incised at its
mouth.

There is shelf bypass of sediment. Most, if not all of the sediment is


deposited in deep water areas basinwards of the shelf edge
(clinoform and bottomset accommodation)

Shelf edge deltas are replaced by a lowstand delta, where sand is now
trapped once again in the delta, meaning that in deep-water, the basin
floor fan is replaced by a more mixed sand-mud prone Slope Fan

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Transgressive Systems Tract (TST)

Eustatic sea level rises and the shoreline moves gradually landwards
(retrogrades). The incised river valley is 'drowned' and an estuary is
formed, at least initially
Deltas and shoreline sediments are deposited throughout the
episode, but are gradually reworked by the advancing sea

The rising sea level causes the shoreline sediments to be partially


eroded (some of them are preserved owing to subsidence, usually
the basal parts)
The marine erosion surfaces are called Ravinement Surfaces
Marine reworking occurs on the shelf (topset)
The amount of sediment deposited in the deep ocean declines as
transgression continues. Ultimately, most sediment is deposited on
the shelf
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From: Catuneanu, 2007. Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy, Elsevier
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So what happens in deep-water?
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Sequence stratigraphic model for lowstand deep-water siliciclastic
systems (from Posamentier et al., 1988; Van Wagoner et al., 1988,
Vail et al., 1991; redrafted by Mutti, 1992)

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Mahakham deep-water slope: slope canyons mouth lobes
(unconfined basin floor fan)

Late FSST: Sand-Rich LST early TST: Mud-Rich

Shelf-Edge Delta Shelf-Edge Delta

Delta Front
Channels

Amalgamated
Slope Channels

Channel/Levee
Complex

Sand-Rich
Unconfined
Basin-Floor Fan
Unconfined 27
Basin-Floor Fan Modified from Saller et al.,
A B 27
2004
Dip profile seismic section Blocks A1-A3

In adjacent Offashore Myanmar the G-sands are deep-water reservoirs in the Shwe Field

Daewoo, who discovered gas in the


Shwe field within what they interpret to be
basin floor sands of the Late Pliocene

(I would call these slope upper rise)


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Offshore Myanmar Block A-1 Discovery

I
~

il

Proximal
fan

I
A
Shw.

I
;;

i
;;
Distal
tan

t
a
~
;;

I'
;;
5 to
...

2241<lOO
9
O.DO
Timing of frontal mouth lobes and feeder channels

Turbidity current channels cut into (entrench into)


older frontal splays, so:
1. Frontal splays are associated with sandier high
density turbidity currents accumulated during the
late stages of forced regression (ie late FSST)
2. Sinuous turbidite channels are associated with lower
density turbidity currents and formed during later
lowstand normal regression and early transgression
(ie LST and early TST)

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New Model
from west Africa and
Bay of Bengal examples

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Key Surfaces and timing (I)
HST (highstand normal regression):
Delta progradation, barrier island development
Condensed section in the deep sea;
Leveed channels and frontal splays in some systems;
MTCs

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Key Surfaces and timing (II)
Early FSST (early forced regression):
Incised valley on shelf
Canyon incision or reactivation on the slope
(accompanied by progressive nick point erosion
headwards)
Retrogressive failure of upper slope
Destabilisation of the slope/gas hydrates
Mud slumps/MTC deposition in the sea floor

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Key Surfaces and timing (III)
Late FSST (late forced regression):
Incised valley bypasses sand past the shelf (erosion of
HST deposits/delta etc)
Canyon incision and channeling, bypassing sand (mostly
high density turbidity currents) to the deeper slope
and basin floor
Deposition of basin floor fans
Sand deposition on the deep-sea floor, progradation of
the system

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Key Surfaces and timing (IV)
LST (lowstand normal regression):
Incised valley feeds lowstand shelf edge deltas
Less high density turbidity currents bypassing to the
deep-sea floor
Deposition of slope fan
Low density turbidity current bypass to the deep sea
floor, forming leveed channels and frontal mouth
splays

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Key Surfaces and timing (V)
TST (early transgression):
Flooding of the incised valley, estuarine deposits on
fluvial deposits
Less high density turbidity currents bypassing to the
deep-sea floor
Continued deposition of slope fan, progressive
shutdown
Continued low density turbidity current bypass to the
deep sea floor, forming leveed channels and frontal
mouth splays; continued progradation
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Key Surfaces and timing (VI)
TST (late transgression):
Filling of the remainder of the incised valley
Mudflows/mass transport complexes on the slope and
deep-sea floor, backstepping of the system

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