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10

Crafting
the Brand Positioning

Marketing Management, 13th ed


Chapter Questions
How can a firm choose and
communicate an effective positioning in
the market?
How are brands differentiated?
What marketing strategies are
appropriate at each stage of the
product life cycle?
What are the implications of market
evolution for marketing strategies?

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-2


Defining Associations

Points-of-difference Points-of-parity
(PODs) (POPs)
Attributes or benefits Associations that
consumers strongly are not necessarily
associate with a unique to the brand
brand, positively but may be shared
evaluate, and believe with other brands
they could not find to
the same extent with
a competitive brand
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-3
Conveying Category Membership

Announcing category benefits

Comparing to exemplars

Relying on the product


descriptor

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-4


Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs

Relevance

Distinctiveness

Believability

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-5


Deliverability Criteria for PODs

Feasibility

Communicability

Sustainability

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-6


Differentiation Strategies

Product Personnel

Channel Image

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-7


Product Differentiation

Product form Style


Features Design
Performance Ordering ease
Conformance Delivery
Durability Installation
Reliability Customer training
Reparability Customer consulting
Maintenance

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-8


Claims of Product Life Cycles

Products have a limited life


Product sales pass through distinct
stages each with different challenges
and opportunities
Profits rise and fall at different stages
Products require different strategies in
each life cycle stage

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-9


Figure 10.1 Sales and
Product Life Cycle

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-10


Figure 10.2 Common
Product Life-Cycle Patterns

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-11


Figure 10.3 Style, Fashion, and
Fad Life Cycles

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-12


Figure 10.4 Long-Range Product
Market Expansion Strategy

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-13


Strategies for Sustaining
Rapid Market Growth
Improve product quality, add new features,
and improve styling
Add new models and flanker products
Enter new market segments
Increase distribution coverage
Shift from product-awareness advertising to
product-preference advertising
Lower prices to attract the next layer of price-
sensitive buyers

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-14


Stages in the Maturity Stage

Decaying
Growth Stable
maturity

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Marketing Program Modifications

Prices

Distribution

Advertising

Sales promotion

Services

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-16


Ways to Increase Sales Volume

Convert nonusers
Enter new market segments
Attract competitors customers
Have consumers use the product on
more occasions
Have consumers use more of the
product on each occasion
Have consumers use the product in
new ways
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-17
Market Evolution Stages

Emergence Growth

Maturity Decline

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-18


Emerging Markets

Latent

Single-niche

Multiple-niche

Zibbie Zone is one of several


Mass-market
virtual worlds tied to toys

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-19


Figure 10.5 Maturity Strategies

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10-20