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OUTLINE

1. Force

2. Reduction of Concurrent Force Systems

3. Two-dimensional resolution of a force vector

4. Moment of a Force about a Point

5. Moment of a Force about an Axis

6. Couples

7. Exercise

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Force 1/4
Definition
as an action of one body on another.
as an action which tends to cause acceleration of a body.

A force is a vector quantity since its effect depends on the direction as


well as on the magnitude of the action.

Forces may be combined according to the parallelogram law of vector


addition.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Force 2/4
Effects

It may change the motion of a body.

It may retard the motion of a body.

It may retard the forces already on a body, thus bringing it to rest or


in equilibrium.

It may give rise to the internal stresses in the body on which it acts.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Force 3/4
Characteristics

The point of application is a characteristic


of a force due to deformation.

A force is a fixed vector the same


magnitude, direction and point of
application.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Force 4/4
Principle of Transmissibility
A force may be moved anywhere along its line of action without changing
its external effects on a rigid body.

A force can be treated as a sliding vector the same magnitude, direction and
line of action.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Reduction of Concurrent Force Systems

Equivalent force / Rigid-body equivalent force

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Two-dimensional resolution of a Force vector 1/2

Rectangular Components

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Two-dimensional resolution of a Force vector 2/2

Determining the Components of a Force

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about a Point 1/4

A force acting on a body tends to rotate and translate

Mo is perpendicular to both r and F with its sense determined by the right-


hand rule.

The moment of a force about a point is a fixed vector the moment


depends on the location of the moment center.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about a Point 2/4
The magnitude of the moment of the 100-N force about the
point O

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about a Point 3/4

Varignons Theorem (Principle of moments)


The moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moment
of its components about that point.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about a Point 4/4
Vector and Scalar Methods

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about an Axis 1/2
Is the moment of the force about a point on the axis.

The moment of F about the axis AB is the orthogonal component


of Mo along the axis AB, where O is any point on AB.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Moment of a Force about an Axis 2/2

Rectangular Components of Moment Mo

The rectangular components of the moment of a force about the origin O are
equal to the moments of the force about the coordinate axes.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Couples 1/4

Two parallel, nonlinear forces that are equal in magnitude and opposite in
direction are known as a Couple.

A couple has only rotational effect.

Note: A force has two effects on a rigid body: translation due to the force itself and
rotation due to the moment of the force.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Couples 2/4

Moment of a Couple about a Point Scalar calculation

A couple has no resultant force, F = 0;

The moment of a couple is the same about any point in the plane of the couple.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Couples 3/4

Moment of a Couple about a Point Vector method

The moment of a couple is a


free vector the same magnitude
and direction.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Couples 4/4

Resolution of Couples
Is the resolution of moments of forces.

C is the moment of a couple about an axis.


is the unit vector in the direction of the axis.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3


Literature

Engineering Mechanics Statics, 12th Edition, R. C. HIBBERLER

Excerpt from: Engineering Mechanics, Bhavikatti, S.S., Emeritus Professor, BVB


College of Engineering & Technology, 4th Ed. 2012.

Engineering Mechanics 1, Statics, Dietmar Gross, Werner Hauger, Jorg Schroder,


Wolfgang A. Wall Nimal Rajapakse, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009.

A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics, R.S. Khurmi, S. Chand & Company Ltd.

Engineering Mechanics, Statics, 3rd Edition, Andrew Pytel and Jaan Kiusalaas, 2010.

Engineering Mechanics - Lecture 3