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OPEN,COMBINED

AND COMBINED HEAT


AND POWER CYCLE
MUZZAMIL SHAHZAD
PROCESS ENGINEERING INTER
ENGRO POWERGE THAR LIMITED
COTENTS

OPEN CYCLE TURBINE


COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER CYCLE
OPEN CYCLE

Working Principal
Fresh air enters the compressor at ambient temperature where
its pressure and
temperature are increased.
The high pressure air enters the combustion chamber where the
fuel is burned at constant
pressure.
The high temperature (and pressure) gas enters the turbine
where it expands to ambient
pressure and produces work.
FEATURES:
It is used in aircraft propulsion
and electric power generation.
High thermal efficiencies up to
44%.
Suitable for combined cycles and
has high power to weight ratio
High back work ratio (ratio of
compressor work to the turbine
work), up to 50%,
Compared to few percent in
steam power plants
CLOSED CYCLE

Working Principle
1.Gas turbine burns fuel.
The gas turbine compresses air and mixes it with fuel that is
heated to a very high temperature. The hot air-fuel mixture
moves through the gas turbine blades, making them spin.
The fast-spinning turbine drives a generator that converts a
portion of the spinning energy into electricity.
2. Heat recovery system captures exhaust.
A Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) captures exhaust
heat from the gas turbine that would otherwise escape through
the exhaust stack.
The HRSG creates steam
from the gas turbine exhaust
heat and delivers it to the
steam turbine.
3. Steam turbine delivers
additional electricity.
The steam turbine sends its
energy to the generator drive
shaft, where it is converted
into additional electricity.
COMBINED HEAT AND
POWER CYCLE
In cogeneration plant the low pressure steam coming from
turbine is not condense to form water, instead of it its used for
heating or cooling in building and factories, as this low pressure
steam from turbine has high thermal energy. The cogeneration
plant has high efficiency of around 80 - 90 %.
TYPES OF COGENERATION POWERPLANT
There are basically two types of cogeneration power plants, such
as-
1.Topping cycle power plant
2.Bottoming cycle power plant
CONVENTIONAL COMBINED
HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM
TOPPING CYCLE
Topping cycle power plant- In this type of Combine Heat and
Power plant electricity is generated first and then waste or
exhaust steam is used to heating water or building .
TYPES OF TOPPING CYCLE POWERPLANT
Combined-cycle topping CHP plant
Steam-turbine topping CHP Plant
Water- turbine topping CHP Plant
Gas turbine topping CHP Plant
CONVENTIONAL TOPPING
CYCLE
BOTTOMING CYCLE
Bottoming cycle power plant In this type of cycle no extra fuel
is required to produce electricity, as fuel is already burnt in
production process.
CONFIGURATION OF BOTTOMING CYCLE
Gas turbine Combine heat power plants which uses the
waste heat in the flue gas emerging out of gas turbines.
Steam turbine Combine heat power plants that use the
heating system as the jet steam condenser for the steam
turbine.
Molten-carbonate fuel cells have a hot exhaust, very suitable
for heating.
Combined cycle power plants adapted for Combine Heat and
Power.
CONVENTIONAL BOTTOMING
CYCLE