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# M.

Dynamics

## Direct contact mechanisms

M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Gear train
Arrangement of two or more gears connected to
transmit torque and velocity.

## Simple Gear Grain

Compound Gear Train
Simple Epicycle Train or Simple
Planetary Gear Train
Compound Epicycle Train or Compound
Planetary Gear Train
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## The most basic trains of gears, one shaft to each gear.

M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Example

## If the angular velocity in the gear C is 1200RPM opposite clockwise, determine

the angular velocity in the gear A. Use: NA=50, NB=45, NC=90, ND=50, NE=120,
NF=60.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Using:
The Gear A as the input and the gear C as the output
From the gear A to the gear C: The gears C and B are drivers (because they
move or push other gear by direct contact).
From the gear A to the gear C: The gears B and A are driven (because they are
moved or pushed by other gear)

OUT IN
C A AC 1200 RPM

N A N B N A 50
AC 0.555
N B N C N C 90
1200 RPM A (0.555)

1200 RPM
A 2162.16 RPM
0.555
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

We can see that the gear between the input and the output is driver and
driven. Thats why it was removed from the calculation of the value to the
train ratio.

Therefore for any simple gear train the formula to analysis will be as follows:

N IN
OUT IN
N OUT

Because the gears between the input and output be always drivers and driven.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

In addition to a train of gears recurring with a total of odd gears, input rotates
in the same direction as the output. In the event that the number of gear train
is torque, the input and output rotate in opposite directions.

## Considering: Engage to N ENT

input and engage SAL ENT
N SAL
output F
NA 50
F A 2162.16 RPM 1801.8RPM
NF 60
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## At least one shaft supports more than one gear.

M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## The velocities in a simple and compound gear train could be determine

with the next equation:

SAL ENT

Where:

Angular velocity in the gear consider as output SAL , RPM , Hz
seg
Train ratio
Angular velocity in the gear consider as input ENT , RPM , Hz
seg
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Importants points

The value of the train ratio is equal to the product of number of teeth "N" or
radius "R" of the driver gear over the product of number of teeth "N" or radius
"R" of the driven gear .

## A driven gear is a gear that is pushed or moved by another by direct contact.

M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Example
In the next gear train the angular velocity in the gear A is 500 RPM clockwise.
Determine the angular velocity in the gear E. Use NA = 66, NB = 220, NC =
40, ND = 110 and NE = 120
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## We can analyze the gear train of two ways:

A) The compound gear train could be decompose into 2 simple gear trains:

N ENT
SAL ENT
N SAL
NA 66
B A 500 150 RPM
NB 220

B C
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

N ENT
SAL ENT
N SAL

NC 40
E C 150
NE 120

E 50RPM
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## B) the train is analyzed as such: as recurrent compound.

SAL ENT E A AE
A drive B, C drive D and D
drive E. B is driven by A, D is
driven by C and E is driven
by D. Therefore :

N A NC N D N A NC
AE
NB NDNE NB NE

N A NC 66 * 40
E A 500
NB NE 220 *120

E 50RPM
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Simple Epicycle Gear Train or Simple Planetary Gear Train:

This is a device with 2 DOF (Degrees of freedom) two inputs are needed to create
a predictable output. Consists of 4 parts: arm or spider, planetary gear, sun gear
(input) and output gear. In this train the arm maintenance in motion the
planetary gear around the sun gear.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

The velocities in this device could be analyze using the following equation :

SAL BRAZO

ENT BRAZO

## The calculation of the train

ratio is exactly equal as
discusses above but if the
gears rotate opposite to the
arm, the number of teeth is
consider negative in the
train ratio equation.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Could be cases where there is a gear transmitting rotation to the gear sun, as
shown in the following figure:

## In this case we can not apply the formula

for planetary train directly, at least the
speed of the gear (B) is known, which is
the gear Sun or planetary train input.
Otherwise the velocity in the input of the
planetary gear will be calculated analyzing
A and B as simple gear train.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

The same happens when there are more gears after the output of the
planetary, the lock C account with teeth on the inside and outside as shown:

In this case we can apply the formula for planetary gear train directly where C is
the output of the planetary. After get the velocity in the gear C (Planetary
output) the gear C and D will be analyze as a simple gear train.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Example analytic method

Determine the output velocity to the next planetary gear train. The velocity in
the gear A is 120 RPM and in the arm 70 RPM both clockwise. NA = 100, NB = 80
and NC = 520.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

To the train ratio in the rotation sense of the arm the number of teethe is positive.

N A
. N B N A

N B . N C . N C
OUT ARM C ARM

IN ARM A ARM

## C ARM N . 100 0.1923

A
A ARM N C 520

C 70
0.1923 C 0.1923120 50 70 60.38RPM
120 70
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Example table method

Determine the output velocity to the next planetary gear train using the table
method. The velocity in the gear A is 120 RPM and in the arm 70 RPM both
clockwise. NA = 100, NB = 80 and NC = 520.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## First gives format to the table...

arm A B C
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 1: All the gears have the angular velocity of the arm

arm A B C
Step 1 70 70 70 70
Step 2
Step 3
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Step 2: This row is known as the Velocity Imaginary . The arm speed is
zero and the planetary gear is fixed, this change the planetary gear to a
compound gear train or simple gear train. After that the train is analyzed
with the real velocity of the sun gear and all the velocities calculate are
used to fill this row Step 2, but you need to remember that in the
rotation sense of the arm the number of teethe is positive.

brazo A B C
Step 1 70 70 70 70
Step 2 0 50
Step 3 70 120
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Step 2: This row is known as the Velocity Imaginary . The arm speed is
zero and the planetary gear is fixed, this change the planetary gear to a
compound gear train or simple gear train. After that the train is analyzed
with the real velocity of the sun gear and all the velocities calculate are
used to fill this row Step 2, but you need to remember that in the
rotation sense of the arm the number of teethe is positive.

A 50RPM
B A A
NA
50
100 62.5RPM
NB 80
C B B
NB
62.5
80
NC 520
C 9.615RPM
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

A 50RPM
B A A
NA
50
100 62.5RPM
NB 80
C B B
NB
62.5
80
NC 520
C 9.615RPM
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## "The real velocity in the gear B is not the real is relative,

because the planetary has translation motion and
rotation motion at the same time Rotates around the
Sun."
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Compound Epicycle Gear Train or Compound Planetary Gear Train

Device of 2 DOF (Degrees of freedom) consisting in five parts: arm or spider, two
planetary gears, two gear sun (one of them is the input and the other the
output). In this train the arm moves the two planetary about it corresponding
gear sun.

This type of gear train could be analyzed with the same equation or formula used
to a simple planetary gear train.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Table method to analyze Simple Epicycle Gear Train or

Simple Planetary Gear Train

## Velocity of the Velocity in the Velocity in Velocity in the

arm Sun gear (input the planetary output gear
gear) gear

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Step 1: "all the gears has the same velocity of the arm"

Step 2: This row is known as the Velocity Imaginary . The arm speed is
zero and the planetary gear is fixed, this change the planetary gear to a
compound gear train or simple gear train. After that the train is analyzed
with the real velocity of the sun gear and all the velocities calculate are used
to fill this row Step 2, but you need to remember that in the rotation
sense of the arm the number of teethe is positive.

Step 3: This row is known as the Real velocity is the addition of the step1
and step 2 rows.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Tabular method to analyze Compound Epicycle Gear Train

or Compound Planetary Gear Train

## Velocity in Velocity in Velocity in the Velocity in the Velocity in the

the arm the Sun gear first planetary second second sun
(input) gear planetary gear gear. (output)

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Step 1: "all the gears has the same velocity of the arm"

Step 2: This row is known as the Velocity Imaginary . The arm speed is
zero and the planetary gear is fixed, this change the planetary gear to a
compound gear train or simple gear train. After that the train is analyzed
with the real velocity of the sun gear and all the velocities calculate are used
to fill this row Step 2, but you need to remember that in the rotation
sense of the arm the number of teethe is positive.

Step 3: This row is known as the Real velocity is the adition of the step1
and step 2 rows.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Example analytic method

The velocity in the gear A is of 800 RPM opposite clockwise. The arm rotates
clockwise with a velocity of 100 RPM. Determine the velocity in the output of
this transmission. NA = 320, NB = 100, NC = 200, ND = 400, NE = 140, NF = 500,
NG = 160, NH = 240, NI = 80.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Important points:
From A to C is a simple gear train. The velocity in the gear C is
the same to the gear D. From D to G is a compound planetary
gear train. The velocity in the gear G is the same to the gear
H. From H to I is a simple gear train.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

Solution:
N ENT
SAL ENT C A
NA
D
N SAL NC
320
D 800 1280 RPM
200
Opposite clockwise

## SAL BRAZO BRAZO

G
G BRAZO

N D N F
ENT BRAZO D BRAZO D BRAZO N E N G
G 100

400 500 8.9285
1280 100 140 160
G 8.92851180 100 10635.7 RPM H
Opposite clockwise
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

N ENT
SAL ENT
N SAL

NH 240
I H 10635.70 31907.10 RPM
NI 80

Clockwise
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dynamics

## Example table method

The velocity in the gear A is of 800 RPM opposite clockwise. The arm rotates
clockwise with a velocity of 100 RPM. Determine the velocity in the output of
this transmission. NA = 320, NB = 100, NC = 200, ND = 400, NE = 140, NF = 500,
NG = 160, NH = 240, NI = 80.
We know that the input of the planetary gear train is the gear D and that its
velocity is 1280RPM opposite clockwise.

## First it gives format to the table...

brazo D E F G
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 1: All the gears have the angular velocity of the arm

brazo D E F G
Step 1 100 100 100 100 100
Step 2
Step 3
Step 2: This row is known as the
Velocity Imaginary . The arm speed
is zero and the planetary gear is fixed,
this change the planetary gear to a
compound gear train or simple gear
train. After that the train is analyzed
with the real velocity of the sun gear
and all the velocities calculate are
used to fill this row Step 2, but you
need to remember that in the
rotation sense of the arm the number
of teethe is positive.

ARM D E F G
Step 1 100 100 100 100 100
Step 2 0 1180
Step 3 100 1280
Calculations of step 2
Imaginary Velocity

D 700RPM

E D D
ND
1180
400
3371.43RPM
NE 140

F E 3371.43RPM

G E E
NF
3371.43
500 10535.71RPM
NG 160
You can see that the value on the output of the planetary
compound gear train is the same got it using analytic
method
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dinmica

In the next gear train the velocity in the gear B is 6200RPM counterclockwise.
Determine the velocity in the gear A and C. NA = 760, NB = 450, NC = 1200.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dinmica

## If the motor supplies a velocity of 2400 RPM counterclockwise determine the

velocity of the gears D and G. NA=360, NB=420, NC=660, ND=220, NE=520,
NF=310 y NG=360
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dinmica

## If the velocity in the gear A is 1200RPM clockwise determine the velocity in

the gear D.. NA=660, NB=480, NC=300 y ND=1320. The velocity at the arm is
400RPM clockweise.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dinmica

## If the velocity in the gear A is 900RPM clockwise determine the velocity in

the gear D.. NA=460, NB=380, NC=1800 y ND=320. The velocity at the arm is
500RPM clockweise.
M.A Jorge Alejandro Cpich Guerrero, Dinmica

In the figure, the shaft A rotates at 350 rpm and the shaft B at 400 rpm, in the
direction shown. Determine the velocity and direction of the rotation to the
shaft C.