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UNIT-II

DISPLAY DEVICES AND LASERS

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DISPLAY DEVICES

2 types

Active Devices: The devices that emit their own


radiation.

Passive Devices: The devices that modulate the


incident radiation to provide the display information.

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LUMINESCENCE
Used to describe the emission of radiation from a
solid when it is supplied with some forms of
energy.
Various types of luminescence by excitation
method.
Photoluminescence : Excitation arises from the
absorption of photons.
Cathodoluminescenc: Excitation by bombardment
with a beam of electrons.
Electroluminescence : Excitation results from the
application of electric field(a.c or d.c)
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INTRODUCTION
The energy input to the luminescent material is an electronic transition
between two energy levels E1 and E2 (final stage, E2>E1)with the
emission of radiation of wavelength ,

hc/ = E2-E1

E1 and E2 are part of two groups of energy levels, so that instead of a


single emission wavelength, a band of wavelength is observed usually.

When the excitation mechanism is switched off, the luminescence to


persist for a time equal to the lifetime of the transition between the two
energy levels E1 and E2.

This is called as Fluorescence or the luminescence persists for much


longer than expected, called phosphorescence.
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INTRODUCTION
Materials exhibiting phosphorescence are known
as phosphors.
Phosphor materials depend for their action on
the presence within materials of impurity ions
called activators.
Improved solubility of the activator can be
produced by the introduction of further impurity
atoms with different ionic charge called co-
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activators.
INTRODUCTION

There are 2 main types of energy level systems


Characteristic : Energy levels are of the activator ion
itself.

Non-characteristic : The host lattice modified by the


presence of activator ions.

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CHARACTERISTIC LUMINESCENCE

In this, the excitation energy is usually


transferred rapidly to the activator ion.

The persistence of the luminescence is then


entirely due to the lifetime of the excited state
level of the activator.

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NON-CHARACTERISTIC LUMINESCENCE
In this material, both activators and co-activators are
usually present. These create acceptor and donor energy
levels in the material.
Energy absorption within the solid creates excess electron-
hole pairs. For ex. If the hole trapping probability is
usually greater than the electron trapping probability and
most of the excess holes quickly become trapped.
Any electron that then finds itself in the vicinity of a
trapped hole can recombine with it and generate
luminescence. 8
ELECTRON-HOLE GENERATION &
RECOMBINATION PROCESS IN NON-
CHARACTERISTIC LUMINESCENT MATERIALS.

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The time that an electron spends in a trap depends on the
depth of the trap below the conduction band (Ec-Ed) and
also the temperature T. The probability of escape per
unit is written as,

Q.exp(-[Ec-Ed]/KT) , Q Constant, ~=10^8/S

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PHOTOLUMINESCENCE

In photoluminescence, energy is transferred to


the crystal by the absorption of a photon.

In characteristic luminescent materials, the


activator ion itself absorbs the photon directly.

It is that the same energy levels are involved in


absorption as in emission, then the wavelengths
for absorption and emission would be identical.
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There is a difference in transition energy of the
emission spectra(narrow) and absorption spectra
(broad) resulting from defects in the material and
partial non- radiative decay.

This phenomenon is known as stroke shift.

It is understood by taking account of the effect of


the vibrations of the surroundings crystal lattice
on the energy levels of the activator ions. 13
Assume that each activator ion is positively
charged and is surrounded by six equidistant
negatively charged ions at a distance R from the
activator.

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In the vibrational mode of group, the activator
remains at rest, while all the six surrounding
negative ions vibrate radially and in phase.
The positions of the energy levels of the activator
ion will depend on R because of the electrostatic
interactions.
Consider the absorption of a photon when the
activator is in its ground state, the most probable
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value for R is Ro. (minimum energy position).
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STOKES SHIFT

Transition from 2->3 & 4->1-


2 Phonons
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h1 h2

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x

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Photon absorption takes place virtually
instantaneously as the vibration of the
surrounding ions is concerned.
In the figure it is that the emitted photon will
have less energy than the absorbed photon.
In most probable transition, the ions surrounding
the activation will always be in a state of
oscillation and hence at the instant of absorption
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the value of R differ from Ro.
Since the amplitude of oscillation will increase
with increasing temperature, hence the width of
the absorption and emission bands also increases
with increase in temperature.

Eg.Thallium activated pottassium chloride


(Kcl:Tl)

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CATHODOLUMINESCENCE

In cathodoluminescence , the emission processes


are same as photoluminescence but the excitation
mechanism is some what different.

When a beam of energetic electrons (1 Kev)hits a


solid, a fraction (about 10%) is back scattered.

The remainder penetrate into the solid where


they rapidly lose energy by causing bound
electrons to be ejected from their parent ions. 21
These secondary electron may generate further
secondary electrons provided they have sufficient
energy.
The final stages in the secondary generations process
consists of the excitation of electrons from states at
the top of the valence band (Ev) to the bottom of the
conduction band Ec.
Energy conservation considerations would dictate
that the exciting electrons must have an energy
atleast Ec-Ev=Eg, above Ec if they are to create
electron hole pairs and still remain in conduction
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band.
The additional constraint of momentum conservation
requires a minimum energy of Ec+3Eg/2.
When electrons have energies between this value and
Ec they can be lose energy by exciting lattice
vibrations(phonons).
Energy may be wasted in phonon generation. For a
range of semiconductor materials that the total
number of electron hole pairs generated may be
written as,

EB/Eg ; EB-Total electron beam energy;


=3. 23
This inefficiency in the generation of electron-hole
pair is a major factor in causing cathodoluminescence
to be less efficient than photoluminescence.

In the non-characteristic materials, the electron hole


recombination and luminescent emission takes place
as for photoluminescence.

In characteristic materials, it is thought that the next


step is the formation of excitons (bound-electron-hole
pairs).These migrate through the lattice and may
transfer their recombination energy to the activator
ions. 24
As the primary electrons rapidly lose energy they
penetrate only a little may into the solid they are
exciting.

The penetration depth or range of an electron


beam (Re)of energy EB is given by,

The cathodoluminescent efficiency increases with


increasing beam voltage.
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ELECTROLUMINESCENCE

Four main types of device may be distinguished


depending on the type of drive (a.c or d.c) and the
character of the active layer (powder or thin film).
First electroluminescent device was the a.c powder
device, proposed in 1936.In this, a phosphor
powder (ZnS:Cu) is suspended in a transparent
insulating binding medium of high dielectric
constant and is sandwiched between two electrodes
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(one is transparent).
A.C ELECTROLUMINESCENCE DEVICE
Figure shows the construction of
electroluminescent device.

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Usually, there is no complete conducting path
between the electrodes, so the excitation is not
possible.

When an alternating voltage Vocos(2ft) is

applied across the cell, the light is emitted in the


form of short burst which last about 10^-3 s
and occur once every half cycle.

The integrated light output power P can be


written in the form of,
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V1Constant
Po(f)function of frequency
The strongest emission from within the phosphor grain is found
to take place from the side temporarily facing the cathode.
There are several possible emission mechanisms are available.

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D.C POWDER ELECTROLUMINESCENT
DEVICES
A more recent development is the d.c power display.

This structure is basically similar to that of a.c.


device.

The phosphor particles(ZnS:Cu,Mn)are coated with a


conducting layer of CuS.

The phosphor particles are not too widely dispersed


within the binder there will be a conducting path
from the anode to the cathode.
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Before normal operation, the cell must be formed by
applying a high voltage across it for a short time.

This causes copper ions to migrate away from the


phosphor surfaces next to the cathode.

A thin high resistance layer of ZnS is then created


next to anode across which most of the applied
voltage appears and from which the light emission
takes place during subsequent operation at lower
voltage.

Luminescence of about 300 nits are possible at


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voltages of around 100 V d.c.