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HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS

Introduction to Valves
Pressure Control Valves

Presented by: Dr. Abootorabi


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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

Control valves allow hydraulic systems to produce the type of


motion or level of force needed to complete the functions
expected of a hydraulic circuit.

A variety of valves can control actuator direction, speed, and


force output.

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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

The three basic types of control valves are:

Pressure control

Directional control

Flow control

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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

Pressure control valves can:

Protect the system from damage due to excessive pressure

Sequence motion

Limit pressure in selected sections of a circuit

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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

A system pressure control valve

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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

Directional control valves direct

fluid flow to establish and control

actuator movement .

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Primary Control Functions in a Hydraulic System

Flow control valves control the operating speed of actuators

They provide a means to vary the rate of fluid flow

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Poppet principle
Valves are based either on the

poppet principle or slide principle. In

poppet valves, a ball, a cone or a

disc is pressed by a spring against

the seat of a passage. Valves of this

kind provide a very efficient seal.

The illustration shows a cone used

as a sealing element.

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Actuating force

With some types of poppet

valves, the actuating force,

which is dependent on

pressure and area, may be

very high. In order to avoid

this, pressure compensation

may be provided at the

valves.
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Slide principle
This illustration shows the principle of
a longitudinal slide valve. In order to
allow the piston to move, it has a
certain clearance and floats in
hydraulic fluids. Ring grooves ensure
an even film of oil and thus pressure
equilibrium. The piston can thus be
moved with minimal frictional losses.

This type of valve cannot provide a perfect seal, which means


that there is always a certain oil leakage.
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Piston overlap
The switching characteristics of a valve are governed by, among other
things, its piston overlap. A distinction is made between positive,
negative and zero overlap. In the case of positive overlap, the port in
question is completely covered by the piston, while with negative
overlap it is less than completely covered. In the case of zero overlap,
the distances between the control edges of the piston and of the port
are exactly the same.

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Negative switching overlap
In the case of negative overlap, flow from

A to T is not quite closed when the inlet P

is opened. This means that the pressure

at port A rises slowly and the piston

starts gently.

In manufacturers' data sheets, overlap

positions are shown within dotted lines

between the switching positions, or the

overlap positions are shown in color.


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Positive switching overlap
In the case of positive overlap, the

left-hand piston does not open the

passage from P to A until the tank

has been completely isolated by the

other piston. Pressure is

immediately fed to the load device

(cylinder or hydraulic motor) with

the result that this starts abruptly.

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Basic Structure and Features of Control Valves

A spool is a cylindrical
metal piece fitted into the
bore of a valve body.

The spool is used to block


or direct fluid through a
valve to produce a desired
fluid flow characteristic.

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Basic Structure and Features of Control Valves

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Basic Structure and Features of Control Valves

Internal and external forces are used to position the various valve

elements:

Springs and pilot pressure are typical internal forces used to

operate valve elements

Manual, pilot pressure, and electromagnetic force are common

external forces used for operation

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Basic Structure and Features of Control Valves
Normal valve position refers to the position the internal
elements assume when a hydraulic system is shut down:

Normally open

Normally closed

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Valve Operation and Springs, Fluid Pressure,
and Fluid Flow

Springs, fluid pressure, and fluid flow are very important in the

operation of hydraulic system control valves.

Springs are used in control valves to:

Move spools and other internal elements

Establish the maximum operating pressure

Serve as a biasing force

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Valve Operation and Springs, Fluid Pressure, and
Fluid Flow

Common uses for springs

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Valve Operation and Springs, Fluid Pressure, and
Fluid Flow

Fluid pressure is used in control valves to:

Directly open or close valves

Remotely operate a valve element

Operate a compensating device to obtain desired fluid flow

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Valve Operation and Springs, Fluid Pressure, and
Fluid Flow

Fluid flow through an orifice is used in control valves to establish

differences in pressure.

These pressure differences combined with balancing pistons and

biasing springs are commonly used in the operation of pressure

and flow control valves.

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Pressure Control Devices
Pressure control valves may be grouped into one of five types:

System maximum pressure control

Actuator sequence control

Restrained movement control

Pump unloading control

Reduced pressure control

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Pressure Control Devices
Maximum system pressure control devices are referred to as:

Relief valves

Safety valves

Hydraulic pressure fuses

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Pressure Control Devices
Relief valves are normally closed valves.

They open when system pressure approaches the set maximum

operating pressure.

The operation of relief valves can be classified as:

Direct operated

Balancing piston (compound or pilot-opereted)

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Pressure Control Devices
Direct-operated relief valves use system pressure to generate

force to compress a spring.

This opens a ball or poppet valve, allowing excess fluid to return

to the reservoir.

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Pressure Control Devices
Direct-operated relief valve

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Pressure Control Devices

Compound relief valves consist of pilot- and balancing-piston

sections:

Combined into a single valve

More efficient and quieter than direct-operated relief

valves

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Pressure Control Devices
Typical compound relief valve

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Pressure Control Devices

The pilot section of the compound relief valve contains a small,

direct-operated relief valve.

The pilot section indirectly establishes maximum system pressure by

controlling the pressure in the balancing-piston section of the valve.

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Pressure Control Devices
The balancing-piston section of the compound relief valve uses a

metering orifice and a balancing spring to create pressure and force

differences.

These differences correctly position the piston to produce a desired

maximum system operating pressure.

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Pressure Control Devices
Compound pressure relief valves are designed to accommodate

higher pressures than direct acting relief valves at the same flow rate

capacity.

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Pressure Control Devices
Compound pressure relief valve:

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Pressure Control Devices
Compound relief valves can also have the outlet port.

Outlet port

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Pressure Control Devices
Compound relief valves can also be operated remotely by using the

outlet port from the chamber above the piston.

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Pressure Control Devices
This chamber in turn can be vented to the tank through a solenoid-

operated direction control valve.

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Pressure Control Devices
Cracking pressure: The point at which the internal pressure of a

hydraulic system triggers or actuates a valve. Cracking pressure also

called the blow-off pressure.

Full-flow pressure: The point at which a relief valve is diverting flow

at its maximum rate.

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Pressure Control Devices
Pressure override: The full-flow pressure minus the cracking

pressure. The pressure override is a measure of the increase in

pressure over the cracking pressure when additional flow passes

through the valve after it cracks.

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Pressure Control Devices

The application of two direct-operated relief valves for Cushioning of

Hydraulic Motor:

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Pressure Control Devices
Safety valves are used to prevent damage to the hydraulic system if

the system relief valve should fail to open.

Typically, safety valves are direct-operated relief valves.

Safety valves are generally set 25% higher than the normal system

operating pressure.

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Pressure Control Devices

Hydraulic pressure fuses function as a pressure-limiting device

by using a disk that ruptures at a predetermined pressure.

They act as a positive-pressure-limiting device for systems where

system pressure limits are critical to safe system operation.

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Pressure Control Devices
A typical hydraulic pressure fuse

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Pressure Control Devices
Sequence valves allow the automatic sequencing of two or more

actuators in a hydraulic circuit

Primary actuator moves as soon as fluid flow is directed to

the actuator section of the circuit

Sequence valve blocks flow to the secondary actuator until

a predetermined pressure is reached, then allows fluid

flow to the actuator

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Pressure Control Devices
A sequence valve is typically fitted with an integral check (non-

return) valve.

This allows free flow of fluid around the valve when the direction of

the actuator is reversed.

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Pressure Control Devices
A circuit containing a sequence valve

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Pressure Control Devices

Restrained movement control valves are used in circuits to

prevent unexpected actuator movement. Often called:

Counterbalance (back pressure) valves when used with

cylinders

Brake valves when used with motors

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Pressure Control Devices
Counterbalance valves prevent unexpected lowering of the

boom.

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Pressure Control Devices
Counterbalance and brake valves are normally closed valves.

A check valve is required to permit free reverse flow around to valve.

Counterbalance valves allow the downward movement of loads

supported by a cylinder only when the system pump is operating.

Force generated by system pressure and the force created by the

weight of the load are needed to move the load downward.


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Pressure Control Devices

Circuit containing a counterbalance valve

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Pressure Control Devices
Brake valves are used to prevent an overrunning load from

continuing to turn a hydraulic motor after the directional control

valve has been closed.

Overrunning loads can turn the motor into a pump, allowing the

motor to turn past selected point.

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Pressure Control Devices
Circuit containing a brake valve

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Pressure Control Devices
Pump unloading controls hold a desired operating
pressure while the pump operates at near-zero
pressure. This reduces energy consumption and
maintenance costs. Unloading valves are normally
closed valves with external pilots.

Pump unloading controls use an unloading valve


and a dual pump or accumulator to maintain
desired system pressure while dumping unneeded
pump output to the reservoir at very low pressure.

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Pressure Control Devices

Circuit containing an unloading relief valve (using accumulator)

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Pressure Control Devices
Hi-Lo System (using dual pump)

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Pressure Control Devices
Reduced pressure control allows a portion of a system to operate

at a pressure below the maximum pressure setting of the system

relief valve:

Allows a system to operate using two or more pressures

Maximum pressure is determined by the system relief valve

with the additional pressures lower

Pressure-reducing valves are normally open valves with an

internal pilot and external drain.


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Pressure Control Devices
Pressure reducing valve

2 3
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Pressure Control Devices
Pressure reducing valve

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Pressure Control Devices
Circuit containing pressure reducing valve

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The end.
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