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Adapted from Jeffery A.

Hoffers
Modern Database Management,
12th Edition
Lecture # 4
The Database Approach

Lecturer
Shermeen Adnan

1
The Database Approach
How do we overcome the flaws of FPSs?
Database Approach
Core concepts to understand database approach
Data models
Entities
Relationships
Relational database
Database management system
Advantages of database approach
The Database Approach
Central repository of shared data
Data is managed by a controlling agent
Stored in a standardized, convenient form
Requires a Database Management System
(DBMS)
Emphasises the integration & sharing of data
across the organisation
Data-driven vs Process-driven design
File processing systems - process driven
DBSs emphasis on data-driven approach
Process-driven vs Data-driven
First identify & analyse
organisational processes Focus on entities t/things
Requirements Analysis organisation must manage Requirements Analysis
use DFDs to describe
(e.g. products).
processes & data flows
Identify the properties of
between them.
the entities & relationships
Work backward from
between them & the rules
required outputs to Process Design Database Design
that govern how these entities
determine the required
are managed or used.
inputs. Use flowcharts
After creating suitable models
to specify the logic for
of the data structures and the
conversion of inputs to
Data Design related business rules, develop Process Design
outputs.
the applications required to
Finally design files as a
manage the data.
by-product of process
design.

Implementation Implementation

Data-driven
Process-driven

A balanced approach may be most suitable.


The Database Approach
Elements of DB approach
Data Models
Enterprise Data Model
Project Data Model
Entities
Relationships
Relational database
The Database Approach
Data Models
Graphical systems used to capture the nature of data
and relationships among data
Used at different levels of abstraction
Facilitate interaction among the designer, the
applications programmer, and the end user
Effectiveness and efficiency of a DB is directly
associated with the structure of DB
Relatively simple representations, usually graphical, of
complex real-world data structures
Made up of entities, attributes and relationships e.g
Entity Relationship (ER) model
The Database Approach
Entities
A thing (e.g.. person, place, object, event, or concept)
about which organisation chooses to record data..
Composed of attributes
E.g customer, order, product
Attributes
The data you are interested in capturing about the entity
E.g customer name, order no., product id
Instance
Data is recorded for many customers, each customers
information is referred to as instance
The Database Approach
Relationships
To retrieve the desired information
Between entities
Usually one to many (1:M) or many to many (M:N)
Relational Databases
A database that represents data as a collection of tables in which all
data relationships are represented by common values in related tables
Establish relationships between entities by means of common fields
included in a file, called a relation
Database technology involving tables (relations) representing entities
and primary/foreign keys representing relationships
Use IDs to establish relationship between entities
The Database Approach
Enterprise data model (EDM)
First step in the database development process
Specifies scope and general content
Overall picture of organizational data at high level
of abstraction
Entity-relationship diagram
Descriptions of entity types
Relationships between entities
Business rules
The Database Approach
Enterprise data model (EDM)
A high-level graphical conceptual data model
for an organization. It shows the entities & the
relationships among those entities for the
organization.
Provides valuable information about how the
organization functions as well as important
constraints.
Stresses the integration of data and processes by
focusing on both relationships and entities.
The Database Approach
The project data model : A model that
includes definitions of the diagram's
component pieces
Includes additional level of details
A constrained subset of EDM
i.e Entity Types to represent each person, place,
event, or concept for which information will be
maintained in the system.
Segment from enterprise data model
Figure 3
Segment from enterprise data model
Figure 3

One customer may place many


orders, but each order is placed
by a single customer
One-to-many relationship
Segment from enterprise data model
Figure 3

One order has many order


lines; each order line is
associated with a single order
One-to-many relationship
Segment from enterprise data model
Figure 3

One product can be in many


order lines, each order line
refers to a single product
One-to-many relationship
Segment from enterprise data model
Figure 3

Therefore, one order involves


many products and one product
is involved in many orders
Many-to-many relationship
The Database Approach
Segment of a Project Data Model
Foreign (Linking) Keys

Relationships established in special columns that


provide links between tables
The Database Approach
Database Management System
A software system that is used to create, maintain,
and provide controlled access to user databases
Data storage and retrieval system which permits
data to be stored non-redundantly while making it
appear to the user as if the data is well-integrated.
Database Applications
Application programs used to perform database
activities (create, read, update, and delete) for
database users
Database Management System
Application
#1

Application
#2

DBMS Database
containing
centralized
shared data

Application
#3
DBMS manages data
resources like an operating
system manages hardware
resources
The Database Approach
File Processing System
VS
Data Base Approach

22
The Database Approach
Advantages of Database Approach
The Database Approach
Costs and Risks of the database approach