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Metodelogi Penelitian

Achmad Lutfi
Harun Nasrudin
Ismono
Capaian Pembelajaran
Matakuliah/Kompetensi

Mampu merancang, melaksanakan penelitian,dan mempublikasikan


hasilnya sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif
penyelesaianmasalah dibidang pendidikan kimia
Mampu memiliki kemampuan untuk memanfaatkan sumber belajar dan
media pembelajaranberbasis TIK dalam memahami konsep metodologi
penelitian
Mampu membuat keputusan tentang keterkaitankonsep dasar-dasar
metodologi penelilitian dan mengaplikasikannya berdasarkan paradigma
penelitian, kerangkaberpikir, hipotesis, dan variabel, populasi dan sampel,
instrumen penelitian,desain penelitian, teknik pengumpulan data, dan
analisis data yang dikemas dalam bentuk draf proposal
penelitianpendidikan MIPA sebagai luaran mata kuliah.
Mampu menunjukkan sikap bertanggungjawab ataspekerjaan di bidang
keahliannya secara mandiri.
RESEARCH PROBLEM
A research problem is the focus of a research
investigation

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Many research problems are stated as
questions.
The essential characteristic of a researchable
question is that there is some sort of information
that can be collected in an attempt to answer the
question.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH
QUESTIONS
Research questions should be feasiblethat is,
capable of being investigated with available
resources.
Research questions should be clearthat is,
unambiguous.
Research questions should be significantthat
is, worthy of investigation.
Research questions often (although not always)
suggest a relationship to be investigated. The
term "relationship," as used in research, refers to
a connection or association between two or
more characteristics or qualities.
DEFINING TERMS IN RESEARCH

Three commonly used ways to clarify ambiguous


or unclear terms in a research question involve
the use of constitutive (dictionary-type)
definitions, definition by example, and
operational definitions.
A constitutive definition uses additional terms to
clarify meaning.
An operational definition describes how
examples of a term are to be measured or
identified.
For Discussion
1. Listed below are a series of questions. Think how a researcher could
collect information (from friends, colleagues, students, or others) to
help answer each question, at least in part. Could data be collected
on all of these questions? If so, how? If not, why not?
a. Does client-centered or traditional therapy produce more
satisfaction in clients?
b. How might staff morale be improved?
c. Should psychology be required of all students in graduate school?
d. Do students learn more from a teacher of the same gender?
2. What relationship (if there is one) is suggested in each of the above
questions?
3. Here are three examples of research questions. How would you
rank them (1 = highest) for clarity? For significance? Why?
a. How many students in the sophomore class signed up for a course
in driver training this semester?
b. Why do so many students in the district say they dislike English?
c. Is inquiry or lecture more effective in teaching social studies?
Variabel and Hypotheses
Hypotheses

WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?
A hypothesis is, simply put, a prediction
of some sort regarding the possible
outcomes of a study. For example, here is
a research question followed by its
restatement in the form of a possible
hypothesis:
Question: Will students who are taught
history by a teacher of the same gender
like the subject more than students taught
by a teacher of a different gender?
Hypothesis: Students taught history by a
teacher of the same gender will like the
subject more than students taught history
by a teacher of a different gender.
Here are two more examples of research
questions followed by the restatement of
each as a possible hypothesis

Question: Is rapport with clients different with


counselors using client-centered therapy than
with those using behavior modification therapy?
Hypothesis: Counselors who use a client-
centered therapy approach will have a greater
rapport with their clients than counselors who
use a behavior-modification approach.
Question: How do teachers feel about special
classes for the educationally handicapped?
Hypothesis: Teachers in XYZ School District
believe that students attending special classes
for the educationally handicapped are thereby
stigmatized.
or
Teachers in XYZ School District believe that
special classes for the educationally
handicapped will help such students improve
their academic skills.
Many different hypotheses can come from a single
question. As an illustration of this, see Figure 3.3.
THE IMPORTANCE OF
STUDYING
RELATIONSHIPS
Identifying relationships
among variables
enhances understanding.
Understanding
relationships helps us to
explain the nature of the
world in which we live.
VARIABLES
A variable is any characteristic or quality that varies among the
members of a particular group.
A constant is any characteristic or quality that is the same for all
members of a particular group.
Several kinds of variables are studied in educational research, the
most common being independent and dependent variables.
An independent variable is a variable presumed to affect or
influence other variables.
A dependent (or outcome) variable is a variable presumed to be
affected by one or more independent variables.
A quantitative variable is a variable that varies in amount or degree,
but not in kind.
A categorical variable is a variable that varies only in kind, not in
degree or amount.
An extraneous variable is an independent variable that may have
unintended effects on a dependent variable in a particular study.
HYPOTHESES
The term "hypothesis," as used in research, refers to a
prediction of results usually made before a study
commences.
A significant hypothesis is one that is likely to lead, if it is
supported, to a greater amount of important knowledge
than a nonsignificant hypothesis.
Stating a research question as a hypothesis has both
advantages and disadvantages.
A directional hypothesis is a prediction about the specific
nature of a relationship for example, method A is more
effective than method B.
A nondirectional hypothesis is a prediction that a
relationship exists without specifying its exact nature
for example, there will be a difference between method A
and method B (without saying which will be more
effective).