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# OUTLINE

1. Force

6. Couples

7. Exercise

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Force 1/4
Definition
as an action of one body on another.
as an action which tends to cause acceleration of a body.

## A force is a vector quantity since its effect depends on the direction as

well as on the magnitude of the action.

Force 2/4
Effects

## It may retard the forces already on a body, thus bringing it to rest or

in equilibrium.

It may give rise to the internal stresses in the body on which it acts.

Force 3/4
Characteristics

## The point of application is a characteristic

of a force due to deformation.

## A force is a fixed vector the same

magnitude, direction and point of
application.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Force 4/4
Principle of Transmissibility
A force may be moved anywhere along its line of action without changing
its external effects on a rigid body.

A force can be treated as a sliding vector the same magnitude, direction and
line of action.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Reduction of Concurrent Force Systems

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Two-dimensional resolution of a Force vector 1/2

Rectangular Components

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Two-dimensional resolution of a Force vector 2/2

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about a Point 1/4

hand rule.

## The moment of a force about a point is a fixed vector the moment

depends on the location of the moment center.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about a Point 2/4
The magnitude of the moment of the 100-N force about the
point O

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about a Point 3/4

## Varignons Theorem (Principle of moments)

The moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moment
of its components about that point.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about a Point 4/4
Vector and Scalar Methods

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about an Axis 1/2
Is the moment of the force about a point on the axis.

## The moment of F about the axis AB is the orthogonal component

of Mo along the axis AB, where O is any point on AB.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Moment of a Force about an Axis 2/2

## Rectangular Components of Moment Mo

The rectangular components of the moment of a force about the origin O are
equal to the moments of the force about the coordinate axes.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Couples 1/4

Two parallel, nonlinear forces that are equal in magnitude and opposite in
direction are known as a Couple.

## A couple has only rotational effect.

Note: A force has two effects on a rigid body: translation due to the force itself and
rotation due to the moment of the force.

Couples 2/4

## A couple has no resultant force, F = 0;

The moment of a couple is the same about any point in the plane of the couple.

Couples 3/4

## The moment of a couple is a

free vector the same magnitude
and direction.

## Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3

Couples 4/4

Resolution of Couples
Is the resolution of moments of forces.

## C is the moment of a couple about an axis.

is the unit vector in the direction of the axis.

Literature

## Excerpt from: Engineering Mechanics, Bhavikatti, S.S., Emeritus Professor, BVB

College of Engineering & Technology, 4th Ed. 2012.

## Engineering Mechanics 1, Statics, Dietmar Gross, Werner Hauger, Jorg Schroder,

Wolfgang A. Wall Nimal Rajapakse, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009.

## A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics, R.S. Khurmi, S. Chand & Company Ltd.

Engineering Mechanics, Statics, 3rd Edition, Andrew Pytel and Jaan Kiusalaas, 2010.