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Long-distance signal transmission, The low attenuation and

superior signal integrity found in optical systems allow much
longer intervals of signal transmission than metallic-based
systems. While single-line, voice-grade copper systems longer
than a couple of kilometers (1.2 miles) require in-line signal for
satisfactory performance, it is not unusual for optical systems to
go over 100 kilometers (km), or about 62 miles, with no active or
passive processing.
Large bandwidth, light weight, and small diameter,
Todays applications require an ever-increasing amount of
bandwidth. Consequently, it is important to consider the space
constraints of many end users. It is commonplace to install new
cabling within existing duct systems or conduit. The relatively
small diameter and light weight of optical cable make such
installations easy and practical, saving valuable conduit space
in these environments.
Another advantage of optical fibers is their dielectric nature. Since optical
fiber has no metallic components, it can be installed in areas with
electromagnetic interference (EMI), including radio frequency interference
(RFI). Areas with high EMI include utility lines, power-carrying lines, and
railroad tracks. All-dielectric cables are also ideal for areas of high lightning-
strike incidence.
Unlike metallic-based systems, the dielectric nature of optical fiber makes it
impossible to remotely detect the signal being transmitted within the cable.
The only way to do so is by accessing the optical fiber. Accessing the fiber
requires intervention that is easily detectable by security surveillance. These
circumstances make fiber extremely attractive to governmental bodies,
banks, and others with major security concerns.
Designed for future applications needs,
Fiber optics is affordable today, as electronics prices fall and optical cable
pricing remains low. In many cases, fiber solutions are less costly than
copper, As bandwidth demands increase rapidly with technological
advances, fiber will continue to play a vital role in the long-term success of
The basic components of an optical communication system are shown in figure above:

A serial bit stream in electrical form is presented to a modulator, which encodes the data
appropriately for fibre transmission.
A light source (laser or Light Emitting Diode - LED) is driven by the modulator and the light
focused into the fibre.
The light travels down the fibre (during which time it may experience dispersion and loss of
At the receiver end the light is fed to a detector and converted to electrical form.
The signal is then amplified and fed to another detector, which isolates the individual state
changes and their timing. It then decodes the sequence of state changes and reconstructs
the original bit stream.1
The timed bit stream so received may then be fed to a using device.
I. The Nature of Light
Light is usually described in one of three ways:
1. Rays,
In the classical physics that many of us learned at school, light consisted of rays that
could be reflected and refracted through mirrors and prisms etc. This is a good description
as far as it goes but it cannot explain many of the phenomena we make use of in optical
2. Electromagnetic Waves,
In the context of optical communications, most of the time it will be found that the best
way of regarding light is to think of it as an electromagnetic wave. In this view it is no
different from a radio wave except that the wavelength is much shorter!
3. Photons
In many contexts light behaves as though it consists of tiny particles called photons.
There are a number of phenomena that the wave model of light can't explain. The best
known of these is the photoelectric effect.
1. Light as an

One way of thinking about light is to conceive of it as an electromagnetic wave just like a
radio wave. Indeed, the word like here is a problem. Light and radio waves are not
really like one another. They are exactly the same thing! The only difference is the
An electromagnetic wave consists of two fields. An electric field and a magnetic field.
Both of these fields have a direction and a strength (or amplitude). Within the
electromagnetic wave the two fields (electric and magnetic) are oriented at precisely 90
to one another.
2. Polarisation

It is clear that any electromagnetic wave that is oriented between what we have called
vertical and horizontal can be resolved as two components (one in each of the
orthogonal directions).
The orientation of the electromagnetic field is referred to as polarisation. The
established convention when discussing polarisation of electromagnetic fields is to refer
to the direction of the electric field with respect to some plane or boundary towards
which the wave is headed. At any instant in time the fields are oriented in a particular
direction (vertical or horizontal or somewhere in between).
However, the field orientations can also change over time and we get what are called
circular and elliptical polarisations. These polarisations occur when the moving fields
rotate during their travel. Circular polarisation results when the direction of the electric
field rotates through 360 during one wavelength. Of course the associated magnetic
field rotates with it.
3. Interference

Historically the most important experiment on optical interference was performed by

Thomas Young in 1802.
Sunlight is first passed through a prism to produce light of a single wavelength
(monochromatic light). Then it is passed through a narrow slit or pinhole. The resulting
ray or beam illuminates a pair of parallel, narrow slits. After passing through the slits
the light is projected onto a screen. The result is the famous pattern of light and dark
interference fringes.
II. Transmitting Light on a Fibre

An optical fibre is a very thin strand of silica glass in geometry quite like a human hair. In
reality it is a very narrow, very long glass cylinder with special characteristics. When light
enters one end of the fibre it travels (confined within the fibre) until it leaves the fibre at
the other end. Two critical factors stand out:
1. Very little light is lost in its journey along the fibre.
2. Fibre can bend around corners and the light will stay within it and be guided around
the corners
As shown in Figure , an optical fibre consists of two parts: the core and the cladding.
The core is a narrow cylindrical strand of glass and the cladding is a tubular jacket
surrounding it. The core has a (slightly) higher refractive index than the cladding. This
means that the boundary (interface) between the core and the cladding acts as a perfect
mirror. Light travelling along the core is confined by the mirror to stay within it - even
when the fibre bends around a corner.
Structure of Optic Fiber


cladding coating

Core (Inti)

Cladding (lapisan)

Coating (jaket)

Base Structure of Optic Fiber

Core (inti) : It has function to determine Light propagate from the first face to the end face of optic fiber.
Cladding (lapisan) : It has function as mirror, to reflect the light in order to propagate the other face.
Coating (jaket) : It has function as mekanic protection and colour code.
Refracted index (Nc) of core is always more than refracted index of clading (Nc > Nd).
Dispersion, expressed in terms of the symbol t, is defined as
pulse spreading in an optical fiber. As a pulse of light propagates
through a fiber, elements such as numerical aperture, core
diameter, refractive index profile, wavelength, and laser linewidth
cause the pulse to broaden.
and is measured in time, typically nanoseconds or picoseconds.
Total dispersion is a function of fiber length. The longer the fiber,
the more the dispersion.

The overall effect of dispersion on the performance of a fiber optic

system is known as intersymbol interference. Intersymbol
interference occurs when the pulse spreading caused by
dispersion causes the output pulses of a system to overlap,
rendering them undetectable. If an input pulse is caused to spread
such that the rate of change of the input exceeds the dispersion
limit of the fiber, the output data will become indiscernible.
Dispersion is generally divided into two categories: modal
dispersion and chromatic dispersion. Modal dispersion is defined
as pulse spreading caused by the time delay between lower-order
modes (modes or rays propagating straight through the fiber close
to the optical axis) and higher-order modes (modes propagating at
steeper angles). Modal dispersion is problematic in multimode
fiber, causing bandwidth limitation, but it is not a problem in
single-mode fiber where only one mode is allowed to propagate.
Chromatic dispersion is pulse spreading due to the fact that
different wavelengths of light propagate at slightly different
velocities through the fiber. All light sources, whether laser or LED,
have finite linewidths, which means they emit more than one
wavelength. Because the index of refraction of glass fiber is a
wavelength-dependent quantity, different wavelengths propagate
at different velocities. Chromatic dispersion is typically expressed
in units of nanoseconds or picoseconds per (km-nm).
Chromatic dispersion consists of two parts: material dispersion
and waveguide dispersion.
Material dispersion is due to the wavelength dependency on the
index of refraction of glass. Waveguide dispersion is due to the
physical structure of the waveguide. In a simple step-indexprofile
fiber, waveguide dispersion is not a major factor, but in fibers with
more complex index profiles, waveguide dispersion can be more
significant. Material dispersion and waveguide dispersion can have
opposite signs depending on the transmission wavelength. In the
case of a step-index single-mode fiber, these two effectively cancel
each other at 1310 nm, yielding zerodispersion. This makes very
high-bandwidth communication possible at this wavelength.
However, the drawback is that, even though dispersion is
minimized at 1310 nm, attenuation is not. Glass fiber exhibits
minimum attenuation at 1550 nm. Coupling that with the fact that
erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) operate in the 1550-nm
range makes it obvious that, if the zero-dispersion property of 1310
nm could be shifted to coincide with the 1550-nm transmission
window, high-bandwidth long-distance communication would be
possible. With this in mind, zero-dispersion-shifted fiber was
When considering the total dispersion from different causes, we
can approximate the total dispersion by ttot.

where tn represents the dispersion due to the various

components that make up the system. The transmission capacity
of fiber is typically expressed in terms of bandwidth distance.
For example, the bandwidth distance product for a typical
62.5/125-m (core/cladding diameter) multimode fiber operating at
1310 nm might be expressed as 600 MHz km. The approximate
bandwidth of a fiber can be related to the total dispersion by the
following relationship
Dispersion-shifted fiber: By altering the design of the waveguide, we can
increase the magnitude of the waveguide dispersion o as to shift the zero-
dispersion wavelength to 1550 nm. This type of fiber has an index profile that
resembles a W and hence is sometimes referred to as W-profile fiber.
Although this type of fiber works well at the zero-dispersion wavelength, in
systems in which multiple wavelengths are transmitted, such as in wavelength-
division multiplexing, signals transmitted at different wavelengths around 1550
nm can interfere with one another, resulting in a phenomenon called four-wave
mixing, which degrades system performance
1. Jenis dan karakteristik kabel fiber optik

a. Ciri-ciri umum :
Berbeda dengan kabel metalik, kabel serat optik ukurannya
kecil, kurang lebih 3 cm, dan lebih ringan sehingga instalasi
kabel serat optik dapat dilakukan melalui beberapa span
secara sekaligus.
Panjang kabel serat optik dalam haspel dapat mencapai 2
sampai dengan 4 km.
Cable type Diameter (mm) Weight (kg)

400-fiber cable 24(25) 0.57 (0.65)

600-fiber cable 24(25) 0.57 (0.65)
800-fiber cable 30(31) 0.85 (1.02)
1000-fiber cable 30(31) 0.85 (1.02)
b. Penempatan core dalam kabel

Dilihat cara penempatan core di dalam kabel, ada 2 (dua) jenis kabel optik,

1). Jenis pipa longgar (loose tube):

Serat optik ditempatkan di dalam pipa longgar (loose tube) yang terbuat dari
bahan PBTP (Polybutylene terepthalete) serta berisi jelly.
Saat ini sebuah kabel optik maksimum mempunyai 8 loose tube dan
masing-masing loose tube berisi 12 serat optik.

2). Jenis alur (slot):

Serat optik ditempatkan pada alur (slot) didalam silinder yang terbuat dari
bahan PE (polyethylene), pada saat ini telah dibuat di Jepang kabel jenis
slot dengan kapasitas 1000 serat dan 3000 serat.
Penampang Kabel Optik Jenis Loose Tube
Penampang Kabel Optik Jenis Slot
1) Konstruksi Dasar Kabel Duct
2) Konstruksi Dasar Kabel Tanah Tanam Langsung
3) Konstruksi Dasar Kabel Atas Tanah
4) Konstruksi Dasar Kabel Rumah (2 s/d 6 core)


5) Konstruksi Dasar Kabel Rumah (8 s/d 12 core)
c. Konstruksi Kabel Fiber Optik
Dilihat dari konstruksinya (pemasangannya) kabel optik terdiri dari:
1) Kabel Duct
2) Kabel Tanah Tanam Langsung
3) Kabel Atas tanah
4) Kabel Rumah
d. Fungsi dan bagian-bagian kabel jenis Loose Tube
1) Loose tube
Berbentuk tabung longgar yang terbuat dari bahan PBTP
(Polybutyleneterepthalete) yang berisi thixotropic gel dan serat optik
ditempatkan di dalamnya.

Konstruksi loose tube yang berbentuk longgar tersebut mempunyai

tujuan agar serat optik dapat bebas bergerak, tidak langsung
mengalami tekanan atau gesekan yang dapat merusak serat pada
saat instalasi kabel optik.

Thixotropic gel adalah bahan semacam jelly yang berfungsi melindungi

serat dari pengaruh mekanis dan juga untuk menahan air.

Sebuah loose tube dapat bersisi 2 sampai dengan 12 serat optik.

Sebuah kabel optik dapat bersisi 6 sampai dengan 8 loose tube.
2) HDPE Sheath atau High Density Polyethylene Sheath
Terbuat dari bahan sejenis polyethylene keras.
Berfungsi sebagai kulit kabel optik berfungsi sebagai bantalan
untuk melindungi serat optik dari pengaruh mekanis pada saat

3) Alumunium tape atau lapisan alumunium

Ditempatkan di antara kulit kabel dan water blocking.
Berfungsi sebagai konduktivitas elektris dan melindungi kabel
dari pengaruh mekanis.

4) Flooding gel
Terbuat dari bahan campuran petroleum, synthetic dan silicon
yang mempunyai sifat anti air.
Merupakan bahan pengisi yang digunakan pada kabel optik
agar kabel menjadi padat.
5) PE Sheath
Terbuat dari bahan polyethylene
Berfungsi sebagai penutup bagian central strength member.

6) Central strength member

Merupakan bagian penguat yang terletak di tengah-tengah
kabel optik.
Central Strength Member dapat merupakan: pilinan kawat
baja, atau Solid Steel Core atau Glass Reinforced Plastic.
Central Strength member mempunyai kekuatan mekanis yang
tinggi yang diperlukan pada saat instalasi.

7) Peripheral Strain Elements

Terbuat dari bahan polyramid yang merupakan elemen
pelengkap optik yang diperlukan untuk menambah kekuatan
kabel optik.
Polyramid mempunyai kekuatan tarik tinggi.
e. Fungsi dan bagian-bagian kabel jenis Slot
1) Kulit kabel
Terbuat dari bahan sejenis polyethylene keras.
Berfungsi sebagai bantalan untuk melindungi serat optik dari
pengaruh mekanis saat instalasi.

2) Aluran (slot)
Terbuat dari bahan polyethylene
Berfungsi untuk menempatkan sejumlah serat.
Untuk kabel optik jenis slot dengan kapasitas 1000 serat,
diperlukan 13 aluran (slot) dan 1 slot berisi 10 fiber ribbons.
Satu fiber ribbon berisi 8 serat.

3) Central strength member

Bagian penguat yang terletak ditengah-tengah kabel optik.
Central strength member terbuat dari pilinan kawat baja yang
mempunyai kekuatan mekanis yang tinggi yang diperlukan
pada saat instalasi.
2. Redaman (rugi-rugi) Kabel Serat Optik

a. Secara garis besar rugi-rugi yang terjadi diakibatkan oleh:

Faktor Intrinsik (dari serat itu sendiri).
Faktor Ekstrinsik (terjadi karena instalasi kabel optik).

b. Rugi-rugi karena Faktor Intrinsik:

1) Penyerapan (absorption loss)
2) Penghamburan (scattering loss)
Rayleigh scattering.
Micro bending.
Core size variation.
1) Rugi-rugi karena Penyerapan (Absorption Loss)

Disebabkan karena adanya molekul-molekul air yang terperangkap di

dalam core (inti) serat optik pada saat pembuatan serat optik.
OH -

2) Rugi-rugi karena Penghamburan (Scattering Loss)

Disebabkan karena adanya facet-facet yang memantulkan dan membiaskan

Scattering by large obstructions

Rayleigh scattering terjadi pada seluruh serat

Penghamburan dapat disebabkan karena:

Micro bending

Variasi ukuran inti / core

3. Kapasitas, kode warna, dan pelabelan kabel serat optik
a. Kapasitas kabel

Jumlah Jumlah serat Diameter luar/dalam Diameter luar Jumlah serat

loose tube per loose tube Loose tube kabel (mm)

6 2 2.2 x 1.4 13 4-12

6 4 2.2 x 1.4 13 4-24
6 6 2.5 x 1.5 13.5 6-36
6 12 3.5 x 2.5 16 12-72
8 4 2.2 x 1.4 15 24
8 6 2.5 x 1.5 16 24-48
8 12 3.5 x 2.5 17.5 24-96
b. Kode warna pada 6 Loose tube
Loose tubes Number
Fiber 1 2 3 4 5 6
count (Biru) (Oranye) (Hijau) (Coklat) (Abu-abu) (Putih)

4 2 Filler Quad/Filler 2 Filler Quad/Filler

4 4 Filler Filler Filler Filler Quad/Filler
6 2 2 Quad/Filler 2 Filler Quad/Filler
6 6 Filler Quad/Filler Filler Filler Quad/Filler
8 2 2 Quad/Filler 2 2 Quad/Filler
8 4 Filler Quad/Filler 4 Filler Quad/Filler
10 2 2 2 2 2 Quad/Filler
12 2 2 2 2 2 2
12 4 4 Quad/Filler Filler 4 Quad/Filler
12 6 Filler Quad/Filler 6 Filler Quad/Filler
16 4 4 Quad/Filler 4 4 Quad/Filler
18 6 6 Quad/Filler Filler 6 Quad/Filler
24 4 4 4 4 4 4
24 6 6 Quad/Filler 6 6 Quad/Filler
24 12 Filler Quad/Filler 12 Filler Quad/Filler
36 6 6 6 6 6 6
36 12 12 Quad/Filler Filler 12 Quad/Filler
48 12 12 Quad/Filler 12 12 Quad/Filler
60 12 12 12 12 12 Quad/Filler
72 12 12 12 12 12 12
c. Kode warna pada 8 Loose tube
Loose tubes Number

Fiber 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Count (Biru) (Oranye) (Hijau) (Coklat) (Abu-abu) (Putih) (Merah) (Hitam)

24 4 4 4 Quad/Filler 4 4 4 Quad/Filler
24 6 Filler 6 Quad/Filler 6 Filler 6 Quad/Filler
24 12 Filler Filler Quad/Filler 12 Filler Filler Quad/Filler
36 6 6 6 Quad/Filler 6 6 6 Quad/Filler
36 12 12 Filler Quad/Filler 12 Filler 12 Quad/Filler
48 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
48 12 Filler 12 Quad/Filler 12 Filler 12 Quad/Filler
60 12 12 Filler Quad/Filler 12 12 12 Quad/Filler
72 12 12 12 Quad/Filler 12 12 12 Quad/Filler
84 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Quad/Filler
96 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

1 2 3 4 5 6
Biru Oranye/ Hijau Coklat Abu-abu Putih
7 8 9 10 11 12
Merah Hitam Kuning Ungu Pink Toska
f. Tanda Pengenal Kabel Optik

Kabel Optik harus diberi tanda pengenal yang tidak mudah hilang
yang tertera pada kulit kabel di sepanjang kabel.
Adapun tanda pengenal tersebut meliputi:
- Nama pabrik pembuat
- Tahun pembuatan

* Tipe Serat Optik :

- SM = Single Mode
- GI = Graded Indeks
- SI = Step Index

* Pemakaian Kabel Optik :

- D = Duct
- A = Aerial
- B = Buried
- S = Submarine
- I = Indoor
* Jenis Kabel Optik :
- LT = Loose tube
- SC = Slotted core
- TB = Tight Buffered

* Struktur Penguat :
- SS = Solid Steel Core
- WS = Stranded Wire Steel
- GRP = Glass Reinforced Plastic

Panjang tanda pengenal kabel termasuk nama pabrik dan tahun pembuatan adalah
satu meter.
Contoh: SM-D-LT SS 6-3X2 2Q

Length mark Length mark

SMD-LT SS 6-3T 2Q, adalah tanda pengenal kabel optik single mode untuk pemakaian duct dengan jenis loose tube,
struktur penguatnya Solid State Core, jumlah serat adalah 6 dengan 3 buah loose tube dan juga mempunyai 2 quad kabel
The purpose of multiplexing is to share the bandwidth of a single
transmission channel among several users. Two multiplexing methods
are commonly used in fiber optics:
1. Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
2. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)

A. Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)

In time-division multiplexing, time on the information channel, or fiber, is shared
among the many data sources. The multiplexer MUX can be described as a
type of rotary switch, which rotates at a very high speed, individually
connecting each input to the communication channel for a fixed period of time.
The process is reversed on the output with a device known as a demultiplexer,
or DEMUX. After each channel has been sequentially connected, the process
repeats itself. One complete cycle is known as a frame. To ensure that each
channel on the input is connected to its corresponding channel on the output,
start and stop frames are added to synchronize the input with the output. TDM
systems may send information using any of the digital modulation schemes
described (analog multiplexing systems also exist).
The amount of data that can be transmitted using TDM is given by the
MUX output rate and is defined by :
MUX output rate = N Maximum input rate
where N is the number of input channels and the maximum input rate is the
highest data rate in bits/second of the various inputs. The bandwidth of the
communication channel must be at least equal to the MUX output rate. Another
parameter commonly used in describing the information capacity of a TDM
system is the channel-switching rate. This is equal to the number of inputs
visited per second by the MUX and is defined as;
Channel switching rate = Input data rate Number of channels
B. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)
In wavelength-division multiplexing, each data channel is transmitted using a
slightly different wavelength (different color). With use of a different wavelength
for each channel, many channels can be transmitted through the same fiber
without interference. This method is used to increase the capacity of existing
fiber optic systems many times. Each WDM data channel may consist of a
single data source or may be a combination of a single data source and a TDM
(time-division multiplexing) and/or FDM (frequency-division multiplexing) signal.
Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) refers to the transmission of
multiple closely spaced wavelengths through the same fiber. For any given
wavelength and corresponding frequency f, the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU) defines standard frequency spacing f as 100
GHz, which translates into a of 0.8-nm wavelength spacing.
Wavelength-division multiplexing
This follows from the relationship

DWDM systems operate in the 1550-nm window because of the low

attenuation characteristics of glass at 1550 nm and the fact that erbium-
doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) operate in the 1530-nm1570-nm range.
Commercially available systems today can multiplex up to 128 individual
wavelengths at 2.5 Gb/s or 32 individual wavelengths at 10 Gb/s
When designing a fiber optic communication system some of the
following factors must be taken into consideration:
Which modulation and multiplexing technique is best suited for the particular
Is enough power available at the receiver (power budget)?
Rise-time and bandwidth characteristics
Noise effects on system bandwidth, data rate, and bit error rate
Are erbium-doped fiber amplifiers required?
What type of fiber is best suited for the application?

A. Power Budget

The power arriving at the detector must be sufficient to allow clean detection
with few errors. Clearly, the signal at the receiver must be larger than the noise.
The power at the detector, Pr, must be above the threshold level or receiver
sensitivity Ps.
The receiver sensitivity Ps is the signal power, in dBm, at the receiver that
results in a particular bit error rate (BER). Typically the BER is chosen to be one
error in 109 bits or 109.

The received power at the detector is a function of:

1. Power emanating from the light source (laser diode or LED)(PL)
2. Source to fiber loss (Lsf)
3. Fiber loss per km (FL) for a length of fiber (L)
4. Connector or splice losses (Lconn)
5. Fiber to detector loss (Lfd)
The allocation of power loss among system components is the power budget.
The power margin is the difference between the received power Pr and the
receiver sensitivity Ps by some margin Lm.

where : Lm is the loss margin in dB

Pr is the received power
Ps is the receiver sensitivity in dBm
If all of the loss mechanisms in the system are taken into consideration, the loss
margin can be expressed as
B. Bandwidth and Rise Time Budgets
The transmission data rate of a digital fiber optic communication system is
limited by the rise time of the various components, such as amplifiers and
LEDs, and the dispersion of the fiber. The cumulative effect of all the
components should not limit the bandwidth of the system. The rise time tr and
bandwidth BW are related by

This equation is used to determine the required system rise time. The
appropriate components are then selected to meet the system rise time
requirements. The relationship between total system rise time and component
rise time is given by

where ts is the total system rise time and tr1, tr2, ... are the rise times associated
with the various components.
To simplify matters, divide the system into five groups:
1. Transmitting circuits (ttc)
2. LED or laser (tL)
3. Fiber dispersion (tf)
4. Photodiode (tph)
5. Receiver circuits (trc)
The system rise time can then be expressed as

The system bandwidth can then be calculated using Equation above from the total rise
time ts as given in
Electrical and Optical Bandwidth
Electrical bandwidth (BWel) is defined as the frequency at which the ratio
current out/current in (Iout/Iin ) drops to 0.707. (Analog systems are usually
specified in terms of electrical bandwidth.)
Optical bandwidth (BWopt) is the frequency at which the ratio power out/power
in (Pout/Pin ) drops to 0.5.
Because Pin and Pout are directly proportional to Iin and Iout (not I 2 in and I 2 out ),
the half-power point is equivalent to the half-current point. This results in a BWopt
that is larger than the Bwel as given in Equation
C. Connectors
Many types of connectors are available for fiber optics, depending on the
application. The most popular are:

SCsnap-in single-fiber connector

ST and FCtwist-on single-fiber connector
FDDIfiber distributed data interface connector

Snap-in connector (SC)developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone of

Japan. Like most fiber connectors, it is built around a cylindrical ferrule that holds
the fiber, and it mates with an interconnection adapter or coupling receptacle. A
push on the connector latches it into place, with no need to turn it in a tight
space, so a simple tug will not unplug it. It has a square cross section that allows
high packing density on patch panels and makes it easy to package in a
polarized duplex form that ensures the fibers are matched to the proper fibers in
the mated connector
Twist-on single-fiber connectors (ST and FC)long used in data
communication; one of several fiber connectors that evolved from designs
originally used for copper coaxial cables
Duplex connectorsA duplex connector includes a pair of fibers and
generally has an internal key so it can be mated in only one orientation.
Polarizing the connector in this way is important because most systems use
separate fibers to carry signals in each direction, so it matters which
fibers are connected. One simple type of duplex connector is a pair of SC
connectors, mounted side by side in a single case. This takes advantage of
their plug-in-lock design.
Other duplex connectors have been developed for specific types of networks,
as part ofcomprehensive standards. One example is the fixed-shroud duplex
(FSD) connector specified by the fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
D. Fiber Optic Couplers
A fiber optic coupler is a device used to connect a single (or multiple) fiber to
many other separate fibers. There are two general categories of couplers:

Star couplers
Transmissive type
Optical signals sent into a mixing block are available at all output fibers. Power is
distributed evenly. For an n n star coupler (n-inputs and n-outputs), the power
available at each output fiber is 1/n the power of any input fiber.
The output power from a star coupler is simply

The power division (power splitting ratio) in decibels is given by Equation

The power division in decibels gives the number of decibels apparently lost in
the coupler from single input fiber to single fiber output. Excess power loss
(Lossex) is the power lost from input to total output, as given in Equation
It is made by high quality of glass (Cwarsa).
It is main of optica fibre, since the light propagate in core.
It has diameter (10 mm ~ 50 mm). Size of core will influenze
optic fibre characteristic.
It is made by glass (Silica) which has less refractive index
than core
It is surrounding core.
The refractive index between core and index will influence
critical angle, and light propagating.
It is made by plastic
To protect optic fibre
Types of Optic Fiber
1. Step index multimode.
2. Step index single mode.
3. Graded index

1. Step index multimode.

Step-index multimode fiber has an index of refraction profile that
steps from low to high to low as measured from cladding to core
to cladding. Relatively large core diameter and numerical aperture
characterize this fiber. The core/cladding diameter of a typical
multimode fiber used for telecommunication is 62.5/125 m (about
the size of a human hair). The term multimode refers to the fact
that multiple modes or paths through the fiber are possible.
Stepindex multimode fiber is used in applications that require high
bandwidth (< 1 GHz) over relatively short distances (< 3 km) such
as a local area network or a campus network backbone.
The major benefits of multimode fiber are: (1) it is relatively easy
to work with; (2) because of its larger core size, light is easily
coupled to and from it; (3) it can be used with both lasers and
LEDs as sources; and (4) coupling losses are less than those of
the single-mode fiber. The drawback is that because many modes
are allowed to propagate (a function of core diameter, wavelength,
and numerical aperture) it suffers from modal dispersion. The
result of modal dispersion is bandwidth limitation, which translates
The number of modes Mn propagating can be approximated

Dimana V adalah freguency ternormalisasi, yang dinyatakan

dalam persamaan:
Dengan :
a : jari-jari core FO
: Panjang gelombang
N.A : Numerical aperture
n1 : index bias core
: perbedaan refractive index
bias antara core dan clauding
2. Step index single mode.

The core diameter for a typical single-mode fiber is between 5 m and 10

m with a 125-m cladding. Single-mode fibers are used in applications in
which low signal loss and high data rates are required, such as in long
spans where repeater/amplifier spacing must be maximized. Because
single-mode fiber allows only one mode or ray to propagate (the lowest-
order mode), it does not suffer from modal dispersion like multimode fiber
and therefore can be used for higher bandwidth applications.
However, even though single-mode fiber is not affected by modal
dispersion, at higher data rates chromatic dispersion can limit the
performance. This problem can be overcome by several methods.
One can transmit at a wavelength in which glass has a fairly
constant index of refraction (~1300 nm), use an optical source
such as a distributed feedback laser (DFB laser) that has a very
narrow output spectrum, use special dispersion compensating
fiber, or use a combination of all these methods. In a nutshell,
single-mode fiber is used in high-bandwidth, long-distance
applications such as long-distance telephone trunk lines, cable TV
head-ends, and high-speed local and wide area network (LAN and
WAN) backbones. The major drawback of single-mode fiber is that
it is relatively difficult to work with (i.e., splicing and termination)
because of its small core size. Also, single-mode fiber is typically
used only with laser sources because of the high coupling losses
associated with LEDs.
3. Graded - index.

Graded-index fiber is a compromise between the large core diameter and N.A.
of multimode fiber and the higher bandwidth of single-mode fiber. With
creation of a core whose index of refraction decreases parabolically from the
core center toward the cladding, light traveling through the center of the fiber
experiences a higher index than light traveling in the higher modes. This
means that the higher-order modes travel faster than the lower-order modes,
which allows them to catch up to the lower-order modes, thus decreasing the
amount of modal dispersion, which increases the bandwidth of the fiber.
Loss in a system can be expressed as the following:

where Pin is the input power to the fiber and Pout is the power
available at the output of the fiber. For convenience, fiber optic
loss is typically expressed in terms of decibels (dB) and can be
calculated using.
Optical fiber transmission uses wavelengths that are in the near-infrared
portion of the spectrum, just above the visible, and thus undetectable
to the unaided eye. Typical optical transmission wavelengths are 850
nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm. Both lasers and LEDs are used to transmit
light through optical fiber. Lasers are usually used for 1310- or 1550-nm
single-mode applications. LEDs are used for 850- or 1300-nm multimode

Determine :
1. eachBandwidth
2. Each Frequency