You are on page 1of 16







IPS Academy, Indore
Rajiv Gandhi Proudhyogiki Vishvavidhyalaya

Year September
With the arrival of Muslims in India, from twelfth century AD onwards, the merger of local
and immigrated architectural techniques resulted into an astounding style.
In the same way, their passive cooling techniques in buildings were merged together to
provide new ways to cope with the extremes of the climate.
The buildings consume natural energy in three ways.
i. Maintaining the internal environment of spaces to make them comfortable.
ii. Controlling the microclimate.
iii. Procuring and manufacturing of materials for construction.
Passive cooling techniques are least expensive means of cooling a home which maximizes th
e efficiency of the building envelope without any use of mechanical devices.
It rely on natural heat sinks to remove heat from the building. They derive cooling directly
from evaporation, convection, and radiation without using any intermediate device.
All passive cooling strategies rely on daily changes in temperature and relative humidity.
The applicability of each system depends on the climatic conditions.
These design strategies reduce heat gains to internal spaces-Natural Ventilation Earth Air
Tunnels Shading Evaporative Cooling Wind Towers- Passive Down Draught Cooling-
Courtyard Effect Roof Sprays.
Climatic Characteristics And
Microclimatic control
Before discussing the tools of passive cooling techniques used by Mughals, it would be pertinent to have
some idea of the climate prevailing in North India.
Composite climate occurs in most of the areas ruled by Mughals in North India which is characterized by
dominated hot and dry conditions two third of the year and, a somewhat cold and a warm humid season
occur in the remaining one third of the year.
The gardens of paradise mentioned in the Holy Quran have been the source of inspiration throughout the
Islamic world .
Mughals also used this tool not only as a symbol but to improve the quality of the immediate surrounding
environment of their buildings that is microclimate. The environment outside the building is important to
control the inside temperature of the building.
Climatic Characteristics And
Microclimatic control
Canal of paradise
(water channel
passing through
indoor space)

Water body at fatehpur sikri

Vegetation around
Agra Fort

Fountain improves air

Universal business school, Karjat,
Integrated Indoor-Outdoor Living

Red fort is entirely

surrounded by
garden Universal business school, Birkha bawari, Jodhpur
Karjat, Mumbai
Not all the spaces in past buildings were maintained naturally comfortable at all times.

With minor inconvenience, the users were suggested to shift from less comfortable spaces to
more comfortable spaces depending upon the seasonal changes.

Step wells are the

source of summer as
Verandah act as well as the shelter for
buffer between summers.
indoor and
outdoor spaces.
Integrated Indoor-Outdoor Living

In Red Fort, Delhi Emperors throne is

surrounded by two sets of opening

Bamboo roll screens for

opening to prevent suns
Druk White Lotus
school, ladhak
Thermal Mass

Thick walls
provides thermal
Vaults at nalanda international
school, vadodara

JDT Islam campus,


Part of domical roof is Outer surface shades the

always shaded. wall itself.

When the outer temperature is lowered at night, the high emissive

property of the walls allows cooling down the wall surfaces rapidly.

Flat roofs get more radiations while vaulted and domed roofs prevent the
Arched ceiling helps
to cool internal space absorption of heat of the summers vertical sun.
of the roof.
Courtyard as a
moderator of internal
climate Courtyard

Courtyard with vegetation and Universal Business School,

water body enhances humidity. Karjat, Mumbai Courtyard provide shade.
The Courtyard House,
Beawar, Rajasthan

Landscaped courtyard
The natural cooling may be achieved by cutting off the suns
The sunshades not only protect from suns radiations through Shading
the windows but walls too. Devices

Deep inclinations
protect walls and
openings from
Deep carving causes sun.
Horizontal (deciduous vine) and vertical shading
mutual shading.
1. Ground cover
Water channel outside 2. Water sprinkler

3. Insulated roof a typical section showing passive solar

4. Shading trees features of WALMI building, Bhopal
5. Water trough

Evaporative cooling is a passive cooling technique in which outdoor air is

cooled by evaporating water before it is introduced in the building.
Its physical principle lies in the fact that the heat of air is used to evaporate
Salsabil increases
humidity in air water, thus cooling the air, which in turn cools the living space in the
To enhance the process of evaporation, fountains were used which mixed the moisture to the air and
increased the humidity.
At times, salsabilwas used to maintain the water pressure to force the water to come out of the fountain
Passive Down Draught

Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling in Torrent Research Centre, Ahmadabad.

Passive downdraft evaporative cooling systems consist of a downdraft tower with wetted cellulose pads at
the top of the tower.
Water is distributed on the top of the pads, collected at the bottom into a sump and re-circulated by a pump.
These towers are often described as reverse chimneys.
While the column of warm air rises in a chimney, in this case the column of cool air falls.
The air flow rate depends on the efficiency of the evaporative cooling device, tower height and cross section,
as well as the resistance to air flow in the cooling device, tower and structure (if any) into which it

Domed canopy and Vent near

wide entrance space dome allow hot
for air to get cooler. air to escape.
Natural ventilation is the result of differential wind
forces on various building surfaces and temperature difference between outside and inside air.
There are several factors which affects the air flow within the buildings such as microclimate, size and
proportion of windows, orientation with respect to wind direction etc.
When the air with a greater velocity enters into a wider space, sudden expansion results in lowering down of
the temperature of inside spaces of the buildings.
Lattice Screen

S C Techno School, Bangalore

Jaali ensures privacy and
provide diffuse light and
Jaali work featured in ITM
business school, Gwalior

It controls the airflow and lower down the temperature of internal spaces on the other.
When there is sunshine outside in the day, the internal spaces are not clearly visible from outside.
however, the diffused light is spread throughout the interiors.
To get a clear outside view, a cutout is provided at eye level for the viewer sitting on the floor.
Jaali in Mughal buildings mostly have a low sill or sometimes without sill so that the air could move
near the floor.

Vernacular elements(ruggedness
of materials and shapes like
Indigenous bastions, ramparts, terraces and
trebeated extensive use of water) at Virasat-
Vernacular features(courtyard with partial water e-Khalsa, Anandpur Sahib,
body with rest of the area being landscaped, Punjab
corridors, local material use, tribal artwork) at
Byregowdas house, kolar, karnataka
The technology for construction of buildings like the use of local materials with the help of local artisans
made their buildings energy efficient as well.
The style and technology developed by Muslims and especially by Mughals in India had indigenous
characteristics of the region with a fragrance of foreign elements wisely induced.
For example, the buildings at Fatehpur Sikri were constructed in red sand stone which was procured from
quarries near the site only and buildings were erected by indigenous trabeated technology with the help of
local artisans.

This technique is used for passive cooling as well as heating of buildings, which
is made possible by the earth acting as a massive heat sink.
Passive Space
At depths beyond 4 to 5m, both daily and seasonal fluctuations die out and the
Conditioning Using
soil temperature remains almost constant throughout the year.
Earth Air Tunnel
Thus, the underground or partially sunk buildings will provide both cooling (in
summer) and heating (in winter) to the living space.
A building may be coupled with the earth by burying it underground or berming.

Earth sheltered home-The

Meadow Dance, Hyderabad